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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337817

RESUMO

Volunteering for an organisation, charity or group enables people to make connections with others and to be involved in interesting, worthwhile and/or enjoyable pursuits. Engaging in volunteering can form part of a social prescribing action plan developed between a patient and link worker. Greater understanding of the processes through which volunteering can improve people's well-being as part of social prescribing will help to support link workers in their role. We conducted a best-fit framework synthesis of qualitative literature on volunteering and well-being. Our search of eight electronic databases, complemented by a Google search, conducted in June 2020, resulted in the location of 2210 potentially relevant references. After screening, 335 papers were read in full and 54 drawn upon within the review. They were published between 1993 and 2020. We used the New Economics Foundation's Five Ways to Well-Being model to guide data extraction and synthesis. From this, we developed a conceptual framework that highlights how volunteering can contribute to identity validation and modification leading to the establishment of an acceptable sense of self. Our findings have implications for: (a) the use of volunteering as part of a link worker's toolkit as they seek to support people with varying psychosocial needs and (b) requirements of organisations accepting referrals to volunteering as part of social prescribing.

2.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stroke survivors receive considerable rehabilitation efforts as inpatients, but one-on-one therapy decreases after discharge. The gap between the amount of required therapy and the lack of its availability in this phase of care may be partly overcome by self-practice. However, patient's adherence to prescribed programs is often low. While single studies have examined factors affecting adherence in this specific case, they have not been reviewed and synthesised previously. METHODS: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies explored factors affecting stroke survivors' adherence to prescribed, recovery-oriented self-practice. Five databases were systematically searched for references: Medline, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Embase, and ASSIA. Quality assessment was undertaken using the CASP tool. RESULTS: From 1308 references, 68 potential papers were read in full, and 12 were included in the review. An overarching theme was identified as: "Tailoring and personalization rather than standardization." It was informed by the following three analytical themes: "The meaning of 'self' in self-practice," "Identifying self-practice as a team effort," and "Self-practice that is grounded in one's reality." CONCLUSION: To have a positive effect on adherence to self-practice, clinicians are advised to spend time learning about each individual's life circumstances, so they can tailor proposed exercise programs to patients' personal situations, preferences, and needs.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe topic of patient's adherence to self-practice of prescribed exercise is a common concern, often voiced by frustrated rehabilitation health professionals. Bridging the gap between the patient's needs for post-discharge intensive therapy and the inability of healthcare systems to provide it could be filled partly by self-practice.Adherence to self-practice has become even more essential since the COVID 19 pandemic and the decrease in face-to-face delivery of rehabilitation due to social distancing requirements.Adherence to exercise is a broad topic. Reasons for poor adherence differ between patient populations and the exercises they are prescribed. This study focuses on post-discharge stroke survivors' adherence to recovery targeted exercise that could be described as repetitive and less physically demanding movements and functions.Reviewed studies were qualitative and usually included a relatively small number of participants within a specific context. Using thematic synthesis, we combined these small pieces of the puzzle into a larger picture, to produce recommendations that could be drawn on by clinicians to improve self-practice adherence.

3.
Milbank Q ; 99(3): 610-628, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170055

RESUMO

Policy Points Social prescribing is proposed as a way of improving patients' health and well-being by attending to their non-clinical needs. This is done by connecting patients with community assets (typically voluntary or charitable organizations) that provide social and personal support. In the United Kingdom, social prescribing is used to improve patient well-being and reduce use of National Health Service resources. Although social prescribing schemes hold promise, evidence of their effects and effectiveness is sparse. As more information on social prescribing is gathered, it will be important to consider the associated ethical issues for patients, clinicians, link workers, and community assets.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/ética , Seguridade Social/ética , Medicina Estatal/ética , Humanos , Apoio Social , Reino Unido
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 145, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2002, paramedics have been working in primary care within the United Kingdom (UK), a transition also mirrored within Australia, Canada and the USA. Recent recommendations to improve UK NHS workforce capacities have led to a major push to increase the numbers of paramedics recruited into primary care. However, gaps exist in the evidence base regarding how and why these changes would work, for whom, in what context and to what extent. To understand the ways in which paramedics impact (or not) the primary care workforce, we conducted a realist review. METHODS: A realist approach aims to provide causal explanations through the generation and articulation of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Our search of electronic databases was supplemented with Google and citation checking to locate grey literature including news items and workforce reports. Included documents were from the UK, Australia, Canada and the Americas-countries within which the paramedic role within primary care is well established. RESULTS: Our searches resulted in 205 included documents, from which data were extracted to produce context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOCs) within a final programme theory. Our results outline that paramedics are more likely to be effective in contributing to primary care workforces when they are supported to expand their existing role through formal education and clinical supervision. We also found that unless paramedics were fully integrated into primary care services, they did not experience the socialisation needed to build trusting relationships with patients or physicians. Indeed, for patients to accept paramedics in primary care, their role and its implications for their care should be outlined by a trusted source. CONCLUSIONS: Our realist review highlights the complexity surrounding the introduction of paramedics into primary care roles. As well as offering an insight into understanding the paramedic professional identity, we also discuss the range of expectations this professional group will face in the transition to primary care. These expectations come from patients, general practitioners (family physicians) and paramedics themselves. This review is the first to offer insight into understanding the impact paramedics may have on the international primary care workforce and shaping how they might be optimally deployed.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Austrália , Canadá , Humanos , Reino Unido
5.
Chronic Illn ; : 1742395320983871, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the perspectives of general practitioners (GPs) on the identification and management of people, including those from ethnic minority groups, with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Qualitative study. Semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews and focus groups were conducted with 35 GPs in England, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to manage and interpret data. RESULTS: Themes presented reflect four inter-related challenges: GPs' 1) lack of understanding HFpEF, impacting on 2) difficulties in communicating the diagnosis, leading to 3) uncertainty in managing people with HFpEF, further hindered by (4) discontinuity across the primary/secondary interface. All were considered more challenging by GPs when managing people from different cultures and languages. DISCUSSION: HFpEF is not well understood by GPs, leading to diagnostic difficulty, management uncertainty and potential inequity in care offered. People with HFpEF are seen as complex, with multiple long-term conditions and requiring personalised care. Challenges in their management occur across the healthcare system. This study has identified learning needs for GPs around identification and on-going support for people with HFpEF in primary care. It will contribute to the development of more flexible and patient-centred pathways across the primary/secondary care interface.

6.
Res Involv Engagem ; 7(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) can help with steering and shaping research prioritisation and execution. However, some groups of people may not be encouraged to take part and their voices may be seldom listened to in the production of research. This is important to consider because they may have poorer healthcare experiences. We tried using art as a vehicle for including individuals not necessarily invited to be part of research priority setting. METHODS: We contacted existing groups and organisations to reach people not routinely supported to be part of PPI. We targeted individuals: a) with dementia, b) with a mental and physical health condition, c) of South Asian heritage. We ran a workshop with each group at which individuals shared their experiences of healthcare. A young amateur artist also attended, who produced a piece of artwork afterwards that reflected the research priorities raised. We held a Twitter chat to discuss these pieces of art and the processes involved in their generation. RESULTS: From each workshop, we produced a list of research priorities. These included: a) improving coordination of care for people with dementia, b) information needs and anxiety/guilt around accessing care for people with physical and mental health conditions, c) supporting discussion of women's health issues in South Asian communities. These priorities were reflected in three pieces of art, which can be viewed online. Feedback from those at workshops suggested that the artwork helped them to feel that their voice had been heard and triggered their interest in how research is developed. Those involved in the Twitter chat commented that art was one means through which researchers could connect with a range of groups in a PPI context when preparing and producing a study. CONCLUSIONS: We found the medium of art to be an effective way of including a range of people in research prioritisation setting. This approach could be useful for future PPI, building on what we have learnt from the project described in this paper.

7.
Res Synth Methods ; 12(2): 239-247, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985074

RESUMO

The involvement of non-researcher contributors (eg, stakeholders, patients and the public, decision and policy makers, experts, lay contributors) has taken a variety of forms within evidence syntheses. Realist reviews are a form of evidence synthesis that involves non-researcher contributors yet this practice has received little attention. In particular, the role of patient and public involvement (PPI) has not been clearly documented. This review of reviews describes the ways in which contributor involvement, including PPI, is documented within healthcare realist reviews published over the last five years. A total of 448 papers published between 2014 and 2019 were screened, yielding 71 full-text papers included in this review. Statements about contributor involvement were synthesized across each review using framework analysis. Three themes are described in this article including nomenclature, nature of involvement, and reporting impact. Papers indicate that contributor involvement in realist reviews refers to stakeholders, experts, or advisory groups (ie, professionals, clinicians, or academics). Patients and the public are occasionally subsumed into these groups and in doing so, the nature and impact of their involvement become challenging to identify and at times, is lost completely. Our review findings indicate a need for the realist review community to develop guidance to support researchers in their future collaboration with contributors, including patients and the public.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Pesquisadores , Humanos
8.
Eur J Midwifery ; 5: 57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to conduct an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) evaluating the effects of maternal positions in childbirth in order to compile existing evidence for relevant research questions that have been addressed by more than one review, to provide a succinct summary of the up-to-date evidence and to identify areas for future research. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in the Cochrane database. Two primary outcomes were the duration of labor and birth, and operative birth. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. RESULTS: We included 3 Cochrane SRs. There was a significant mean difference (MD) found in the duration of the first stage by 1 hour and 22 minutes (MD= -1.21; 95% CI: -2.35 - -0.07, I2=94%) and reduction in caesarean section rates (RR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94, I2=0%) in the upright birth position group compared with the horizontal. Also, there was a statistically significant difference in the duration (minutes) of the second stage of labor (MD= -6.16; 95% CI: -9.74 - -2.59, I2=91%) and a reduction in assisted vaginal birth rates (RR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.66-0.86, I2=29%) in the upright group compared with the horizontal without epidural analgesia. The quality of evidence within the reviews was very low to moderate. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently a limited body of evidence to clearly assess the benefits and risks of assuming upright positions during childbirth. The overview highlights the need for high-quality research studies, involving better definition and comprehensive assessment of the effects of squatting during childbirth.

9.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(701): e880-e889, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of all people with heart failure have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in which the heart is stiff. This type of heart failure is more common in older people with a history of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Patients with HFpEF are often managed in primary care, sometimes in collaboration with specialists. Knowledge about how best to manage this growing population is limited, and there is a pressing need to improve care for these patients. AIM: To explore clinicians' and patients'/carers' perspectives and experiences about the management of HFpEF to inform the development of an improved model of care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multiperspective qualitative study involving primary and secondary care settings across the east of England, Greater Manchester, and the West Midlands. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted. Transcribed data were analysed using framework analysis and informed by the normalisation process theory (NPT). RESULTS: In total, 50 patients, nine carers/relatives, and 73 clinicians were recruited. Difficulties with diagnosis, unclear illness perceptions, and management disparity were identified as important factors that may influence management of HFpEF. The NPT construct of coherence reflected what participants expressed about the need to improve the identification, understanding, and awareness of this condition in order to improve care. CONCLUSION: There is a pressing need to raise the public and clinical profile of HFpEF, develop a clear set of accepted practices concerning its management, and ensure that systems of care are accessible and attuned to the needs of patients with this condition.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Idoso , Inglaterra , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Volume Sistólico
10.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(695): e412-e420, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UK general practice is being shaped by new ways of working. Traditional GP tasks are being delegated to other staff with the intention of reducing GPs' workload and hospital admissions, and improving patients' access to care. One such task is patient-requested home visits. However, it is unclear what impact delegated home visits may have, who might benefit, and under what circumstances. AIM: To explore how the process of delegating home visits works, for whom, and in what contexts. DESIGN AND SETTING: A review of secondary data on home visit delegation processes in UK primary care settings. METHOD: A realist approach was taken to reviewing data, which aims to provide causal explanations through the generation and articulation of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. A range of data has been used including news items, grey literature, and academic articles. RESULTS: Data were synthesised from 70 documents. GPs may believe that delegating home visits is a risky option unless they have trust and experience with the wider multidisciplinary team. Internal systems such as technological infrastructure might help or hinder the delegation process. Healthcare professionals carrying out delegated home visits might benefit from being integrated into general practice but may feel that their clinical autonomy is limited by the delegation process. Patients report short-term satisfaction when visited by a healthcare professional other than a GP. The impact this has on long-term health outcomes and cost is less clear. CONCLUSION: The delegation of home visits may require a shift in patient expectation about who undertakes care. Professional expectations may also require a shift, having implications for the balance of staffing between primary and secondary care, and the training of healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Visita Domiciliar , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Carga de Trabalho
11.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 27(6): 940-954, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455482

RESUMO

The anorexic voice (AV) is defined as a critical internal dialogue, which has been implicated in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Systematic research to explore this further requires a valid and reliable measurement tool. This study aimed to develop and assess the validity of the Experience of an Anorexic VoicE Questionnaire (EAVE-Q). EAVE-Q items were developed and checked for face and content validity through cognitive interviews with seven individuals diagnosed with AN. Participants with a diagnosis of AN (N = 148) completed the EAVE-Q, sociodemographic questions and measures of mood and quality of life to assess internal consistency and construct validity. Forty-nine participants completed the EAVE-Q twice more to assess test-retest reliability. The EAVE-Q had good face and content validity and good acceptability. Principal axis factoring resulted in an 18-item scale organized into five domains with high internal consistency (α = 0.70 to α = 0.85). Domains correlated significantly with eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. The EAVE-Q did not discriminate between participants on the basis of body mass index. Test-retest reliability was moderate. Although the factor structure of the EAVE-Q requires replication in other AN samples, the EAVE-Q is the first measure of a critical internal dialogue in AN. It is hoped that it will aid future research to increase understanding of AN and the continued development of person-centred treatments.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Voz , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 49, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social prescribing is a way of addressing the 'non-medical' needs (e.g. loneliness, debt, housing problems) that can affect people's health and well-being. Connector schemes (e.g. delivered by care navigators or link workers) have become a key component to social prescribing's delivery. Those in this role support patients by either (a) signposting them to relevant local assets (e.g. groups, organisations, charities, activities, events) or (b) taking time to assist them in identifying and prioritising their 'non-medical' needs and connecting them to relevant local assets. To understand how such connector schemes work, for whom, why and in what circumstances, we conducted a realist review. METHOD: A search of electronic databases was supplemented with Google alerts and reference checking to locate grey literature. In addition, we sent a Freedom of Information request to all Clinical Commissioning Groups in England to identify any further evaluations of social prescribing connector schemes. Included studies were from the UK and focused on connector schemes for adult patients (18+ years) related to primary care. RESULTS: Our searches resulted in 118 included documents, from which data were extracted to produce context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOCs). These CMOCs underpinned our emerging programme theory that centred on the essential role of 'buy-in' and connections. This was refined further by turning to existing theories on (a) social capital and (b) patient activation. CONCLUSION: Our realist review highlights how connector roles, especially link workers, represent a vehicle for accruing social capital (e.g. trust, sense of belonging, practical support). We propose that this then gives patients the confidence, motivation, connections, knowledge and skills to manage their own well-being, thereby reducing their reliance on GPs. We also emphasise within the programme theory situations that could result in unintended consequences (e.g. increased demand on GPs).


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Prescrições/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Humanos
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(3): 422-441, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Working with people with eating disorders (EDs) is known to elicit strong emotional reactions, and the therapeutic alliance has been shown to affect outcomes with this clinical population. As a consequence, it is important to understand healthcare professionals' (HCPs') experiences of working with this client group. METHOD: A meta-synthesis was conducted of qualitative research on HCPs' lived experiences of working with people with EDs. The results from the identified studies were analyzed using Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic method. Data were synthesized using reciprocal translation, and a line of argument was developed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Reciprocal translation resulted in a key concept: "Coping with caring without curing." This was underpinned by the following third-order concepts: (a) "The dissonance and discomfort of being a helper struggling to help," (b) "Defending against the dissonance," and (c) "Accepting the dissonance to provide safe and compassionate care." These concepts were used to develop a line-of-argument synthesis, which was expressed as a new model for understanding HCPs' experiences of working with people who have an ED. DISCUSSION: Although the conflict associated with being a helper struggling to help led some HCPs to avoid and blame people with EDs, others adopted a compassionate stance characterized by humanity, humility, balance, and awareness.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Resuscitation ; 147: 81-87, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887365

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Advances in resuscitation science have resulted in a growing number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. However, we know very little about the natural history of recovery and the unmet needs of survivors and their partners. This qualitative study sought to address this knowledge gap to improve understanding of the consequences of surviving cardiac arrest. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken separately with survivors and their partners between 3 and 12-months following the cardiac arrest. An interpretative phenomenological approach (IPA) to data analysis was adopted. Developing themes were discussed between members of the research team. RESULTS: 8 survivors (41-79 years; 5 male; mean time 6.3 months post-hospital discharge) and 3 partners (1 male) were interviewed. The key (super-ordinate) theme of being 'trapped in a disrupted normality' was identified within the data. Five related subordinate themes included: existential impact, physical ramifications, emotional consequences, limiting participation in social activities and altered family roles. CONCLUSION: Recovery for survivors is hindered by a wide range of physical, emotional, cognitive, social and spiritual challenges that disrupt perceptions of 'normality'. Survivors and their carers may benefit from focussing on establishing a 'new normal' rather than striving to achieve a pre-cardiac social and physical position. Survivor-centred assessment should support rather than undermine this goal.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Sobreviventes , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
J Behav Med ; 43(1): 80-87, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154601

RESUMO

Interventions to change children's behavior typically target adults or children, but rarely both. The aims were to: (a) evaluate acceptability and feasibility of an innovative theory-based intervention designed to change both child and adult behavior, and (b) generate effect sizes for a definitive randomized controlled trial. The oral health of sixty children aged 5-9 years with a repaired cleft lip and/or palate was assessed before randomization to one of three conditions: (a) control group, (b) intervention group in which children and adults were asked to form implementation intentions, or (c) intervention plus booster group in which adults were additionally sent a reminder about the implementation intentions they and their children formed. Oral health assessments were repeated at 6-month follow-up alongside exit interviews. The procedures proved popular and participants exposed to the intervention additionally reported believing that forming implementation intentions was effective. Descriptive statistics generally showed oral health improvements across all conditions, although the effects were more marked in the intervention plus booster condition, where plaque improved by 44.53%, gingivitis improved by 20.00% and free sugar consumption improved by 8.92% (vs. 6.43% improvement, 15.00% deterioration and 15.58% improvement in the control group, respectively). Data collection procedures were acceptable and the intervention feasible. The effect sizes suggest that the intervention plus booster condition has sufficient promise to proceed to a fully-powered randomized controlled trial. The intervention has the potential to be adapted to tackle other child health behaviors and to be deployed at scale.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino
16.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 101: 103436, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare is delivered in a culture of ongoing change, with many nurses highlighting the impact of this on their own wellbeing. However, there is a dearth of literature focusing on how nurses care for themselves as they try to provide compassionate care in a challenging job. OBJECTIVES: This study explored nurses' experience of self-care and self-compassion and how this may relate to compassionate care giving towards patients. DESIGN: A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to develop a theoretical understanding of nurses' experience. SETTINGS: This study included participants from two National Health Service (NHS) Trusts within the United Kingdom (UK). PARTICIPANTS: Purposive and theoretical sampling were used to recruit general, mental health and learning disability nurses, at different levels of seniority. METHOD: Between September 2015 and March 2016 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was completed in line with the process set out within constructivist grounded theory. Using constant comparison and memo writing, analysis moved from initial coding to focused coding, through to theoretical coding, resulting in the production of core concepts and categories, and theory development. RESULTS: Thirty participants were included in the study. Three concepts were derived from the data: (1) 'Hardwired to be caregivers' - vocation versus role, (2) needing a stable base, (3) Managing the emotions of caring. All three concepts linked to a core process: needing permission to self-care and be self-compassionate. Nurses needed permission from others and from themselves to be self-caring and self-compassionate. An inability to do this affected their wellbeing and compassionate care giving to others. Interviewees described how they struggled particularly with self-compassion. Helping nurses to be proactively more self-caring and self-compassionate may increase their ability to manage emotions and prevent some of the negative consequences of nursing such as burnout and compassion fatigue. A conceptual framework is proposed which identifies that formal permission (e.g., within nursing guidance) may be necessary for some nurses to look after themselves. CONCLUSION: Findings identified the need for permission as key in enabling nurses to self-care and be self-compassionate, which may facilitate them to address patients' needs. The study highlights the importance of self-care and self-compassion within nursing education and nursing guidance.


Assuntos
Empatia , Processo de Enfermagem , Autocuidado , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Reino Unido
17.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(687): e675-e681, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care navigation is an avenue to link patients to activities or organisations that can help address non-medical needs affecting health and wellbeing. An understanding of how care navigation is being implemented across primary care is lacking. AIM: To determine how 'care navigation' is interpreted and currently implemented by clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study involving CCGs in England. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to all CCGs inviting them to comment on who provided care navigation, the type of patients for whom care navigation was provided, how individuals were referred, and whether services were being evaluated. Responses were summarised using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The authors received usable responses from 83% of CCGs (n = 162), and of these >90% (n = 147) had some form of care navigation running in their area. A total of 75 different titles were used to describe the role. Most services were open to all adult patients, though particular groups may have been targeted; for example, people who are older and those with long-term conditions. Referrals tended to be made by a professional, or people were identified by a receptionist when they presented to a surgery. Evaluation of care navigation services was limited. CONCLUSION: There is a policy steer to engaging patients in social prescribing, using some form of care navigator to help with this. Results from this study highlight that, although this type of role is being provided, its implementation is heterogeneous. This could make comparison and the pooling of data on care navigation difficult. It may also leave patients unsure about what care navigation is about and how it could help them.


Assuntos
Navegação de Pacientes , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Seguridade Social , Estudos Transversais , Definição da Elegibilidade , Inglaterra , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 26(6): 707-716, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368595

RESUMO

People with anorexia nervosa (AN) often report experiencing a highly critical inner voice (AV) focused on their eating, shape, and weight. There are promising preliminary findings for its role in the treatment of AN, and the support of staff is vital for the AV to be embedded in treatment, but their views remain unknown. The aims of this study were to undertake a qualitative exploration of the perceptions of the AV among health care professionals (HCPs) in specialist eating disorder services. A thematic analysis was applied to interviews with 15 HCPs, including nurses, therapists, psychiatrists, health care assistants, psychologists, and dietitians. Two overarching themes were identified: "The AV is a vehicle for increasing compassion" and "It's not a one-size-fits-all." The AV was seen as a means of developing and sustaining compassion, but participants noted that it does not resonate for all clients. All HCPs in this study believed that there was potential benefit in utilizing the AV in their work with people with AN, and it is likely that doing so would help to reduce burnout and frustration within clinical teams.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 14(4): e12263, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older people living with dementia is increasing. Admiral Nurses work with these individuals and their families in the UK to manage challenges associated with the condition, providing guidance, advice and reassurance, alongside practical solutions. AIM: To explore the input of Admiral Nurses as part of people's journey to becoming and being a carer for someone with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted to describe and understand how Admiral Nurses are experienced and encountered by carers as part of their narrative around supporting a relative with dementia. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 carers between November 2017-April 2018. They lasted between 45 and 90 min. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data. FINDINGS: An overarching concept of "the unity-division paradox" was derived from the data. This highlights the complex interchange between the carer with (a) the person with dementia, (b) other individuals and (c) external services. Such interactions can make carers feel part of a larger network (unity) but also as if they are on their own, fighting on behalf of the person with dementia (division). This concept was underpinned by the following themes: (a) I becomes we; (b) My private world is encroached by dementia; (c) I'm left navigating an unwieldy system; (d) Are you with or against us?; and (e) Recreating boundaries to rediscover me. CONCLUSION: The identity and unique characteristics and interests of those caring for a person with dementia may be lost as they encounter tensions associated with the unity-division paradox. Admiral Nurses can help carers feel less alone in managing internal and external struggles by supporting them to do their best for a loved one with dementia. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Understanding carers' experience and supporting their work may help to increase and sustain their capacity to provide care.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência/enfermagem , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
20.
Nurs Inq ; 26(1): e12271, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548117

RESUMO

Compassion in healthcare has received significant attention recently, on an international scale, with concern raised about its absence during clinical interactions. As a concept, compassionate care has been linked to nursing. We examined historical discourse on this topic, to understand and situate current debates on compassionate care as a hallmark of high-quality services. Documents we looked at illustrated how responsibility for delivering compassionate care cannot be consigned to individual nurses. Health professionals must have the right environmental circumstances to be able to provide and engage in compassionate interactions with patients and their relatives. Hence, although compassionate care has been presented as a straightforward solution when crisis faces health services, this discourse, especially in policy documents, has often failed to acknowledge the system-level issues associated with its provision. This has resulted in simplistic presentations of 'compassion' as inexpensive and the responsibility of individual nurses, a misleading proposal that risks devaluing the energy and resources required to deliver compassionate care. It also overlooks the need for organisations, not just individuals, to be charged with upholding its provision.


Assuntos
Empatia , Liderança , Humanos , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/tendências , Estereotipagem , Reino Unido
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