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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

2.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 618-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particulate matter [PM]) were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. We extrapolated concentrations back in time to exact pregnancy periods. Teachers or parents assessed ADHD symptoms at 3-10 years of age. We classified children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cutoffs. We combined all adjusted area-specific effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and multiple imputations and applied inverse probability-weighting methods to correct for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: We classified a total of 2,801 children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range, and 1,590 within the clinical range. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with a higher odds of ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [OR] for ADHD symptoms of 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.01 per 10 µg/m increase in NO2 and 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.19 per 5 µg/m increase in PM2.5). We observed similar associations for ADHD within the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3-10 years. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B379.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(3): 771-781, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergy and autoimmune disorders is complex and poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate commonalities in genetic loci and pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases to elucidate shared disease mechanisms. METHODS: We meta-analyzed 2 genome-wide association studies on self-reported allergy and sensitization comprising a total of 62,330 subjects. These results were used to calculate enrichment for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we probed for enrichment within genetic pathways and of transcription factor binding sites and characterized commonalities in variant burden on tissue-specific regulatory sites by calculating the enrichment of allergy SNPs falling in gene regulatory regions in various cells using Encode Roadmap DNase-hypersensitive site data. Finally, we compared the allergy data with those of all known diseases. RESULTS: Among 290 loci previously associated with 16 autoimmune diseases, we found a significant enrichment of loci also associated with allergy (P = 1.4e-17) encompassing 29 loci at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. Such enrichment seemed to be a general characteristic for autoimmune diseases. Among the common loci, 48% had the same direction of effect for allergy and autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of allergy SNPs falling within immune pathways and regions of chromatin accessible in immune cells that was also represented in patients with autoimmune diseases but not those with other diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified shared susceptibility loci and commonalities in pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting shared disease mechanisms. Further studies of these shared genetic mechanisms might help in understanding the complex relationship between these diseases, including the parallel increase in disease prevalence.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(10): 1373-1383, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901618

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent and may depend on genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. METHODS: We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctors' diagnoses of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n = 1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS (Children's Health Study) and CAPPS/SAGE (Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study/Study of Asthma, Genetics and Environment) (n = 1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively). We assessed expression quantitative trait locus effects in human lung specimens and blood, as well as associations among air pollution exposure, methylation, and transcriptomic patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the European cohorts, 186 SNPs had an interaction P < 1 × 10-4 and a look-up evaluation of these disclosed 8 SNPs in 4 loci, with an interaction P < 0.05 in the large CHS study, but not in CAPPS/SAGE. Three SNPs within adenylate cyclase 2 (ADCY2) showed the same direction of the interaction effect and were found to influence ADCY2 gene expression in peripheral blood (P = 4.50 × 10-4). One other SNP with P < 0.05 for interaction in CHS, rs686237, strongly influenced UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5 (B4GALT5) expression in lung tissue (P = 1.18 × 10-17). Air pollution exposure was associated with differential discs, large homolog 2 (DLG2) methylation and expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that gene-environment interactions are important for asthma development and provided supportive evidence for interaction with air pollution for ADCY2, B4GALT5, and DLG2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos , Asma/genética , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Environ Int ; 97: 85-92, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the link between air pollution exposure and behavioural problems and learning disorders during late childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia up to age 15years using the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts (recruitment 1995-1999). METHODS: Hyperactivity/inattention was assessed using the German parent-completed (10years) and self-completed (15years) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Responses were categorized into normal versus borderline/abnormal. Parent-reported dyslexia and dyscalculia (yes/no) at age 10 and 15years were defined using parent-completed questionnaires. Individual-level annual average estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM)10 mass, PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 absorbance concentrations were assigned to each participant's birth, 10year and 15year home address. Longitudinal associations between the air pollutants and the neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using generalized estimation equations, separately for both study areas, and combined in a random-effects meta-analysis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are given per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentration. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal/borderline hyperactivity/inattention scores and parental-reported dyslexia and dyscalculia at 15years of age was 12.9%, 10.5% and 3.4%, respectively, in the combined population (N=4745). In the meta- analysis, hyperactivity/inattention was associated with PM2.5 mass estimated to the 10 and 15year addresses (1.12 [1.01, 1.23] and 1.11 [1.01, 1.22]) and PM2.5 absorbance estimated to the 10 and 15year addresses (1.14 [1.05, 1.25] and 1.13 [1.04, 1.23], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We report associations suggesting a potential link between air pollution exposure and hyperactivity/inattention scores, although these findings require replication.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Discalculia/induzido quimicamente , Dislexia/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Discalculia/epidemiologia , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade
6.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(10): 896-905.e6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27663945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts. SNP-based heritability was estimated in data from the three largest cohorts. Meta-analysis based on genome-wide association (GWA) analyses with SNPs was followed by gene-based association tests, and the overlap in results with a meta-analysis in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) case-control ADHD study was investigated. RESULTS: SNP-based heritability ranged from 5% to 34%, indicating that variation in common genetic variants influences ADHD symptom scores. The meta-analysis did not detect genome-wide significant SNPs, but three genes, lying close to each other with SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD), showed a gene-wide significant association (p values between 1.46 × 10(-6) and 2.66 × 10(-6)). One gene, WASL, is involved in neuronal development. Both SNP- and gene-based analyses indicated overlap with the PGC meta-analysis results with the genetic correlation estimated at 0.96. CONCLUSION: The SNP-based heritability for ADHD symptom scores indicates a polygenic architecture, and genes involved in neurite outgrowth are possibly involved. Continuous and dichotomous measures of ADHD appear to assess a genetically common phenotype. A next step is to combine data from population-based and case-control cohorts in genetic association studies to increase sample size and to improve statistical power for identifying genetic variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(18): 4127-4142, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559109

RESUMO

More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records. Standard quality control and statistical tests were applied to the 1000 Genomes imputed genotypic data. The meta-analysis (N = 5758) followed by replication (N = 3784) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8111874 and diarrhoea at age 1 year. Conditional analysis suggested that the causal variant could be rs601338 (W154X) in the FUT2 gene. Children with the A allele, which results in a truncated FUT2 protein, had lower risk of diarrhoea. FUT2 participates in the production of histo-blood group antigens and has previously been implicated in the susceptibility to infections, including Rotavirus and Norovirus Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested pathways related to the histo-blood group antigen production, and the regulation of ion transport and blood pressure. Among others, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune and neuro-secretory systems were detected as relevant organs. In summary, this genome-wide association meta-analysis suggests the implication of the FUT2 gene in diarrhoeal disease in young children from the general population.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 171(5): 562-72, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26087016

RESUMO

Individual differences in aggressive behavior emerge in early childhood and predict persisting behavioral problems and disorders. Studies of antisocial and severe aggression in adulthood indicate substantial underlying biology. However, little attention has been given to genome-wide approaches of aggressive behavior in children. We analyzed data from nine population-based studies and assessed aggressive behavior using well-validated parent-reported questionnaires. This is the largest sample exploring children's aggressive behavior to date (N = 18,988), with measures in two developmental stages (N = 15,668 early childhood and N = 16,311 middle childhood/early adolescence). First, we estimated the additive genetic variance of children's aggressive behavior based on genome-wide SNP information, using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Second, genetic associations within each study were assessed using a quasi-Poisson regression approach, capturing the highly right-skewed distribution of aggressive behavior. Third, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide associations for both the total age-mixed sample and the two developmental stages. Finally, we performed a gene-based test using the summary statistics of the total sample. GCTA quantified variance tagged by common SNPs (10-54%). The meta-analysis of the total sample identified one region in chromosome 2 (2p12) at near genome-wide significance (top SNP rs11126630, P = 5.30 × 10(-8) ). The separate meta-analyses of the two developmental stages revealed suggestive evidence of association at the same locus. The gene-based analysis indicated association of variation within AVPR1A with aggressive behavior. We conclude that common variants at 2p12 show suggestive evidence for association with childhood aggression. Replication of these initial findings is needed, and further studies should clarify its biological meaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Environ Res ; 137: 357-63, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to mould or dampness at home has been associated with adverse respiratory effects in all age groups. This exposure has also been related to insomnia in adults. We aimed to investigate the association between exposure to visible mould or dampness at home and sleep problems in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1719 10-year-old children from the German population-based birth cohort LISAplus with available data on current mould or dampness at home and sleep problems. The presence of visible mould or dampness at home was assessed by questionnaire. Parent-reported sleep problems of their child were analysed by four binary variables: presence of any sleep problems, problems to fall asleep, problems sleeping through the night and a 24h sleep time of less than 9h. Logistic regression models adjusted for study centre, sex, age and level of parental education were applied to examine the association between visible mould or dampness at home and sleep problems. Sensitivity analyses included a further adjustment for bedroom sharing and subgroup analyses in children without current allergic diseases. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of parents reported visible mould or dampness at home. We observed increased risks for all four sleep problem variables for children exposed to visible mould or dampness at home. Results were significant for any sleep problems (odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.60), problems sleeping through the night (OR=2.52(1.27-5.00) and a short sleep time (OR=1.68(1.09-2.61)). While a further adjustment for bedroom sharing and the exclusion of children with asthma or eczema led to similar results, only the association with a short sleep time was still present in children without allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that visible mould or dampness at home might negatively influence sleep in children. The influence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis on this association needs to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Fungos/fisiologia , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/microbiologia , Criança , Eczema/complicações , Eczema/microbiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Habitação , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/microbiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/microbiologia
11.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 23(10): 913-29, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25241028

RESUMO

In utero exposure to tobacco smoke has been related to numerous adverse health effects in new-borns, infants, children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this review was to summarise findings on prenatal nicotine exposure and its relationship with behavioural problems in the offspring. The majority of studies, and especially several recent epidemiological studies, observed a higher likelihood for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD symptoms in exposed subjects. However, both human and animal studies have failed to provide clear evidence on causality. Existing literature on studies investigating the association between prenatal nicotine exposure and conduct or externalising problems in the offspring suggests a causal effect. The establishment of a final conclusion concerning the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and internalising problems in the offspring is complicated by insufficient data and mixed results in epidemiological studies. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been associated with altered brain structure and function in human offspring, and a proposed biological mechanism is related to nicotine's adverse influence on neurotransmitter systems during brain development. In conclusion, establishing a statement on the causality of the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and behavioural problems in children remains a challenging task. Nevertheless, considering the results of an increasing number of studies which link prenatal exposure to nicotine to externalising problems applying different methodologies to account for confounding and in view of other adverse health effects known to be caused by this exposure, parents should consider smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Nicotina/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
Epidemiology ; 25(5): 636-47, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25036432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)-that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels-nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of <2.5, <10, and 2.5-10 µm (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively) and PM2.5 absorbance in a subgroup-at birth addresses were estimated by land-use regression models, based on monitoring campaigns performed primarily between 2008 and 2011. Levels were back-extrapolated to exact pregnancy periods using background monitoring sites. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 µg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Environ Int ; 71: 29-35, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24953038

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated whether objectively measured access to urban green spaces is associated with behavioural problems in 10-year old children living in Munich and its surrounding areas. METHODS: Behavioural problems were assessed in the GINIplus and LISAplus 10-year follow-up between 2006 and 2009 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Access to green spaces was defined using the distance from a child's residence to the nearest urban green space. Associations between access to urban green spaces and behavioural problems were assessed using proportional odds and logistic regression models in 1932 children with complete exposure, outcome and covariate data. RESULTS: The distance between a child's residence and the nearest urban green space was positively associated with the odds of hyperactivity/inattention, especially among children with abnormal values compared to children with borderline or normal values (odds ratio (OR)=1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.42) per 500 m increase in distance). When stratified by sex, this association was only statistically significant among males. Children living further than 500 m away from urban green spaces had more overall behavioural problems than those living within 500 m of urban green spaces (proportional OR=1.41 (95% CI=1.06-1.87)). Behavioural problems were not associated with the distance to forests or with residential surrounding greenness. CONCLUSION: Poor access to urban green spaces was associated with behavioural problems in 10-year old children. Results were most consistent with hyperactivity/inattention problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 122(4): 418-24, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics may partially explain observed heterogeneity in associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the impact of gene variants associated with oxidative stress and inflammation on associations between air pollution and incident childhood asthma. METHODS: Traffic-related air pollution, asthma, wheeze, gene variant, and potential confounder data were pooled across six birth cohorts. Parents reported physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze from birth to 7-8 years of age (confirmed by pediatric allergist in two cohorts). Individual estimates of annual average air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, ozone] were assigned to each child's birth address using land use regression, atmospheric modeling, and ambient monitoring data. Effect modification by variants in GSTP1 (rs1138272/Ala114Val and rs1695/IIe105Val) and TNF (rs1800629/G-308A) was investigated. RESULTS: Data on asthma, wheeze, potential confounders, at least one SNP of interest, and NO2 were available for 5,115 children. GSTP1 rs1138272 and TNF rs1800629 SNPs were associated with asthma and wheeze, respectively. In relation to air pollution exposure, children with one or more GSTP1 rs1138272 minor allele were at increased risk of current asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 2.59; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.68 per 10 µg/m3 NO2] and ever asthma (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.53) compared with homozygous major allele carriers (OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.32 for current and OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.48 for ever asthma; Bonferroni-corrected interaction p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Similarly, for GSTP1 rs1695, associations between NO2 and current and ever asthma had ORs of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.98) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.70), respectively, for minor allele carriers compared with ORs of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.32) and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.49) for homozygous major allele carriers (Bonferroni-corrected interaction p-values 0.48 and 0.09). There were no clear differences by TNF genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Children carrying GSTP1 rs1138272 or rs1695 minor alleles may constitute a susceptible population at increased risk of asthma associated with air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
15.
Health Place ; 26: 39-46, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24361636

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the association between surrounding greenness at the mother's residential address at the time of delivery and birth weight in two German birth cohorts and explored potential underlying hypotheses. METHODS: Complete data on 3203 newborns, recruited in Munich between 1996 and 1999, were available. Surrounding greenness was defined using the mean of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, which was derived from Landsat 5TM satellite images. RESULTS: An interquartile increase of surrounding greenness in a 500-m buffer was associated with an average birth weight increase of 17.6g (95% CI=0.5 to 34.6). The effect strengthened after individual adjustment for NO2, PM2.5, distance to major road and population density. The strongest association was found for mothers with less than 10 years of school education. The results remained robust when additionally adjusted for noise or maternal stress during pregnancy. Neighbourhood green spaces were not associated with birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Surrounding greenness at the birth address was positively associated with birth weight in two birth cohorts in Munich. The mechanisms driving this association remain unclear and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Meio Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 217(4-5): 499-505, 2014 Apr-May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24183515

RESUMO

Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5µm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10µm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ruído , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Transportes
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 23(8): 701-14, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24327267

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to investigate associations between severity of behavior problems, specific symptom domains with healthcare use and costs in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study using data from the 10-year follow-up of two population-based birth cohorts was conducted on four rural and urban communities in Germany. There were 3,579 participants [1,834 boys (51%), 1,745 girls (49%)] on average aged 10.4 years. The severity levels (normal, at risk, abnormal) and symptom domains of behavioral problems were assessed by parent-reported strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).The outcomes were medical use categories (physicians, therapists, hospital, and rehabilitation), medical costs categories and total direct medical use and costs (calculated from parent-reported utilization of healthcare services during the last 12 months). Total direct medical costs showed a graded relationship with severity level (adjusted p < 0.0001). Average annual cost difference in total direct medical costs between at risk and normal total difficulties was Euro () 271 (SD 858), and 1,237 (SD 2,528) between abnormal and normal total difficulties. A significant increase in physician costs showed between children with normal and at risk total difficulties (1.30), and between normal and abnormal total difficulties (1.29; p < 0.0001). Between specific symptom domains, children with emotional symptoms showed highest costs for physicians, psychotherapist, and hospitalization as well as total direct medical costs. Children with hyperactivity/inattention showed highest costs for therapists and emergency room costs. Healthcare use and costs are related to the severity of child behavior problems. In general, children's costs for psychotherapy treatments have been low relative to general medical treatments which may indicate that some children with behavioral problems did not get appropriate care. To some degree, medical conditions may be attributable to some of the high hospitalization costs found in children with emotional symptom.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/economia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 18(2): 677-82, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This genome-wide association study (GWAS) investigated the relationship between molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and possible genetic loci. Clinical and genetic data from the 10-year follow-up of 668 children from the Munich GINI-plus and LISA-plus birth cohort studies were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dental examinations included the diagnosis of MIH according to the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Children with MIH were categorized as those with a minimum of one hypomineralized first permanent molar. A GWAS was implemented following a quality-control step and an additive genetic effect was assumed. RESULTS: A total of 2,013,491 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available for analysis. Rs13058467, which is located near the SCUBE1 gene on chromosome 22 (p < 3.72E-7), was identified as a possible locus linked to MIH when using a threshold of p value <1E-6. CONCLUSIONS: After considering the limitations of the present study (e.g., limited sample size and lack of an independent replication sample), it can be concluded that (1) replication analyses in an independent cohort study are strongly recommended and (2) large-scale and well-powered studies are needed to investigate a possible genetic link to MIH.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 28(7): 597-606, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23880893

RESUMO

Associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident childhood asthma can be strengthened by analysis of gene-environment interactions, but studies have typically been limited by lack of study power. We combined data from six birth cohorts on: asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis to 7/8 years, and candidate genes. Individual-level assessment of traffic-related air pollution exposure was estimated using land use regression or dispersion modeling. A total of 11,760 children were included in the Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG) Study; 6.3 % reported physician-diagnosed asthma at school-age, 16.0 % had asthma at anytime during childhood, 14.1 % had allergic rhinitis at school-age, 10.0 % had eczema at school-age and 33.1 % were sensitized to any allergen. For GSTP1 rs1138272, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 16 % (range amongst individual cohorts, 11-17 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele was 1 % (0-2 %). For GSTP1 rs1695, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 45 % (40-48 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 12 % (10-12 %). For TNF rs1800629, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 29 % (25-32 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 3 % (1-3 %). TAG comprises a rich database, the largest of its kind, for investigating the effect of genotype on the association between air pollution and childhood allergic disease.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Eczema/epidemiologia , Eczema/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite/epidemiologia , Rinite/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
20.
Nat Genet ; 45(8): 902-906, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23817571

RESUMO

Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (present in allergic sensitization) has a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP at each of 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association with allergic sensitization from three to ten, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk-associated variants at these ten loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide new insights into the etiology of allergic disease.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
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