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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): 577-586, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374651

RESUMO

Objective: Insulinomas are rare functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. As previous data on the long-term prognosis of insulinoma patients are scarce, we studied the morbidity and mortality in the Finnish insulinoma cohort. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Incidence of endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric disorders, and cancers was compared in all the patients diagnosed with an insulinoma in Finland during 1980-2010 (n = 79, including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome), vs 316 matched controls, using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results: The median length of follow-up was 10.7 years for the patients and 12.2 years for the controls. The long-term incidence of atrial fibrillation (rate ratio (RR): 2.07 (95% CI: 1.02-4.22)), intestinal obstruction (18.65 (2.09-166.86)), and possibly breast (4.46 (1.29-15.39) and kidney cancers (RR not applicable) was increased among insulinoma patients vs controls, P < 0.05 for all comparisons. Endocrine disorders and pancreatic diseases were more frequent in the patients during the first year after insulinoma diagnosis, but not later on. The survival of patients with a non-metastatic insulinoma (n = 70) was similar to that of controls, but for patients with distant metastases (n = 9), the survival was significantly impaired (median 3.4 years). Conclusions: The long-term prognosis of patients with a non-metastatic insulinoma is similar to the general population, except for an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation, intestinal obstruction, and possibly breast and kidney cancers. These results need to be confirmed in future studies. Metastatic insulinomas entail a markedly decreased survival.


Assuntos
Insulinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Insulinoma/complicações , Insulinoma/diagnóstico , Insulinoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 94(2): 250-257, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insulinomas are rare pancreatic neoplasms, which can usually be cured by surgery. As the diagnostic delay is often long and the prolonged hyperinsulinemia may have long-term effects on health and the quality of life, we studied the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in insulinoma patients. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: The HRQoL of adults diagnosed with an insulinoma in Finland in 1980-2010 was studied with the 15D instrument, and the results were compared to those of an age- and gender-matched sample of the general population. The minimum clinically important difference in the total 15D score has been defined as ±0.015. The clinical characteristics, details of insulinoma diagnosis and treatment, and the current health status of the subjects were examined to specify the possible determinants of long-term HRQoL. RESULTS: Thirty-eight insulinoma patients participated in the HRQoL survey (response rate 75%). All had undergone surgery with a curative aim, a median of 13 (min 7, max 34) years before the survey. The insulinoma patients had a clinically importantly and statistically significantly better mean 15D score compared with the controls (0.930 ± 0.072 vs 0.903 ± 0.039, P = .046) and were significantly better off regarding mobility, usual activities and eating. Among the insulinoma patients, younger age at the time of survey, higher level of education and smaller number of chronic diseases were associated with better overall HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: In the long term, the overall HRQoL of insulinoma patients is slightly better than that of the general population.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 539-550, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055298

RESUMO

Objective: Endocrine Society guidelines recommend adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in primary aldosteronism (PA) if adrenalectomy is considered. We tested whether functional imaging of adrenal cortex with 11C-metomidate (11C-MTO) could offer a noninvasive alternative to AVS in the subtype classification of PA. Design: We prospectively recruited 58 patients with confirmed PA who were eligible for adrenal surgery. Methods: Subjects underwent AVS and 11C-MTO-PET without dexamethasone pretreatment in random order. The lateralization of 11C-MTO-PET and adrenal CT were compared with AVS in all subjects and in a prespecified adrenalectomy subgroup in which the diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for CYP11B2. Results: In the whole study population, the concordance of AVS and 11C-MTO-PET was 51% and did not differ from that of AVS and adrenal CT (53%). The concordance of AVS and 11C-MTO-PET was 55% in unilateral and 44% in bilateral PA. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, the maximum standardized uptake value ratio of 1.16 in 11C-MTO-PET had an AUC of 0.507 (P = n.s.) to predict allocation to adrenalectomy or medical therapy with sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 44%. In the prespecified adrenalectomy subgroup, AVS and 11C-MTO-PET were concordant in 10 of 19 subjects with CYP11B2-positive adenoma and in 6 of 10 with CYP11B2-positivity without an adenoma. Conclusions: The concordance of 11C-MTO-PET with AVS was clinically suboptimal, and did not outperform adrenal CT. In a subgroup with CYP11B2-positive adenoma, 11C-MTO-PET identified 53% of cases. 11C-MTO-PET appeared to be inferior to AVS for subtype classification of PA.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperaldosteronismo/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2018: 2059481, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425741

RESUMO

Objective: Insulinomas are rare pancreatic tumours. Population-based data on their incidence, clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment are almost nonexistent. The aim of this study was to clarify these aspects in a nationwide cohort of insulinoma patients diagnosed during three decades. Design and Methods: Retrospective analysis on all adult patients diagnosed with insulinoma in Finland during 1980-2010. Results: Seventy-nine patients were diagnosed with insulinoma over the research period. The median follow-up from diagnosis to last control visit was one (min 0, max 31) year. The incidence increased from 0.5/million/year in the 1980s to 0.9/million/year in the 2000s (p = 0.002). The median diagnostic delay was 13 months and did not change over the study period. The mean age at diagnosis was 52 (SD 16) years. The overall imaging sensitivity improved from 39% in the 1980s to 98% in the 2000s (p < 0.001). Seventy-one (90%) of the patients underwent surgery with a curative aim, two (3%) had palliative surgery, and 6 (8%) were inoperable. There were no significant differences in the types of surgical procedures between the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s; tumour enucleations comprised 43% of the operations, distal pancreatic resections 45%, and pancreaticoduodenectomies 12%, over the whole study period. Of the patients who underwent surgery with a curative aim, 89% had a full recovery. Postoperative complications occurred in half of the patients, but postoperative mortality was rare. Conclusions: The incidence of insulinomas has increased during the past three decades. Despite the improved diagnostic options, diagnostic delay has remained unchanged. To shorten the delay, clinicians should be informed and alert to consider the possibility of hypoglycemia and insulinoma, when symptomatic attacks are investigated in different sectors of the healthcare system. Developing the surgical treatment is another major target, in order to lower the overall complication rate, without compromising the high cure rate of insulinomas.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 135(1): 122-30, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18474251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fat is increased in type 2 diabetes. We determined whether it is associated with impaired insulin clearance and to what extent insulin resistance, impaired insulin clearance, or secretion contribute to fasting hyperinsulinemia. We also examined whether insulin suppression of serum free fatty acid (FFA) correlates with liver fat. METHODS: We compared 68 type 2 diabetic patients and age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic subjects. Liver fat was determined by (1)H-MRS, body composition by magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin clearance and action on hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucose uptake, and serum FFA by the euglycemic insulin clamp technique (insulin 0.3 mU/kg x min) combined with infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose. RESULTS: Liver fat was 54% higher and insulin clearance 24% lower in type 2 diabetic patients than nondiabetic subjects. The percent suppression of both HGP and serum FFA by insulin were comparable, but serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher (34 mU/L [interquartile range, 30-39 mU/L] vs 25 mU/L [interquartile range, 22-30 mU/L]; P < .0001) in the type 2 diabetic than the nondiabetic subjects. When this difference was taken into account, both hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were impaired in the type 2 diabetic subjects. Liver fat correlated with insulin clearance (r = -0.41; P = .001), and hepatic (r = 0.46; P = .0001) and adipose tissue (r = 0.55; P < .0001) insulin sensitivity. Hepatic but not peripheral insulin sensitivity was independently associated with liver fat content. Insulin clearance and secretion were independent determinants of fasting serum insulin. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that increased liver fat, impaired insulin clearance, and hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance characterize type 2 diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prótons , Análise de Regressão
7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 292(3): E829-35, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17090752

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: We determined whether insulin therapy changes liver fat content (LFAT) or hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (age 51+/-2 yr, body mass index 33.1+/-1.4 kg/m2) treated with metformin alone received additional basal insulin for 7 mo. Liver fat (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), fat distribution (MRI), fat-free and fat mass, and whole body and hepatic insulin sensitivity (6-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose) were measured. The insulin dose averaged 75+/-10 IU/day (0.69+/-0.08 IU/kg, range 24-132 IU/day). Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) decreased from 8.9+/-0.3 to 7.4+/-0.2% (P<0.001). Whole body insulin sensitivity increased from 2.21+/-0.38 to 3.08+/-0.40 mg/kg fat-free mass (FFM).min (P<0.05). This improvement could be attributed to enhanced suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin (HGP 1.04+/-0.28 vs. 0.21+/-0.19 mg/kg FFM.min, P<0.01). The percent suppression of HGP by insulin increased from 72+/-8 to 105+/-11% (P<0.01). LFAT decreased from 17+/-3 to 14+/-3% (P<0.05). The change in LFAT was significantly correlated with that in hepatic insulin sensitivity (r=0.56, P<0.05). Body weight increased by 3.0+/-1.1 kg (P<0.05). Of this, 83% was due to an increase in fat-free mass (P<0.01). Fat distribution and serum adiponectin concentrations remained unchanged while serum free fatty acids decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: insulin therapy improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and slightly but significantly reduces liver fat content, independent of serum adiponectin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Metabolismo Basal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 92(2): 720-4, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17148569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare effects of therapeutic doses of rosiglitazone and metformin on expression of 50 genes in human adipose tissue in vivo. METHODS: Twenty patients with diet-treated type 2 diabetes (13 women, seven men) were randomized to receive either rosiglitazone (n = 9; 8 mg/d) or metformin (n = 11; 2 g/d) for 16 wk. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed before and after treatment. Expression of 50 genes, previously shown to be altered by thiazolidinediones in experimental models, was quantified by real-time PCR and normalized to two housekeeping genes. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone, but not metformin, treatment increased expression of genes involved in triacylglycerol storage [e.g. stearyl-CoA desaturase (3.2-fold), CD36 (1.8-fold)], structural genes [e.g. alpha-1 type-1 procollagen (1.7-fold) and GLUT4 (1.5-fold)], and decreased expression of inflammation-related genes [e.g. IL-6 (0.6-fold), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (0.4-fold)], 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (0.6-fold), and resistin (0.3-fold) (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the insulin-sensitizing action of rosiglitazone involves remodeling of human adipose tissue to reduce inflammation and promote lipid storage. Furthermore, we show some important differences between thiazolidinedione action in human adipose tissue and experimental models.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rosiglitazona
9.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 62(5): 611-5, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15853834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment with metformin, an insulin-lowering agent, increases serum glycodelin, a progesterone-regulated lipocalin protein of the reproductive axis that may play a role in foeto-maternal defence mechanisms. This finding led to the hypothesis that insulin might decrease serum glycodelin concentration. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp experiments (n = 50) were carried out on 28 women of reproductive age (range 25-47 years; mean +/- SEM 39 +/- 1.0 years), and the results were analysed with respect to their baseline serum progesterone (< 10 or > or = 10 nmol/l) and glycodelin (< 10 or > or = 10 microg/l, equivalent to < 357 or > or = 357 pmol/l) concentrations at the onset of the clamp. Ten clamp experiments were performed on five women wearing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD), and these were analysed as a separate group. RESULTS: Contrary to the hypothesis, no acute glycodelin-lowering effect of insulin was found in any of the groups studied. All the small rises in glycodelin levels detected during acute hyperinsulinaemia occurred in the comparisons of medians and not means, and all such changes took place within the limits seen in the women with no progesterone exposure. In the group with low progesterone/low glycodelin (n = 21), glycodelin showed a small but significant increase at 30 and 90 min of the clamp (P < 0.01). In the group with elevated progesterone/low glycodelin (n = 11), there was a slight glycodelin increase at 30 min (P < 0.05), whereas no increase was found in the group with elevated glycodelin levels (n = 8). In the clamp experiments on women with levonorgestrel-releasing IUD, the basal glycodelin level was low in all cases and, as in the other women with low glycodelin levels, glycodelin was slightly increased at 30, 60 and 90 min of hyperinsulinaemia (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results rule out any acute glycodelin-reducing effects of insulin, although indirect long-term effects mediated by insulin on glycodelin secretion cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicodelina , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progesterona/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Diabetes ; 53(8): 2169-76, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15277403

RESUMO

Both rosiglitazone and metformin increase hepatic insulin sensitivity, but their mechanism of action has not been compared in humans. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin treatment on liver fat content, hepatic insulin sensitivity, insulin clearance, and gene expression in adipose tissue and serum adiponectin concentrations in type 2 diabetes. A total of 20 drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (age 48 +/- 3 years, fasting plasma glucose 152 +/- 9 mg/dl, BMI 30.6 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) were treated in a double-blind randomized fashion with either 8 mg rosiglitazone or 2 g metformin for 16 weeks. Both drugs similarly decreased HbA1c, insulin, and free fatty acid concentrations. Body weight decreased in the metformin (84 +/- 4 vs. 82 +/- 4 kg, P < 0.05) but not the rosiglitazone group. Liver fat (proton spectroscopy) was decreased with rosiglitazone by 51% (15 +/- 3 vs. 7 +/- 1%, 0 vs. 16 weeks, P = 0.003) but not by metformin (13 +/- 3 to 14 +/- 3%, NS). Rosiglitazone (16 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 1 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P = 0.02) but not metformin increased insulin clearance by 20%. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in the basal state increased similarly in both groups. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased significantly with rosiglitazone but not with metformin. Serum adiponectin concentrations increased by 123% with rosiglitazone but remained unchanged during metformin treatment. The decrease of serum adiponectin concentrations correlated with the decrease in liver fat (r = -0.74, P < 0.001). Rosiglitazone but not metformin significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue. In conclusion, rosiglitazone but not metformin decreases liver fat and increases insulin clearance. The decrease in liver fat by rosiglitazone is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin concentrations. Both agents increase hepatic insulin sensitivity, but only rosiglitazone increases peripheral glucose uptake.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rosiglitazona , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 24(2): 320-4, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14656737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human insulin enhances the vasodilatory effect of acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, in normal subjects. Structural changes in a long-acting insulin analog, insulin glargine, may change its binding properties to insulin receptor and structurally homologous receptors, such as the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and thereby alter its vascular effects. In the present study, we compared effects of glargine and regular human insulin on blood flow responses to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasoactive agents in vivo in normal subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy men (age: 33+/-9 years [mean+/-SD]; BMI: 23+/-2 kg/m2) were studied on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. In each study, blood flow responses to intrabrachial artery infusions of ACh and SNP were determined during infusion of saline and intravenously maintained normoglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemia (120 minutes; infusion rate: 1 mU/kg per minute) was created by infusing either insulin glargine or human regular insulin. Glargine and human regular insulin similarly stimulated whole-body glucose metabolism and suppressed serum free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Endothelium-independent blood flow responses to low (3 microg/min) and high (10 microg/min) doses of SNP were unaffected by insulin glargine (12.2+/-2.6 versus 13.4+/-4.6 and 19.1+/-4.2 versus 19.6+/-5.1 mL/dL per minute, saline versus insulin, low- and high-dose) and regular human insulin (11.2+/-3.4 versus 12.0+/-5.2 and 16.8+/-5.7 versus 18.4+/-7.7 mL/dL per minute, respectively). In contrast, endothelium-dependent blood flow responses to low (7.5 microg/min) and high (15 microg/min) doses of ACh increased significantly and similarly by insulin glargine, 13.9+/-4.8 versus 19.3+/-6.5 mL/dL per minute (saline versus insulin, +39%, P<0.01) for low-dose ACh and 17.3+/-6.3 versus 23.2+/-9.2 mL/dL per minute (+34%; P<0.02) for high-dose ACh, and regular human insulin, 11.5+/-6.0 versus 15.8+/-8.0 mL/dL per minute (+38%; P<0.05) and 14.0+/-7.5 versus 21.1+/-10.4 mL/dL per minute (+51%; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Insulin glargine and regular human insulin have similar acute stimulatory effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Insulina/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adulto , Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Espaço Epidural/irrigação sanguínea , Espaço Epidural/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Masculino , Nitroprussiato/administração & dosagem , Nitroprussiato/metabolismo , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 79(1): 22-30, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14684393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fat has been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine how identical weight loss (target: loss of 8% of body weight over 3-6 mo) in women taking orlistat or placebo combined with a hypocaloric diet influences body composition and insulin sensitivity. DESIGN: Forty-seven obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.1 +/- 0.4] were randomly assigned to receive either orlistat (120 mg 3 times daily; n = 23) or placebo (n = 24) with a hypocaloric diet. Whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin clamp technique), serum fatty acids, and body composition (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after weight loss. RESULTS: The groups did not differ significantly at baseline with respect to age, body weight, intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat volumes, or insulin sensitivity. Weight loss did not differ significantly between the orlistat (7.3 +/- 0.2 kg, or 8.3 +/- 0.1%) and placebo (7.4 +/- 0.2 kg, or 8.2 +/- 0.1%) groups. Insulin sensitivity improved significantly (P < 0.001) and similarly after weight loss in the orlistat (from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 5.1 +/- 0.3 mg x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)) and placebo (from 4.4 +/- 0.4 to 5.4 +/- 0.4 mg x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)) groups. Intraabdominal fat and subcutaneous fat decreased significantly in both groups, but the ratio of the 2 decreased significantly only in the orlistat group. The proportion of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) in serum phospholipids was inversely related to insulin sensitivity both before (r = -0.48, P < 0.001) and after (r = -0.46, P < 0.001) weight loss, but it did not change significantly in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss rather than inhibition of fat absorption enhances insulin sensitivity. A decrease in fat absorption by orlistat appears to favorably influence the ratio between intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat, which suggests that exogenous fat or its composition influences fat distribution.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Redutora , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Orlistate , Perda de Peso
13.
Diabetes Care ; 26(6): 1667-72, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12766091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effects of weight loss on vascular function are unknown. We compared, in the face of similar weight loss over 3-6 months, effects of orlistat (120 mg t.i.d., n = 23) and placebo (n = 24) on in vivo endothelial function in a high-risk group of obese (BMI 32.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) premenopausal nondiabetic women with a history of gestational diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forearm blood flow responses to intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), body composition, and serum lipids were determined before and after weight loss. RESULTS: Weight loss averaged 7.3 +/- 0.2 kg (8.3 +/- 0.1%) and 7.4 +/- 0.2 kg (8.2 +/- 0.1%) of initial body weight in the orlistat and placebo groups, respectively. Forearm and body compositions changed similarly in both groups. Responses to ACh increased by 41% to the low dose (5.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.3 for flow in the experimental/control arm, P < 0.01) and by 33% to the high dose (7.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.1 +/- 0.6, P < 0.001) in the orlistat group, but they remained unchanged in the placebo group. The blood flow responses to SNP did not differ significantly between the groups. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in the orlistat group from 3.5 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 mmol/l (P < 0.01) but remained unchanged in the placebo group. Within the orlistat group, the decrease in LDL cholesterol correlated significantly with the improvement in the blood flow response to ACh (r = -0.44, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Orlistat but not moderate (8%) weight loss per se improves endothelial function in women with previous gestational diabetes. This improvement is associated with a lowering of LDL cholesterol by orlistat.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orlistate , Placebos , Gravidez
14.
Diabetes ; 52(3): 701-7, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12606511

RESUMO

Our objective was to determine how 8% weight loss influences subcutaneous, intra-abdominal, and liver fat (LFAT), as well as features of insulin resistance, in obese women with high versus low LFAT. A total of 23 women with previous gestational diabetes were divided into groups of high (9.4 +/- 1.4%) and low (3.3 +/- 0.4%) LFAT based on their median LFAT (5%) measured with proton spectroscopy. Both groups were similar with respect to age, BMI, and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Before weight loss, women with high LFAT had higher fasting serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations than women with low LFAT. At baseline, LFAT correlated with the percent of fat (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and saturated fat (r = 0.45, P < 0.05) of total caloric intake but not intra-abdominal or subcutaneous fat or fasting serum free fatty acids. Weight loss was similar between the groups (high LFAT -7.4 +/- 0.2 vs. low LFAT -7.7 +/- 0.3 kg). LFAT decreased from 9.4 +/- 1.4 to 4.8 +/- 0.7% (P < 0.001) in women with high LFAT and from 3.3 +/- 0.4 to 2.0 +/- 0.2% (P < 0.001) in women with low LFAT. The absolute decrease in LFAT was significantly higher in women with high than low LFAT (-4.6 +/- 1.0 vs. -1.3 +/- 0.3%, P < 0.005). The decrease in LFAT was closely correlated with baseline LFAT (r = -0.85, P < 0.001) but not with changes in the volumes of intra-abdominal or subcutaneous fat depots, which decreased similarly in both groups. LFAT appears to be related to the amount of fat in the diet rather than the size of endogenous fat depots in obese women. Women with initially high LFAT lost more LFAT by similar weight loss than those with low LFAT, although both groups lost similar amounts of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. These data suggest that LFAT is regulated by factors other than intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Therefore, LFAT does not appear to simply reflect the size of endogenous fat stores.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Constituição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
15.
Obes Res ; 10(9): 859-67, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12226133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We determined whether fat accumulation in the liver is associated with features of insulin resistance independent of obesity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We recruited 27 obese nondiabetic women in whom liver fat (LFAT) content was determined by proton spectroscopy, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin sensitivity by the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. The women were divided based on their median LFAT content (5%) to groups with low (3.2 +/- 0.3%) and high (9.8 +/- 1.5%) liver fat. The groups were almost identical with respect to age (36 +/- 1 vs. 38 +/- 1 years in low vs. high-LFAT), body mass index (32.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 32.8 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2)), waist-to-hip ratio, intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and total fat content. RESULTS: Women with high LFAT had features of insulin resistance including higher fasting serum triglyceride (1.93 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.09 mM, p < 0.01) and insulin (14 +/- 3 vs. 10 +/- 1 mU/L, p < 0.05) concentrations than women with low LFAT. The group with high LFAT also had higher 24-hour blood pressures, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with the low-LFAT group. DISCUSSION: In obese women with previous gestational diabetes, LFAT, rather than any measure of body composition, is associated with features of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Gestacional/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Constituição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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