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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
2.
Sports Med ; 49(8): 1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209731

RESUMO

On page 8, in the left-hand column, third paragraph, lines 9-13 which previously read.

3.
Front Physiol ; 10: 589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156464

RESUMO

Background: This case-report characterized the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nutritional/gastrointestinal (GI) responses of a trained individual to a novel ultra-endurance exercise challenge. Case Presentation: A male athlete (age 45 years; V ˙ O2max 54.0 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) summited 100 mountains on foot in 25 consecutive days (all elevations >600 m). Measures: Laboratory measures of pulmonary function (spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, and single-breath rebreathe), respiratory muscle function (maximum static mouth-pressures), and cardiovascular structure and function (echocardiography, electrocardiography, large vessel ultrasound, and flow-mediated dilatation) were made at baseline and 48 h post-challenge. Dietary intake (four-day food diary), self-reported GI symptoms and plasma endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline, pre/post mid-point, pre/post end-point, and 48 h post-challenge. Results: The challenge was completed in a total exercise time of 142 h (5.3 ± 2.8 h⋅d-1), with a distance of 1141 km (42.3 ± 43.9 km⋅d-1), and energy expenditure of 80460 kcal (2980 ± 1451 kcal⋅d-1). Relative to baseline, there were post-challenge decreases in pulmonary capacities and expiratory flows (≤34%), maximum expiratory mouth-pressure (19%), and maximum voluntary ventilation (29%). Heart rate variability deteriorated, manifesting as a 48% decrease in the root mean square of successive differences and a 70% increase in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Pre- to post-challenge endotoxin concentrations were elevated by 60%, with a maximum increase of 130% after a given stage, congruent with an increased frequency and severity of GI symptoms. Conclusion: The challenge resulted in pulmonary and autonomic dysfunction, endotoxaemia, and GI distress. The findings extend our understanding of the limits of physiological function and may inform medical best-practice for personnel supporting ultra-endurance events.

4.
Sports Med ; 49(7): 1031-1041, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030408

RESUMO

The physiological demands of marathon and ultra-marathon running are substantial, affecting multiple body systems. There have been several reviews on the physiological contraindications of participation; nevertheless, the respiratory implications have received relatively little attention. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the literature pertaining to acute pulmonary and respiratory muscle responses to marathon and ultra-marathon running. Pulmonary function was most commonly assessed using spirometry, with infrequent use of techniques including single-breath rebreathe and whole-body plethysmography. All studies observed statistically significant post-race reductions in one-or-more metrics of pulmonary function, with or without evidence of airway obstruction. Nevertheless, an independent analysis revealed that post-race values rarely fell below the lower-limit of normal and are unlikely, therefore, to be clinically significant. This highlights the virtue of healthy baseline parameters prior to competition and, although speculative, there may be more potent clinical manifestations in individuals with below-average baseline function, or those with pre-existing respiratory disorders (e.g., asthma). Respiratory muscle fatigue was most commonly assessed indirectly using maximal static mouth-pressure manoeuvres, and respiratory muscle endurance via maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV12). Objective nerve-stimulation data from one study, and others documenting the time-course of recovery, implicate peripheral neuromuscular factors as the mechanism underpinning such fatigue. Evidence of respiratory muscle fatigue was more prevalent following marathon compared to ultra-marathon, and might be a factor of work rate, and thus exercise ventilation, which is tempered during longer races. Potential implications of respiratory muscle fatigue on health and marathon/ultra-marathon performance have been discussed, and include a diminished postural stability that may increase the risk of injury when running on challenging terrain, and possible respiratory muscle fatigue-induced effects on locomotor limb blood flow. This review provides novel insights that might influence marathon/ultra-marathon preparation strategies, as well as inform medical best-practice of personnel supporting such events.

5.
Exp Physiol ; 104(6): 920-931, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919515

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To what extent are the mechanical-ventilatory responses to upper-body exercise influenced by task-specific locomotor mechanics? What is the main finding and its importance? When compared with lower-body exercise performed at similar ventilations, upper-body exercise was characterized by tidal volume constraint, dynamic lung hyperinflation and an increased propensity towards neuromechanical uncoupling of the respiratory system. Importantly, these responses were independent of respiratory dysfunction and flow limitation. Thus, the mechanical ventilatory responses to upper-body exercise are attributable, in part, to task-specific locomotor mechanics (i.e. non-respiratory loading of the thorax). ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the mechanical ventilatory responses to upper-body exercise are influenced by task-specific locomotor mechanics. Eight healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 5 years; mass, 74 ± 11 kg; and stature, 1.79 ± 0.07 m) completed two maximal exercise tests, on separate days, comprising 4 min stepwise increments of 15 W during upper-body exercise (arm-cranking) or 30 W during lower-body exercise (leg-cycling). The tests were repeated at work rates calculated to elicit 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the peak ventilation achieved during arm-cranking ( V ̇ E , UBE ). Exercise measures included pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, oesophageal pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics, operating lung volumes and expiratory flow limitation. Subjects exhibited normal resting pulmonary function. Arm-crank exercise elicited significantly lower peak values for work rate, O2 uptake, CO2 output, minute ventilation and tidal volume (p < 0.05). At matched ventilations, arm-crank exercise restricted tidal volume expansion relative to leg-cycling exercise at 60% V ̇ E , UBE (1.74 ± 0.61 versus 2.27 ± 0.68 l, p < 0.001), 80% V ̇ E , UBE (2.07 ± 0.70 versus 2.52 ± 0.67 l, p < 0.001) and 100% V ̇ E , UBE (1.97 ± 0.85 versus 2.55 ± 0.72 l, p = 0.002). Despite minimal evidence of expiratory flow limitation, expiratory reserve volume was significantly higher during arm-cranking versus leg-cycling exercise at 100% V ̇ E , UBE (39 ± 8 versus 29 ± 8% of vital capacity, p = 0.002). At any given ventilation, arm-cranking elicited greater inspiratory effort (oesophageal pressure) relative to thoracic displacement (tidal volume). Arm-cranking exercise is sufficient to provoke respiratory mechanical derangements (restricted tidal volume expansion, dynamic hyperinflation and neuromechanical uncoupling) in subjects with normal pulmonary function and expiratory flow reserve. These responses are likely to be attributable to task-specific locomotor mechanics (i.e. non-respiratory loading of the thorax).

6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(2): 509-518, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Marathon and ultramarathon provoke respiratory muscle fatigue and pulmonary dysfunction; nevertheless, it is unknown how the respiratory system responds to multiple, consecutive days of endurance exercise. METHODS: Nine trained individuals (six male) contested 10 marathons in 10 consecutive days. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum static inspiratory and expiratory mouth-pressures), pulmonary function (spirometry), perceptual ratings of respiratory muscle soreness (Visual Analogue Scale), breathlessness (dyspnea, modified Borg CR10 scale), and symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI), were assessed before and after marathons on days 1, 4, 7, and 10. RESULTS: Group mean time for 10 marathons was 276 ± 35 min. Relative to pre-challenge baseline (159 ± 32 cmH2O), MEP was reduced after day 1 (136 ± 31 cmH2O, p = 0.017), day 7 (138 ± 42 cmH2O, p = 0.035), and day 10 (130 ± 41 cmH2O, p = 0.008). There was no change in pre-marathon MEP across days 1, 4, 7, or 10 (p > 0.05). Pre-marathon forced vital capacity was significantly diminished at day 4 (4.74 ± 1.09 versus 4.56 ± 1.09 L, p = 0.035), remaining below baseline at day 7 (p = 0.045) and day 10 (p = 0.015). There were no changes in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, MIP, or respiratory perceptions during the course of the challenge (p > 0.05). In the 15-day post-challenge period, 5/9 (56%) runners reported symptoms of URTI, relative to 1/9 (11%) pre-challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Single-stage marathon provokes acute expiratory muscle fatigue which may have implications for health and/or performance, but 10 consecutive days of marathon running does not elicit cumulative (chronic) changes in respiratory function or perceptions of dyspnea. These data allude to the robustness of the healthy respiratory system.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 110, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Due to the high intra-thoracic pressures associated with forced vital capacity manoeuvres, spirometry is contraindicated for vulnerable patients. However, the typical pressure response to spirometry has not been reported. Eight healthy, recreationally-active men performed spirometry while oesophageal pressure was recorded using a latex balloon-tipped catheter. RESULTS: Peak oesophageal pressure during inspiration was - 47 ± 9 cmH2O (37 ± 10% of maximal inspiratory pressure), while peak oesophageal pressure during forced expiration was 102 ± 34 cmH2O (75 ± 17% of maximal expiratory pressure). The deleterious consequences of spirometry might be associated with intra-thoracic pressures that approach maximal values during forced expiration.


Assuntos
Expiração/fisiologia , Inalação/fisiologia , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Espirometria , Adulto , Esôfago/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 124(3): 805-811, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191982

RESUMO

The aim of this case report was to determine whether maximal upper body exercise was sufficient to induce diaphragm fatigue in a Paralympic champion adaptive rower with low-lesion spinal cord injury (SCI). An elite arms-only oarsman (age: 28 yr; stature: 1.89 m; and mass: 90.4 kg) with motor-complete SCI (T12) performed a 1,000-m time trial on an adapted rowing ergometer. Exercise measurements comprised pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, diaphragm EMG-derived indexes of neural respiratory drive, and intrathoracic pressure-derived indexes of respiratory mechanics. Diaphragm fatigue was assessed by measuring pre- to postexercise changes in the twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,tw) response to anterolateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves. The time trial (248 ± 25 W, 3.9 min) elicited a peak O2 uptake of 3.46 l/min and a peak pulmonary ventilation of 150 l/min (57% MVV). Breath-to-stroke ratio was 1:1 during the initial 400 m and 2:1 thereafter. The ratio of inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure to diaphragm EMG (neuromuscular efficiency) fell from rest to 600 m (16.0 vs. 3.0). Potentiated Pdi,tw was substantially reduced (-33%) at 15-20 min postexercise, with only partial recovery (-12%) at 30-35 min. This is the first report of exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue in SCI. The decrease in diaphragm neuromuscular efficiency during exercise suggests that the fatigue was partly due to factors independent of ventilation (e.g., posture and locomotion). NEW & NOTEWORTHY This case report provides the first objective evidence of exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue in spinal cord injury (SCI) and, for that matter, in any population undertaking upper body exercise. Our data support the notion that high levels of exercise hyperpnea and factors other than ventilation (e.g., posture and locomotion) are responsible for the fatigue noted after upper body exercise. The findings extend our understanding of the limits of physiological function in SCI.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular , Testes de Função Respiratória
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093646

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Results: Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in American football (50.4 ± 15.3 mmol·L-1), baseball (54.0 ± 14.0 mmol·L-1), and basketball (48.3 ± 14.0 mmol·L-1) than either soccer (43.2 ± 12.0 mmol·L-1) or rugby (44.0 ± 12.1 mmol·L-1), but with no differences among the N.American or British sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p < 0.001), basketball (rs = 0.953, p < 0.001), rugby (rs = 0.813, p < 0.001), and soccer (rs = 0.748, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The normative data provided on sweat-sodium concentrations might assist sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Sódio/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Suor/química , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beisebol/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Futebol/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(7): 1461-1472, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to contractile fatigue in response to high-intensity, whole-body exercise. This study assessed whether the ventilatory and mechanical loads imposed by high-intensity, upper-body exercise would be sufficient to elicit respiratory muscle fatigue. METHODS: Seven healthy men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yr, peak O2 uptake [V˙O2peak] = 31.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg·min) performed asynchronous arm-crank exercise to exhaustion at work rates equivalent to 30% (heavy) and 60% (severe) of the difference between gas exchange threshold and V˙O2peak. Contractile fatigue of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles was assessed by measuring pre- to postexercise changes in potentiated transdiaphragmatic and gastric twitch pressures (Pdi,tw and Pga,tw) evoked by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the cervical and thoracic nerves, respectively. RESULTS: Exercise time was 24.5 ± 5.8 min for heavy exercise and 9.8 ± 1.8 min for severe exercise. Ventilation over the final minute of heavy exercise was 73 ± 20 L·min (39% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) and 99 ± 19 L·min (53% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) for severe exercise. Mean Pdi,tw did not differ pre- to postexercise at either intensity (P > 0.05). Immediately (5-15 min) after severe exercise, mean Pga,tw was significantly lower than pre-exercise values (41 ± 13 vs 53 ± 15 cm H2O, P < 0.05), with the difference no longer significant after 25-35 min. Abdominal muscle fatigue (defined as ≥15% reduction in Pga,tw) occurred in 1/7 subjects after heavy exercise and 5/7 subjects after severe exercise. CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity, upper-body exercise elicits significant abdominal, but not diaphragm, muscle fatigue in healthy men. The increased magnitude and prevalence of fatigue during severe-intensity exercise is likely due to additional (nonrespiratory) loading of the thorax.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Diafragma/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 117(2): 279-287, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032253

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asynchronous arm-cranking performed at high cadences elicits greater cardiorespiratory responses compared to low cadences. This has been attributed to increased postural demand and locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), and yet, this has not been empirically tested. This study aimed to assess the effects of cadence on cardiorespiratory responses and LRC during upper-body exercise. METHODS: Eight recreationally-active men performed arm-cranking exercise at moderate and severe intensities that were separated by 10 min of rest. At each intensity, participants exercised for 4 min at each of three cadences (50, 70, and 90 rev min-1) in a random order, with 4 min rest-periods applied in-between cadences. Exercise measures included LRC via whole- and half-integer ratios, cardiorespiratory function, perceptions of effort (RPE and dyspnoea), and diaphragm EMG using an oesophageal catheter. RESULTS: The prevalence of LRC during moderate exercise was highest at 70 vs. 50 rev min-1 (27 ± 10 vs. 13 ± 9%, p = 0.000) and during severe exercise at 90 vs. 50 rev min-1 (24 ± 7 vs. 18 ± 5%, p = 0.034), with a shorter inspiratory time and higher mean inspiratory flow (p < 0.05) at higher cadences. During moderate exercise, [Formula: see text] and f C were higher at 90 rev min-1 (p < 0.05) relative to 70 and 50 rev min-1 ([Formula: see text] 1.19 ± 0.25 vs. 1.05 ± 0.21 vs. 0.97 ± 0.24 L min-1; f C 116 ± 11 vs. 101 ± 13 vs. 101 ± 12 b min-1), with concomitantly elevated dyspnoea. There were no discernible cadence-mediated effects on diaphragm EMG. CONCLUSION: Participants engage in LRC to a greater extent at moderate-high cadences which, in turn, increase respiratory airflow. Cadence rate should be carefully considered when designing aerobic training programmes involving the upper-limbs.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Physiol Behav ; 170: 106-114, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989717

RESUMO

Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (Mage=20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min-1) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (p<0.01, ηp2=0.38). There were significant differences in HR during initial recovery periods (p<0.05, ηp2=0.16), but no other music-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Análise de Variância , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Consumo de Oxigênio , Psicofisiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto Jovem
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