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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769551

RESUMO

Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas with near absent access to health services. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis, silicosis and silico-tuberculosis among ASMs in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 October to 31 January 2021 on a convenient sample of 514 self-selected ASMs. We report the results from among those ASMs who attended an outreach medical facility and an occupational health clinic. Data were collected from clinical records using a precoded data proforma. Data variables included demographic (age, sex), clinical details (HIV status, GeneXpert results, outcomes of chest radiographs, history of tuberculosis) and perceived exposure to mine dust. Of the 464 miners screened for silicosis, 52 (11.2%) were diagnosed with silicosis, while 17 (4.0%) of 422 ASMs were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). Of the 373 ASMs tested for HIV, 90 (23.5%) were sero-positive. An HIV infection was associated with a diagnosis of silicosis. There is need for a comprehensive occupational health service package, including TB and silicosis surveillance, for ASMs in Zimbabwe. These are preliminary and limited findings, needing confirmation by more comprehensive studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde do Trabalhador , Silicose , Tuberculose , Estudos Transversais , Ouro , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Silicose/epidemiologia , Silicose/etiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(4): e426, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754947

RESUMO

Introduction: Iron deficiency is a major complication of repeated blood donation. However, most of the blood screening methods employed by blood collection agents do not include iron status markers, leading to possible subclinical iron deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated blood donation on the iron status of this vulnerable population in Zimbabwe. Methods: All donors were categorized into groups based on number of donations made in the previous 2-year period prior to enrolment into the study. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and ferritin were analyzed on automated chemistry analyzers while transferrin saturation (TSAT) was calculated. The Wilcoxon rank-sum and ANOVA tests were used to assess the variation of iron profiles by gender and frequency of donations. All data analysis was performed using Stata software v13. Results: Study participants included 170 repeat donors and 20 first-time blood donors. The median (IQR) age was 23 (19-27) years, while the majority were males 57% (n = 109/190). The overall prevalence of iron deficiency and reduced iron stores was 12.6% and 38.9%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between males and females in all the iron status parameters (P < .05). TIBC increased with number of donations, while iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased with increased number of donations. Conclusion: A high proportion of blood donors had iron deficiency despite being eligible to donate. Repeated blood donation may lead to substantial reduction in iron stores among blood donors. Inclusion of iron biochemical markers may enhance proper screening and monitoring of blood donors in Zimbabwe to prevent development of iron deficiency anemia.

3.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201909

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in ambient air. There is no published information about the presence and resistance profiles of bacteria in ambient air in Ghana. We evaluated the presence and antibiotic resistance profiles of selected bacterial, environmental and meteorological characteristics and airborne bacterial counts in 12 active air quality monitoring sites (seven roadside, two industrial and three residential) in Accra in February 2020. Roadside sites had the highest median temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and PM10 concentrations, and median airborne bacterial counts in roadside sites (115,000 CFU/m3) were higher compared with industrial (35,150 CFU/m3) and residential sites (1210 CFU/m3). Bacillus species were isolated in all samples and none were antibiotic resistant. There were, however, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, non-hemolytic Streptococci, Coliforms and Staphylococci species, of which six (50%) showed mono-resistance or multidrug resistance to four antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone). There was a positive correlation between PM10 concentrations and airborne bacterial counts (rs = 0.72), but no correlations were found between PM10 concentrations and the pathogenic bacteria nor their antibiotic resistance. We call for the expansion of surveillance of ambient air to other cities of Ghana to obtain nationally representative information.

4.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(2): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194175

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine viral load (VL) testing is fraught with challenges in resource-limited settings which lead to longer turnaround times for the return of VL results. We assessed the turnaround times for VL testing and factors associated with long turnaround (>30 days) in Marondera, Zimbabwe, between January and September 2018. Methods: This was an analytical study of routine program data. Data were extracted from electronic records and paper-based reports at two laboratories and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) facilities. The unit of analysis was the VL sample. Duration (in days) between sample collection and sample testing (pre-test turnaround time), duration between sample testing and receipt of VL result at ART the site (post-test turnaround time), and duration between sample collection and receipt of result at the ART site (overall turnaround time) were calculated. Days on which the VL testing machine was not functional, and workload (number of tests done per month) were used to assess associations. We used binomial log models to assess the factors associated with longer turnaround time. Results: A total of 3348 samples were received at the two VL testing laboratories, and 3313 were tested, of these, 1111 were analyzed for overall turnaround time. Pre-test, post-test, and overall turnaround times were 22 days (interquartile range (IQR): 11-41), 51 days (IQR: 30-89), and 67 days (IQR: 46-100), respectively. Laboratory workload (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.14) and machine break down (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.14-1.17) were associated with long turnaround time. Conclusions: Routine VL turnaround time was long. Decentralizing VL testing and enhancing laboratory capacity may help shorten the turnaround time.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in seeking and accessing treatment for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) are major impediments to TB control in high-burden, resource-limited settings. METHOD: We prospectively determined health-seeking behavioural patterns and associations with treatment outcomes and costs among 68 RR-TB patients attending conveniently selected facilities in a decentralised system in Harare, Zimbabwe. RESULTS: From initial symptoms to initiation of effective treatment, patients made a median number of three health care visits (IQR 2-4 visits) at a median cost of 13% (IQR 6-31%) of their total annual household income (mean cost, US$410). Cumulatively, RR-TB patients most frequently first visited private facilities, i.e., private pharmacies (30%) and other private health care providers (24%) combined. Median patient delay was 26 days (IQR 14-42 days); median health system delay was 97 days (IQR 30-215 days) and median total delay from symptom onset to initiation of effective treatment was 132 days (IQR 51-287 days). The majority of patients (88%) attributed initial delay in seeking care to "not feeling sick enough." Total delay, total cost and number of health care visits were not associated with treatment or clinical outcomes, though our study was not adequately powered for these determinations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the public availability of rapid molecular TB tests, patients experienced significant delays and high costs in accessing RR-TB treatment. Active case finding, integration of private health care providers and enhanced service delivery may reduce treatment delay and TB associated costs.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antituberculosos/toxicidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/economia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Rifampina/toxicidade , Zimbábue
6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068109

RESUMO

Monitoring antibiotic consumption is crucial to tackling antimicrobial resistance. However, currently there is no system in Sierra Leone for recording and reporting on antibiotic consumption. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess national antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day using all registered and imported antibiotics (categorized under the subgroup J01 under the anatomical and therapeutic classification (ATC) system) as a proxy. Between 2017-2019, total cumulative consumption of antibiotics was 19 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day. The vast majority consisted of oral antibiotics (98.4%), while parenteral antibiotics made up 1.6%. According to therapeutic/pharmacological subgroups (ATC level 3), beta-lactam/penicillins, quinolones, and other antibacterials (mainly oral metronidazole) comprised 65% of total consumption. According to WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe), 65% of antibiotics consumed were Access, 31% were Watch, and no Reserve antibiotics were reported. The top ten oral antibiotics represented 97% of total oral antibiotics consumed, with metronidazole (35%) and ciprofloxacin (15%) together constituting half of the total. Of parenteral antibiotics consumed, procaine penicillin (32%) and ceftriaxone (19%) together comprised half of the total. Policy recommendations at global and national levels have been made to improve monitoring of antibiotic consumption and antibiotic stewardship.

7.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068850

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants receive sewage containing high concentrations of bacteria and antibiotics. We assessed bacterial counts and their antibiotic resistance patterns in water from (a) influents and effluents of the Legon sewage treatment plant (STP) in Accra, Ghana and (b) upstream, outfall, and downstream in the recipient Onyasia stream. We conducted a cross-sectional study of quality-controlled water testing (January-June 2018). In STP effluents, mean bacterial counts (colony-forming units/100 mL) had reduced E. coli (99.9% reduction; 102,266,667 to 710), A. hydrophila (98.8%; 376,333 to 9603), and P. aeruginosa (99.5%; 5,666,667 to 1550). Antibiotic resistance was significantly reduced for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, and ceftazidime and increased for gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and imipenem. The highest levels were for amoxicillin/clavulanate (50-97%) and aztreonam (33%). Bacterial counts increased by 98.8% downstream compared to the sewage outfall and were predominated by E. coli, implying intense fecal contamination from other sources. There was a progressive increase in antibiotic resistance from upstream, to outfall, to downstream. The highest resistance was for amoxicillin/clavulanate (80-83%), cefuroxime (47-73%), aztreonam (53%), and ciprofloxacin (40%). The STP is efficient in reducing bacterial counts and thus reducing environmental contamination. The recipient stream is contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria listed as critically important for human use, which needs addressing.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

9.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High compliance to infection prevention and control (IPC) is vital to prevent health care-associated infections. In the worst 2014-2015 Ebola-affected district in Sierra Leone (Kenema), we assessed (a) average yearly IPC compliance (2016-2018) using a National IPC assessment tool in the district hospital and peripheral health units (PHUs), and (b) gaps in IPC activities, infrastructure and consumables in 2018. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary program data. RESULTS: At the district hospital, compliance increased from 69% in 2016 to 73% in 2018 (expected minimal threshold = 70%; desired threshold ≥ 85%). Compliance for screening/isolation facilities and decontamination of medical equipment reached 100% in 2018. The two thematic areas with the lowest compliance were sanitation (44%) and sharps safety (56%). In PHUs (2018), the minimal 70% compliance threshold was not achieved in two (of 10 thematic areas) for Community Health Centers, four for Community Health Posts, and five for Maternal and Child Health Units. The lowest compliance was for screening and isolation facilities (range: 33-53%). CONCLUSION: This baseline assessment is an eye opener of what is working and what is not, and can be used to galvanize political, financial, and material resources to bridge the existing gaps.

10.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.

11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(4): 559-565, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers (HCWs), especially from sub-Saharan Africa, are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce this risk. There is no published information from Zimbabwe, a high HIV burden country, about how PEP works. We therefore assessed how the PEP programme performed at the Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2017-2018. METHODOLOGY: This was a cohort study using secondary data from the staff clinic paper-based register. The chi square test and relative risks were used to assess associations. RESULTS: There were 154 HCWs who experienced occupational injuries. The commonest group was medical doctors (36%) and needle sticks were the most frequent type of occupational injury (74%). The exposure source was identified in 114 (74%) occupational injuries: 91% of source patients were HIV-tested and 77% were HIV-positive. All but two HCWs were HIV-tested, 148 were eligible for PEP and 142 (96%) started triple therapy, all within 48 hours of exposure. Of those starting PEP, 15 (11%) completed 28 days, 13 (9%) completed < 28 days and in the remainder PEP duration was not recorded. There were no HCW characteristics associated with not completing PEP. Of those starting PEP, 9 (6%) were HIV-tested at 6-weeks, 3 (2%) were HIV-tested at 3-months and 1 (< 1%) was HIV-tested at 6-months: all HIV-tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS: While uptake of PEP was timely and high, the majority of HCWs failed to complete the 28-day treatment course and even fewer attended for follow-up HIV-tests. Various changes are recommended to promote awareness of PEP and improve adherence to guidelines.

12.
Int Health ; 13(2): 89-97, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medecins Sans Frontieres set up a clinic to provide multidisciplinary care to a vulnerable migrant population experiencing torture. We describe the population accessing care, the characteristics of care provided and patient outcomes. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective cohort study of patients enrolled in care during January 2017-June 2019 was conducted. RESULTS: Of 2512 victims of torture cases accessing the clinic, the male: female ratio was 1:1. About 67% of patients received medical care, mostly for chronic pain treatment. About 73% of patients received mental healthcare, 37% received physiotherapy and 33% received social support care; 49% came to the clinic upon the recommendation of a friend or family member. The discharge with improvement rate ranged from 23% in the mental health service to 9% in the sociolegal service. Patients retained in care had a median IQR of 3 (2-4) follow-up visits for medical care, 4 (2-7) for mental health, 6 (3-10) for physiotherapy and 2 (1-4) for sociolegal. CONCLUSION: Care for victims of torture cases among vulnerable migrants is complex. For those who did receive care that led to an improvement in their condition, their care models have been described, to allow its implementation in other non-specialised settings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Tortura , Migrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Trop Med ; 2020: 9357426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908549

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis belonging to Beijing sublineage (BL) is associated with high tuberculosis (TB) transmission, multidrug resistance, and adverse treatment outcomes. Sri Lanka experiences an increase in the number of travellers/workers to and from high TB-burden countries, and there is risk of getting BL strains imported into the country. In this context, a cohort study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BL strains among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka (a popular tourist destination) and its association with patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The study population included sputum smear-positive PTB patients diagnosed from February 2018-July 2019. Fresh sputum samples were collected for culturing and conducted polymerase chain reaction using BL-specific primers. Among the 101 patients recruited, presence of BL strains could be ascertained in 94 patients of which 24 (26%; 95% CI: 18%-35%) had BL strains. Prevalence of BL strains was higher among those with high sputum smear grades (2+ and 3+) (P < 0.05) and those who had travelled abroad (P < 0.05). The prevalence was also higher among young people (aged <35 years). Treatment success rates were similar in patients with (83%) and without BL strains (83% vs. 81%; P value = 0.8375). The prevalence of BL strains in Kandy, Sri Lanka, was high compared to previously reported figures in Sri Lanka, and the percentage drives closer to the countries in South East Asia. International travel raises itself as an emerging issue in BL transmission urging the need of policies and practices in immigration/emigration strategies. The study findings have the potential to alter the TB epidemiology in the country and might represent the situation in other underexplored countries as well. Therefore, it is important to monitor the trends and factors related to the prevalence of Beijing strains globally and make decisions as a whole.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual violence can have a destructive impact on the lives of people. It is more common in unstable conditions such as during displacement or migration of people. On the Greek island of Lesvos, Médecins Sans Frontières provided medical care to survivors of sexual violence among the population of asylum seekers. This study describes the patterns of sexual violence reported by migrants and asylum seekers and the clinical care provided to them. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, using routine program data. The study population consisted of migrants and asylum seekers treated for conditions related to sexual violence at the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic on Lesvos Island (September 2017-January 2018). RESULTS: There were 215 survivors of sexual violence who presented for care, of whom 60 (28%) were male. The majority of incidents reported (94%) were cases of rape; 174 (81%) of survivors were from Africa and 185 (86%) of the incidents occurred over a month before presentation. Half the incidents (118) occurred in transit, mainly in Turkey, and 76 (35%) in the country of origin; 10 cases (5%) occurred on Lesvos. The perpetrator was known to the survivor in 23% of the cases. The need for mental health care exceeded the capacity of available mental care services. CONCLUSION: Even though the majority of cases delayed seeking medical care after the incident, it is crucial that access to mental health services is guaranteed for those in need. Such access and security measures for people in transit need to be put in place along migration routes, including in countries nominally considered safe, and secure routes need to be developed.


Assuntos
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874410

RESUMO

This was a cross-sectional study describing HIV testing uptake and ART initiation for pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants after one-off clinical mentorship training in 2013 for nurses in 56 peripheral health-facilities, Zimbabwe. Between 2014-2018, 92% of 106411 pregnant women were HIV tested and 98% of HIV-positive women initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). There were 15846 HIV-exposed infants, of whom 96% had dried blood spots collected for virologic diagnosis and 51% of those diagnosed HIV-positive initiated ART. In conclusion, this one-off clinical mentorship training in 2013 was associated with consistently high HIV testing and ART initiation in pregnant women and their children.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Tutoria/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Medicina Preventiva/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 893-900, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The isoniazid-resistant TB poses a threat to TB control efforts. Zimbabwe, one of the high TB burden countries, has not explored the burden of isoniazid resistant TB. Hence among all bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients diagnosed in Bulawayo City during March 2017 and December 2018, we aimed to assess the proportion with isoniazid resistant TB and associated factors. Also, we aimed to describe the TB treatment outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study involving routinely collected data by the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL) in Bulawayo City and National TB programme of Zimbabwe. The percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to express the proportion with isoniazid-resistant TB. The modified Poisson regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. RESULTS: Of 2160 bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients, 1612 (74.6%) had their sputum received at the NTBRL and 743 (46.1%) had culture growth. Among those with culture growth, 34 (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.5-6.7) had isoniazid mono-resistant TB, 25 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.2-4.9) had MDR-TB. Thus, 59 (7.9%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.1) had isoniazid-resistant TB. Children < 15 years had a higher prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant TB (aPR= 3.93; 95% CI: 1.24-12.45). Among those with rifampicin sensitive TB, patients with isoniazid-sensitive TB had higher favourable treatment outcomes compared to those with isoniazid-resistant TB (86.3% versus 75.5%, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of isoniazid-resistant TB was low compared to neighbouring countries with high burden of TB-HIV. However, Zimbabwe should consider reviewing treatment guidelines for isoniazid mono-resistant TB due to the observed poor treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 10S-15S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following the recommendation of the Global Leprosy Strategy, Ethiopia targeted to reduce the incidence of new leprosy cases, and the proportion with severe disability (grade 2) from 13.6% in 2016 to < 1% in 2020. This study assessed the clinical profile of new leprosy cases and the sequelae of previously treated ones 20 years after leprosy was eliminated as a public health problem in the country. METHODOLOGY: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted  by reviewing the medical records of all leprosy patients seen at the dermatology clinic of Boru Meda Hospital from August to December 2018.The  data were captured using a standard data collection form. RESULTS: Over the study period, 57 (27.4%) new cases and 151 (72.6%) previously treated cases were seen.The median age was 44 years (interquartile range 32-57). Among the newly diagnosed cases, two were under the age of 15 years , 51 (89.5%) were multibacillary and 34 (59.6%) had grade 2 disability. This included visual impairment in 10 (17.5%) and neurological complications in 44 (77.2%). Of the 151 previously treated cases, 104 (68.9%) presented with disabilities, including 97 (64.2%) with grade 2. Amongst previously treated cases, 130 (86.1%) had neurological complications. In addition, 53 (35.1%) had vision impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed evidence of ongoing leprosy transmission and delayed diagnosis in the country. This calls for operational research to determine the underlying reasons and provide ways forward. At the same time, the high burden of disabilities in previously treated cases should be addressed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 16S-21S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have established primary skin manifestations or associated clinical feature. Skin NTDs often result in physical impairment and disfigurement, which can lead to disability. Skin diseases have been proposed as an entry point for integrated NTDs control. However, the magnitude and overlap of skin NTDs is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: An institution-based cross-sectional study was done using medical records of dermatology patients between July 2017 and June 2018 in a dermatology service in Northeast Ethiopia. A total of 661 patient records were selected using simple random sampling. RESULTS: A total of 656 complete records were included in analysis. Skin NTDs constituted 17.2% (n = 113) of the overall of skin diseases. Of skin NTDS, cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 40; 35.4%), leprosy (n = 38; 33.6%), and scabies (n = 31; 27.4%) were the most common. Additionally, there were four cases of mycetoma. Of the non NTDs, poverty-related infections such as superficial fungal (n = 118; 21.1%) and bacterial (n = 33; 5.2%) infections were also frequent. Tinea capitis was the most common superficial fungal infections. Impetigo and cellulitis were the predominant bacterial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Skin NTDsand other poverty related skin infections were common at the dermatology service. Dermatological services could act as a good entry point for integrated management of skin NTDs. Future studies should assess how different preventive strategies like contact tracing, early diagnosis and mass drug administration can be integrated.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/parasitologia , Medicina Tropical , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 58S-65S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasites have an insidious impact on human health. In response to high parasite frequencies in Northwest Ethiopia, mass drug administration (MDA) is provided for school children using albendazole/mebendazole (since 2007) and praziquantel (since 2015). The study objective was to assess trends and seasonal patterns of intestinal parasite infections in a context of MDA. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive study collecting routine data from laboratory registers in two health centres in Denbia district, Amhara region. Stool test results (wet-mount direct microscopy) from patients attending these centres between 2013 and 2018 were included. Frequencies of different parasite species were evaluated within and across the years and stratified by age and gender. RESULTS: From a total of 8002 stool test results, the overall parasite frequency was 53.3%; this proportion remained constant. The most frequently diagnosed soil-transmitted helminths (STH) were Ascaris lumbricoides (16.9%) and hookworm (3.9%). STH frequency varied over the years, but was similar at the beginning (20.0%) and the end (22.0%) of the six-year period. STH infections were more frequent in winter (December-February; 20.4%) than in other seasons (16.0%). The most frequently diagnosed protozoa were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (18.5%) and Giardia lamblia (12.2%). The frequency of Giardia steadily increased from 9.6% in 2013 to 15.3% in 2018. E. histolytica/dispar peaked in summer and G. lamblia in autumn. CONCLUSIONS: Trends in routine laboratories may be a proxy for a status quo in the community. These findings suggest that higher MDA coverages and/or interventions beyond MDA are needed to reduce intestinal parasite-related morbidity.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/normas , Parasitos/classificação , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 66S-71S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) remains a major public health problem in school children in Ethiopia. Although direct wet mount microscopy (DWMM) is the means to diagnose parasitic diseases in health care facilities in Ethiopia, it remains unclear what its diagnostic performance is for STH. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was performed in Jimma Town (Ethiopia) and included 600 children from 10 primary schools. The diagnostic sensitivity of DWMM was compared to a composite reference standard (CRS) consisting of Kato-Katz, McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC. We also explored the impact of intensity of infection (the highest faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG)) across the CRS) on the diagnostic sensitivity of DWMM. RESULTS: Based on the CRS, there were 210 Ascaris (35.0%), 312 Trichuris (52.0%) and 102 hookworm cases (17.0%). The median intensity of infections equalled 2,057 EPG for Ascaris, 200 EPG for Trichuris and 110 EPG for hookworms. The sensitivity of DWMM was 73.8% for Ascaris, but was around 17% for both Trichuris and hookworms. The sensitivity significantly increased with intensity of STH. For Ascaris, the odds for detecting an infection intensity of 1,000 EPG was 6.2 times higher than detecting an infection of 100 EPG. For Trichuris and hookworms, these odds ratios were 7.1 and 14. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic sensitivity of DWMM is low for STH, but it is able to detect those subjects that are in the highest need of treatment, and hence contributes to the global goal to eliminate STH as a public health problem.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia/métodos , Microscopia/normas , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Microscopia/instrumentação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudantes
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