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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the globe. Existing studies suggest that a low vitamin D level is associated with more than 130 outcomes. Exploring the causal role of vitamin D in health outcomes could support or question vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: We carried out a systematic literature review of previous Mendelian-randomization studies on vitamin D. We then implemented a Mendelian Randomization-Phenome Wide Association Study (MR-PheWAS) analysis on data from 339 256 individuals of White British origin from UK Biobank. We first ran a PheWAS analysis to test the associations between a 25(OH)D polygenic risk score and 920 disease outcomes, and then nine phenotypes (i.e. systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, risk of hypertension, T2D, ischaemic heart disease, body mass index, depression, non-vertebral fracture and all-cause mortality) that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria for further analysis were examined by multiple MR analytical approaches to explore causality. RESULTS: The PheWAS analysis did not identify any health outcome associated with the 25(OH)D polygenic risk score. Although a selection of nine outcomes were reported in previous Mendelian-randomization studies or umbrella reviews to be associated with vitamin D, our MR analysis, with substantial study power (>80% power to detect an association with an odds ratio >1.2 for per standard deviation increase of log-transformed 25[OH]D), was unable to support an interpretation of causal association. CONCLUSIONS: We investigated the putative causal effects of vitamin D on multiple health outcomes in a White population. We did not support a causal effect on any of the disease outcomes tested. However, we cannot exclude small causal effects or effects on outcomes that we did not have enough power to explore due to the small number of cases.

2.
Opt Express ; 27(14): 19915-19930, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503746

RESUMO

We present an image-based autofocusing system applied in nonlinear microscopy and spectroscopy with a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The core of the developed autofocusing system consists of an adapted two-step procedure maximizing an image score with six different image scorings algorithms implemented to cover different types of focusing scenarios in automated regime for broad wavelength region. The developed approach is combined with an automated multi-axis alignment procedure. We demonstrate the key abilities of the autofocusing procedure on different types of structures: single nanoparticles, nanowires and complex 3D nanostructures. Based on these experiments, we determine the optimal autofocusing algorithms for different types of structures and applications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic variants may influence pathways of tumor progression common to multiple cancer types. Here, we investigated the association between survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis and 128 common genetic variants previously associated with prognosis in genome-wide association studies in different cancer types. METHODS: We studied survival outcomes in a large well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort (5,675 patients with colorectal cancer) with up to 20 years' follow-up. RESULTS: None of the 128 variants were significantly associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival (P < 5 × 10-4, Bonferroni-corrected threshold). We observed suggestive evidence (P < 0.05) for eight variants (rs17026425, rs17057166, rs6854845, rs1728400, rs17693104, rs202280, rs6797464, and rs823920) in all colorectal cancer and two variants (rs17026425 and rs6854845) in rectal cancer that were concordant with previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: Given good statistical power (>0.80 for 75% of variants), this study indicates that most previously reported variants associated with cancer survival have limited influence on colorectal cancer prognosis. IMPACT: Although small effects cannot be excluded, clinically meaningful germline influences on patients with colorectal cancer as a group are unlikely.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2427-2432, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271446

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have thus far identified 130 genetic variants linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk (r2 < 0.2). Given their implication in disease causation, and thus plausible biologically effects on cancer-relevant biological pathways, we investigated whether these variants are associated with CRC prognosis and also whether they might provide predictive value for survival outcome. We conducted the analysis in a well-characterized population-based study of 5,675 patients after CRC diagnosis in Scotland. None of the genetic risk variants were associated with either overall survival (OS) or CRC-specific survival. Next, we combined the variants in a polygenic risk score, but again we observed no association between survival outcome and overall genetic susceptibility to CRC risk-as defined by common genetic variants (OS: hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.96-1.05). Furthermore, we found no incremental increase in the discriminative performance when adding these genetic variants to the baseline CRC-survival predictive model of age, sex and stage at diagnosis. Given that our study is well-powered (>0.88) to detect effects on survival for 74% of the variants, we conclude that effects of common variants associated with CRC risk which have been identified to date are unlikely to have clinically relevant effect on survival outcomes for patients diagnosed with CRC.

5.
Surg Oncol ; 29: 196-202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196488

RESUMO

Prediction models allow accurate estimate of individualized prognosis. Increasing numbers of models on survival of CRC patients with surgical resection are being published. However, their performance and potential clinical utility have been unclear. A systematic search in MEDLINE and Embase databases (until 9th April 2018) was performed. Original model development studies and external validation studies predicting any survival outcomes from CRC (follow-up ≥1 year after surgery) were included. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses in external validation studies to estimate the performance of each model. A total of 83 original prediction models and 52 separate external validation studies were identified. We identified five models (Basingstoke score, Fong score, Nordinger score, Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score and Valentini nomogram) that were validated in at least two external datasets with a median summarized C-statistic of 0.67 (range: 0.57-0.74). These models can potentially assist clinical decision-making. Besides developing new models, future research should also focus on validating existing prediction models and investigating their real-word impact and cost-effectiveness for CRC prognosis in clinical practice.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2154, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089142

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and has a strong heritable basis. We report a genome-wide association analysis of 34,627 CRC cases and 71,379 controls of European ancestry that identifies SNPs at 31 new CRC risk loci. We also identify eight independent risk SNPs at the new and previously reported European CRC loci, and a further nine CRC SNPs at loci previously only identified in Asian populations. We use in situ promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C), gene expression, and in silico annotation methods to identify likely target genes of CRC SNPs. Whilst these new SNP associations implicate target genes that are enriched for known CRC pathways such as Wnt and BMP, they also highlight novel pathways with no prior links to colorectal tumourigenesis. These findings provide further insight into CRC susceptibility and enhance the prospects of applying genetic risk scores to personalised screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(7): 1078-1085, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945952

RESUMO

25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) may have a prognostic value in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, as 25-OHD concentration is strongly impacted by surgery, it is uncertain what is the most reliable time-point for 25-OHD assessment, pre- or post-operative. Therefore, we examined 515 CRC patients (AJCC I-III) who underwent surgery. Blood samples were collected either pre-operatively (n = 286; median = 1 day before surgery) or post-operatively (n = 229; median = 8 days). Serum 25-OHD concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Association between 25-OHD and survival was tested in the whole cohort, followed by stratified analyses in pre- and post-operatively sampled. Median 25-OHD in the cohort was 36.7 nmol/L and median follow-up time was 5.9 years. There were no differences between pre- and post-operative cohort in age, sex, 25-OHD, AJCC stage, or localization of tumor. After adjustment, higher 25-OHD (>50 nmol/L) was associated with better overall survival only in post-operative (HR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.84; P = 0.006), but not in pre-operative cohort (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.77-1.65; P = 0.53). In conclusion, higher post-operative 25-OHD levels were associated with better survival outcome in CRC patients, while no such association was found for pre-operative levels. Time-point of blood collection should be addressed carefully in future research as it might affect the prognostic value of 25-OHD in CRC.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 877-884, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605602

RESUMO

We combine the field confinement of plasmonics with the flexibility of multiple Mie resonances by bottom-up assembly of hybrid metal-dielectric nanodimers. We investigate the electromagnetic coupling between nanoparticles in heterodimers consisting of gold and barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BTO) nanoparticles through nonlinear second-harmonic spectroscopy and polarimetry. The overlap of the localized surface plasmon resonant dipole mode of the gold nanoparticle with the dipole and higher-order Mie resonant modes in the BTO nanoparticle lead to the formation of hybridized modes in the visible spectral range. We employ the pick-and-place technique to construct the hybrid nanodimers with controlled diameters by positioning the nanoparticles of different types next to each other under a scanning electron microscope. Through linear scattering spectroscopy, we observe the formation of hybrid modes in the nanodimers. We show that the modes can be directly accessed by measuring the dependence of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal on the polarization and wavelength of the pump. We reveal both experimentally and theoretically that the hybridization of plasmonic and Mie-resonant modes leads to a strong reshaping of the SHG polarization dependence in the nanodimers, which depends on the pump wavelength. We compare the SHG signal of each hybrid nanodimer with the SHG signal of single BTO nanoparticles to estimate the enhancement factor due to the resonant mode coupling within the nanodimers. We report up to 2 orders of magnitude for the SHG signal enhancement compared with isolated BTO nanoparticles.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2315-2329, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536881

RESUMO

The cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) is multifactorial, involving both genetic variants and environmental risk factors. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases from inception to December 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that investigated gene-environment (G×E) interactions in CRC risk. Then, we critically evaluated the cumulative evidence for the G×E interactions using an extension of the Human Genome Epidemiology Network's Venice criteria. Overall, 15 articles reporting systematic reviews of observational studies on 89 G×E interactions, 20 articles reporting meta-analyses of candidate gene- or single-nucleotide polymorphism-based studies on 521 G×E interactions, and 8 articles reporting 33 genome-wide G×E interaction analyses were identified. On the basis of prior and observed scores, only the interaction between rs6983267 (8q24) and aspirin use was found to have a moderate overall credibility score as well as main genetic and environmental effects. Though 5 other interactions were also found to have moderate evidence, these interaction effects were tenuous due to the lack of main genetic effects and/or environmental effects. We did not find highly convincing evidence for any interactions, but several associations were found to have moderate strength of evidence. Our conclusions are based on application of the Venice criteria which were designed to provide a conservative assessment of G×E interactions and thus do not include an evaluation of biological plausibility of an observed joint effect.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 169(8): 543-553, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304368

RESUMO

Background: Many effects of statins on non-cardiovascular disease (non-CVD) outcomes have been reported. Purpose: To evaluate the quantity, validity, and credibility of evidence regarding associations between statins and non-CVD outcomes and the effects of statins on these outcomes. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE (English terms only, inception to 28 May 2018). Study Selection: Meta-analyses (published in English) of observational studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined non-CVD outcomes of statin intake. Data Extraction: Two investigators extracted data from meta-analyses and individual studies. Credibility assessments based on summary effect sizes from a random-effects model, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction interval, small-study effect, excess significance, and credibility ceilings were devised to classify evidence. Data Synthesis: This review explored 278 unique non-CVD outcomes from 112 meta-analyses of observational studies and 144 meta-analyses of RCTs. For observational studies, no convincing (class I) evidence, 2 highly suggestive (class II) associations (decreased cancer mortality in patients with cancer and decreased exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), 21 suggestive (class III) associations, and 42 weak (class IV) associations were identified. One outcome from the RCTs (decreased all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease) attained a sufficient amount of evidence with no hints of bias. For adverse events, observational studies showed suggestive evidence that statins increase the risk for diabetes and myopathy. Among the RCTs, no statistically significant effects were found on myopathy, myalgia, or rhabdomyolysis. Limitations: Studies with relevant data and outcomes not included in the meta-analyses may have been missed. Credibility assessments relied on several assumptions and arbitrary thresholds. Conclusion: The absence of convincing evidence of an association between statins and non-CVD outcomes supports leaving the current recommendations unchanged. Primary Funding Source: None.

12.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 142, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst observational studies establish that lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels are associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), establishing causality has proven challenging. Since vitamin D is modifiable, these observations have substantial clinical and public health implications. Indeed, many health agencies already recommend supplemental vitamin D. Here, we explore causality in a large Mendelian randomisation (MR) study using an improved genetic instrument for circulating 25-OHD. METHODS: We developed a weighted genetic score for circulating 25-OHD using six genetic variants that we recently reported to be associated with circulating 25-OHD in a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis. Using this score as instrumental variable in MR analyses, we sought to determine whether circulating 25-OHD is causally linked with CRC risk. We conducted MR analysis using individual-level data from 10,725 CRC cases and 30,794 controls (Scotland, UK Biobank and Croatia). We then applied estimates from meta-analysis of 11 GWAS of CRC risk (18,967 cases; 48,168 controls) in a summary statistics MR approach. RESULTS: The new genetic score for 25-OHD was strongly associated with measured plasma 25-OHD levels in 2821 healthy Scottish controls (P = 1.47 × 10- 11), improving upon previous genetic instruments (F-statistic 46.0 vs. 13.0). However, individual-level MR revealed no association between 25-OHD score and CRC risk (OR 1.03/unit log-transformed circulating 25-OHD, 95% CI 0.51-2.07, P = 0.93). Similarly, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between 25-OHD and CRC risk using summary statistics MR analysis (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.69-1.19, P = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the scale of this study and employing an improved score capturing more of the genetic contribution to circulating 25-OHD, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between circulating 25-OHD and CRC risk. Although the magnitude of effect for vitamin D suggested by observational studies can confidently be excluded, smaller effects sizes and non-linear relationships remain plausible. Circulating vitamin D may be a CRC biomarker, but a causal effect on CRC risk remains unproven.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
13.
Br J Cancer ; 119(8): 988-993, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide scan to identify non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that might influence survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We genotyped 7679 nsSNPs in 1939 Scottish patients from the Scottish Colorectal Cancer Study recruited soon after a CRC diagnosis and prospectively followed for survival outcomes. All-cause and CRC-specific survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for stage, age and sex for all cancer cases, after cancer type stratification and assuming additive and recessive models of inheritance. For all the SNPs that had a p-value < 0.10 a meta-analysis was performed combining the results of the discovery set and a replication set of 899 Scottish CRC patients. The p-value threshold of significance was set as at p < 10-8. RESULTS: 897 and 894 nsSNPs were associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality, respectively, at a p-value level < 0.10 in the discovery set. Meta-analysis of the results from the discovery and replication sets was performed overall and for cancers of colon and rectum separately and none of the variants reached a p-value < 10-8. CONCLUSIONS: This large scale well-powered analysis demonstrates that common nsSNPs are not associated with CRC prognosis overall.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199350, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928061

RESUMO

Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are important innate pattern recognition receptors and regulators of inflammation or play a role during development. We systematically analysed 41 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 NLR genes in a Czech discovery cohort of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (1237 cases, 787 controls) for their association with CRC risk and survival. Five SNPs were found to be associated with CRC risk and eight with survival at 5% significance level. In a replication analysis using data of two large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from Germany (DACHS: 1798 cases and 1810 controls) and Scotland (2210 cases and 9350 controls) the associations found in the Czech discovery set were not confirmed. However, expression analysis in human gut-related tissues and immune cells revealed that the NLRs associated with CRC risk or survival in the discovery set were expressed in primary human colon or rectum cells, CRC tissue and/or cell lines, providing preliminary evidence for a potential involvement of NLRs in general in CRC development and/or progression. Most interesting was the finding that the enigmatic development-related NLRP5 (also known as MATER) was not expressed in normal colon tissue but in colon cancer tissue and cell lines. Future studies may show whether regulatory variants instead of coding variants might affect the expression of NLRs and contribute to CRC risk and survival.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8655, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872119

RESUMO

Aberrant glycosylation has been associated with a number of diseases including cancer. Our aim was to elucidate changes in whole plasma N-glycosylation between colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and controls in one of the largest cohorts of its kind. A set of 633 CRC patients and 478 age and gender matched controls was analysed. Additionally, patients were stratified into four CRC stages. Moreover, N-glycan analysis was carried out in plasma of 40 patients collected prior to the initial diagnosis of CRC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the plasma N-glycome at all stages of CRC, this included a highly significant decrease in relation to the core fucosylated bi-antennary glycans F(6)A2G2 and F(6)A2G2S(6)1 (P < 0.0009). Stage 1 showed a unique biomarker signature compared to stages 2, 3 and 4. There were indications that at risk groups could be identified from the glycome (retrospective AUC = 0.77 and prospective AUC = 0.65). N-glycome biomarkers related to the pathogenic progress of the disease would be a considerable asset in a clinical setting and it could enable novel therapeutics to be developed to target the disease in patients at risk of progression.

16.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3695-3702, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771127

RESUMO

Nonradiating electromagnetic configurations in nanostructures open new horizons for applications due to two essential features: a lack of energy losses and invisibility to the propagating electromagnetic field. Such radiationless configurations form a basis for new types of nanophotonic devices, in which a strong electromagnetic field confinement can be achieved together with lossless interactions between nearby components. In our work, we present a new design of free-standing disk nanoantennas with nonradiating current distributions for the optical near-infrared range. We show a novel approach to creating nanoantennas by slicing III-V nanowires into standing disks using focused ion-beam milling. We experimentally demonstrate the suppression of the far-field radiation and the associated strong enhancement of the second-harmonic generation from the disk nanoantennas. With a theoretical analysis of the electromagnetic field distribution using multipole expansions in both spherical and Cartesian coordinates, we confirm that the demonstrated nonradiating configurations are anapoles. We expect that the presented procedure of designing and producing disk nanoantennas from nanowires becomes one of the standard approaches to fabricating controlled chains of standing nanodisks with different designs and configurations. These chains can be essential building blocks for new types of lasers and sensors with low power consumption.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193547, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547645

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of common genetic variants associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the majority of CRC heritability remains unclear. In order to discover low-frequency, high-risk CRC susceptibility variants in Swedish population, we genotyped 1 515 CRC patients enriched for familial cases, and 12 108 controls. Case/control association analysis suggested eight novel variants associated with CRC risk (OR 2.0-17.6, p-value < 2.0E-07), comprised of seven coding variants in genes RAB11FIP5, POTEA, COL27A1, MUC5B, PSMA8, MYH7B, and PABPC1L as well as one variant downstream of NEU1 gene. We also confirmed 27 out of 30 risk variants previously reported from GWAS in CRC with a mixed European population background. This study identified rare, coding sequence variants associated with CRC risk through analysis in a relatively homogeneous population. The segregation data suggest a complex mode of inheritance in seemingly dominant pedigrees.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Recidiva , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(7): 1039-1047, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of serum uric acid (SUA) level in a broad spectrum of disease outcomes using data for 120 091 individuals from UK Biobank. METHODS: We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to identify disease outcomes associated with SUA genetic risk loci. We then implemented conventional Mendelianrandomisation (MR) analysis to investigate the causal relevance between SUA level and disease outcomes identified from PheWAS. We next applied MR Egger analysis to detect and account for potential pleiotropy, which conventional MR analysis might mistake for causality, and used the HEIDI (heterogeneity in dependent instruments) test to remove cross-phenotype associations that were likely due to genetic linkage. RESULTS: Our PheWAS identified 25 disease groups/outcomes associated with SUA genetic risk loci after multiple testing correction (P<8.57e-05). Our conventional MR analysis implicated a causal role of SUA level in three disease groups: inflammatory polyarthropathies (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.34), hypertensive disease (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) and disorders of metabolism (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14); and four disease outcomes: gout (OR=4.88, 95% CI 3.91 to 6.09), essential hypertension (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14), myocardial infarction (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.30) and coeliac disease (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.89). After balancing pleiotropic effects in MR Egger analysis, only gout and its encompassing disease group of inflammatory polyarthropathies were considered to be causally associated with SUA level. Our analysis highlighted a locus (ATXN2/S2HB3) that may influence SUA level and multiple cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases via pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated SUA level is convincing to cause gout and inflammatory polyarthropathies, and might act as a marker for the wider range of diseases with which it associates. Our findings support further investigation on the clinical relevance of SUA level with cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune and respiratory diseases.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 142(3): 540-546, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960316

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have been successful in elucidating the genetic basis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but there remains unexplained variability in genetic risk. To identify new risk variants and to confirm reported associations, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,701 CRC cases and 14,082 cancer-free controls from the Finnish population. A total of 9,068,015 genetic variants were imputed and tested, and 30 promising variants were studied in additional 11,647 cases and 12,356 controls of European ancestry. The previously reported association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs992157 (2q35) and CRC was independently replicated (p = 2.08 × 10-4 ; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23), and it was genome-wide significant in combined analysis (p = 1.50 × 10-9 ; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16). Variants at 2q35, 6p21.2, 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 10q22.3, 10q24.2, 11q13.4, 11q23.1, 14q22.2, 15q13.3, 18q21.1, 20p12.3 and 20q13.33 were associated with CRC in the Finnish population (false discovery rate < 0.1), but new risk loci were not found. These results replicate the effects of multiple loci on the risk of CRC and identify shared risk alleles between the Finnish population isolate and outbred populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
20.
Annu Rev Nutr ; 37: 293-320, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826375

RESUMO

It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene-diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene-diet interactions for the same cancers. Convincing evidence for association was found only for the intake of alcohol and whole grains in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Three nutrient associations had highly suggestive evidence and another 15 associations had suggestive evidence. Among the examined gene-diet interactions, only one had moderately strong evidence.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/etiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Dieta , Etanol/toxicidade , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
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