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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 21: 100457, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832062

RESUMO

Background: The direct effects of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI)) and central adiposity (waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR)) on circulating lipoproteins, lipids, and metabolites are unknown. Methods: We used new metabolic data from UK Biobank (N=109,532, a five-fold higher N over previous studies). EDTA-plasma was used to quantify 249 traits with nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy including subclass-specific lipoprotein concentrations and lipid content, plus pre-glycemic and inflammatory metabolites. We used univariable and multivariable two-stage least-squares regression models with genetic risk scores for BMI and WHR as instruments to estimate total (unadjusted) and direct (mutually-adjusted) effects of BMI and WHR on metabolic traits; plus effects on statin use and interaction by sex, statin use, and age (proxy for medication use). Findings: Higher BMI decreased apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before and after WHR-adjustment, whilst BMI increased triglycerides only before WHR-adjustment. These effects of WHR were larger and BMI-independent. Direct effects differed markedly by sex, e.g., triglycerides increased only with BMI among men, and only with WHR among women. Adiposity measures increased statin use and showed metabolic effects which differed by statin use and age. Among the youngest (38-53y, statins-5%), BMI and WHR (per-SD) increased LDL-C (total effects: 0.04-SD, 95%CI=-0.01,0.08 and 0.10-SD, 95%CI=0.02,0.17 respectively), but only WHR directly. Among the oldest (63-73y, statins-29%), BMI and WHR directly lowered LDL-C (-0.19-SD, 95%CI=-0.27,-0.11 and -0.05-SD, 95%CI=-0.16,0.06 respectively). Interpretation: Excess adiposity likely raises atherogenic lipid and metabolite levels exclusively via adiposity stored centrally, particularly among women. Apparent effects of adiposity on lowering LDL-C are likely explained by an effect of adiposity on statin use. Funding: UK Medical Research Council; British Heart Foundation; Novo Nordisk; National Institute for Health Research; Wellcome Trust; Cancer Research UK.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3528, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764621

RESUMO

The frequency of, and risk factors for, long COVID are unclear among community-based individuals with a history of COVID-19. To elucidate the burden and possible causes of long COVID in the community, we coordinated analyses of survey data from 6907 individuals with self-reported COVID-19 from 10 UK longitudinal study (LS) samples and 1.1 million individuals with COVID-19 diagnostic codes in electronic healthcare records (EHR) collected by spring 2021. Proportions of presumed COVID-19 cases in LS reporting any symptoms for 12+ weeks ranged from 7.8% and 17% (with 1.2 to 4.8% reporting debilitating symptoms). Increasing age, female sex, white ethnicity, poor pre-pandemic general and mental health, overweight/obesity, and asthma were associated with prolonged symptoms in both LS and EHR data, but findings for other factors, such as cardio-metabolic parameters, were inconclusive.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(6): 1298-1310, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the effect of BMI on circulating metabolites in young adults using a recall-by-genotype study design. METHODS: A recall-by-genotype study was implemented in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Samples from 756 participants were selected for untargeted metabolomics analysis based on low versus high genetic liability for higher BMI defined by a genetic risk score (GRS). Regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between BMI GRS group and relative abundance of 973 metabolites. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, 29 metabolites were associated with BMI GRS group. Bilirubin was among the most strongly associated metabolites, with reduced levels measured in individuals in the high-BMI GRS group (ß = -0.32, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.18, Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p = 0.005). This study observed associations between BMI GRS group and the levels of several potentially diet-related metabolites, including hippurate, which had lower mean abundance in individuals in the high-BMI GRS group (ß = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.15, Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Together with existing literature, these results suggest that a genetic predisposition to higher BMI captures differences in metabolism leading to adiposity gain. In the absence of prospective data, separating these effects from the downstream consequences of weight gain is challenging.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Metabolômica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267399, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551540

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is a critical stress response gene that catalyzes the multistep oxidation of heme. A GT(n) repeat of variable length in the promoter in has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, including infections. This paper aims to summarise and systematically review associations between the length of the HMOX1 GT(n) promoter and infectious disease in humans. METHODS: A search using relevant terms was performed in PubMED and EMBASE through to 15/01/21 identifying all research that studied an association between the HMOX1 GT(n) repeat polymorphism and the incidence and/or outcome of any human infectious disease. Citations were screened for additional studies. Potential studies were screened for inclusion by two authors. Data was extracted on allele frequency, genotype, strength of association, mechanism of genotyping, and potential biases. A narrative review was performed across each type of infection. RESULTS: 1,533 studies were identified in the search, and one via citation screening. Sixteen studies were ultimately included, seven in malaria, three in HIV, three in sepsis, and one each in pneumonia, hepatitis C, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sample sizes for nearly all studies were small (biggest study, n = 1,646). Allelic definition was different across all included studies. All studies were at some risk of bias. In malaria, three studies suggested that longer alleles were associated with reduced risk of severe malaria, particularly malaria-induced renal dysfunction, with four studies identifying a null association. In sepsis, two studies suggested an association with longer alleles and better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the importance of HMOX1 in survival from infection, and the association between repeat length and gene expression, the clinical data supporting an association between repeat length and incidence and/or outcome of infection remain inconclusive.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Sepse , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heme , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Sepse/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508184

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified thousands of genetic variants that are reliably associated with human traits. Although GWASs are restricted to certain variant frequencies, they have improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases. The UK Biobank (UKBB) has brought substantial analytical opportunity and performance to association studies. The dramatic expansion of many GWAS sample sizes afforded by the inclusion of UKBB data has improved the power of estimation of effect sizes but, critically, has done so in a context where phenotypic depth and precision enable outcome dissection and the application of epidemiological approaches. However, at the same time, the availability of such a large, well-curated, and deeply measured population-based collection has the capacity to increase our exposure to the many complications and inferential complexities associated with GWASs and other analyses. In this review, we discuss the impact that UKBB has had in the GWAS era, some of the opportunities that it brings, and exemplar challenges that illustrate the reality of using data from this world-leading resource. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2743, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585065

RESUMO

We present the results of a GWAS of food liking conducted on 161,625 participants from the UK-Biobank. Liking was assessed over 139 specific foods using a 9-point scale. Genetic correlations coupled with structural equation modelling identified a multi-level hierarchical map of food-liking with three main dimensions: "Highly-palatable", "Acquired" and "Low-caloric". The Highly-palatable dimension is genetically uncorrelated from the other two, suggesting that independent processes underlie liking high reward foods. This is confirmed by genetic correlations with MRI brain traits which show with distinct associations. Comparison with the corresponding food consumption traits shows a high genetic correlation, while liking exhibits twice the heritability. GWAS analysis identified 1,401 significant food-liking associations which showed substantial agreement in the direction of effects with 11 independent cohorts. In conclusion, we created a comprehensive map of the genetic determinants and associated neurophysiological factors of food-liking.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Emoções , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Recompensa
7.
Bioinformatics ; 2022 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134881

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Metabolomics is an increasingly common part of health research and there is need for pre-analytical data processing. Researchers typically need to characterise the data and to exclude errors within the context of the intended analysis. While some pre-processing steps are common, there is currently a lack of standardization and reporting transparency for these procedures. RESULTS: Here we introduce metaboprep, a standardised data processing workflow to extract and characterise high quality metabolomics data sets. The package extracts data from pre-formed worksheets, provides summary statistics and enables the user to select samples and metabolites for their analysis based on a set of quality metrics. A report summarising quality metrics and the influence of available batch variables on the data is generated for the purpose of open disclosure. Where possible, we provide users flexibility in defining their own selection thresholds. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: metaboprep is an open-source R package available at https://github.com/MRCIEU/metaboprep. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(4): e024380, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156387

RESUMO

Background Low-grade inflammation in the young may contribute to the early development of cardiovascular disease. We assessed whether circulating levels of glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) were better able to predict the development of adverse cardiovascular disease risk profiles compared with the more commonly used biomarker high-sensitivity CRP (C-reactive protein). Methods and Results A total of 3306 adolescents and young adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (mean age, 15.4±0.3; n=1750) and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (mean age, 32.1±5.0; n=1556) were included. Baseline associations between inflammatory biomarkers, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical measures of vascular dysfunction were assessed cross-sectionally in both cohorts. Prospective risk of developing hypertension and metabolic syndrome during 9-to-10-year follow-up were also assessed as surrogate markers for future cardiovascular risk. GlycA showed greater within-subject correlation over 9-to-10-year follow-up in both cohorts compared with CRP, particularly in the younger adolescent group (r=0.36 versus 0.07). In multivariable analyses, GlycA was found to associate with multiple lifestyle-related cardiovascular disease risk factors, cardiometabolic risk factor burden, and vascular dysfunction (eg, mean difference in flow-mediated dilation=-1.2 [-1.8, -0.7]% per z-score increase). In contrast, CRP levels appeared predominantly driven by body mass index and showed little relationship to any measured cardiovascular risk factors or phenotypes. In both cohorts, only GlycA predicted future risk of both hypertension (risk ratio [RR], ≈1.1 per z-score increase for both cohorts) and metabolic syndrome (RR, ≈1.2-1.3 per z-score increase for both cohorts) in 9-to-10-year follow-up. Conclusions Low-grade inflammation captured by the novel biomarker GlycA is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles from as early as adolescence and predicts future risk of hypertension and metabolic syndrome in up to 10-year follow-up. GlycA is a stable inflammatory biomarker which may capture distinct sources of inflammation in the young and may provide a more sensitive measure than CRP for detecting early cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Glicoproteínas , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Estudos Longitudinais , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Platelets ; 33(6): 869-878, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068290

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for thrombosis. Platelets are essential for hemostasis but contribute to thrombosis when activated pathologically. We hypothesized that higher BMI leads to changes in platelet characteristics, thereby increasing thrombotic risk. The effect of BMI on platelet traits (measured by Sysmex) was explored in 33 388 UK blood donors (INTERVAL study). Linear regression showed that higher BMI was positively associated with greater plateletcrit (PCT), platelet count (PLT), immature platelet count (IPC), and side fluorescence (SFL, a measure of mRNA content used to derive IPC). Mendelian randomization (MR), applied to estimate a causal effect with BMI proxied by a genetic risk score, provided causal estimates for a positive effect of BMI on both SFL and IPC, but there was little evidence for a causal effect of BMI on PCT or PLT. Follow-up analyses explored the functional relevance of platelet characteristics in a pre-operative cardiac cohort (COPTIC). Linear regression provided observational evidence for a positive association between IPC and agonist-induced whole blood platelet aggregation. Results indicate that higher BMI raises the number of immature platelets, which is associated with greater whole blood platelet aggregation in a cardiac cohort. Higher IPC could therefore contribute to obesity-related thrombosis.

10.
Circ Res ; 130(3): 384-400, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA hypomethylation at the F2RL3 (F2R like thrombin or trypsin receptor 3) locus has been associated with both smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; whether these smoking-related associations form a pathway to disease is unknown. F2RL3 encodes protease-activated receptor 4, a potent thrombin receptor expressed on platelets. Given the role of thrombin in platelet activation and the role of thrombus formation in myocardial infarction, alterations to this biological pathway could be important for ischemic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted multiple independent experiments to assess whether DNA hypomethylation at F2RL3 in response to smoking is associated with risk of myocardial infarction via changes to platelet reactivity. Using cohort data (N=3205), we explored the relationship between smoking, DNA hypomethylation at F2RL3, and myocardial infarction. We compared platelet reactivity in individuals with low versus high DNA methylation at F2RL3 (N=41). We used an in vitro model to explore the biological response of F2RL3 to cigarette smoke extract. Finally, a series of reporter constructs were used to investigate how differential methylation could impact F2RL3 gene expression. RESULTS: Observationally, DNA methylation at F2RL3 mediated an estimated 34% of the smoking effect on increased risk of myocardial infarction. An association between methylation group (low/high) and platelet reactivity was observed in response to PAR4 (protease-activated receptor 4) stimulation. In cells, cigarette smoke extract exposure was associated with a 4.9% to 9.3% reduction in DNA methylation at F2RL3 and a corresponding 1.7-(95% CI, 1.2-2.4, P=0.04) fold increase in F2RL3 mRNA. Results from reporter assays suggest the exon 2 region of F2RL3 may help control gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking-induced epigenetic DNA hypomethylation at F2RL3 appears to increase PAR4 expression with potential downstream consequences for platelet reactivity. Combined evidence here not only identifies F2RL3 DNA methylation as a possible contributory pathway from smoking to cardiovascular disease risk but from any feature potentially influencing F2RL3 regulation in a similar manner.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Receptores de Trombina/genética , Idoso , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Receptores de Trombina/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiologia
11.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 3, 2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK Biobank is a large prospective cohort, based in the UK, that has deep phenotypic and genomic data on roughly a half a million individuals. Included in this resource are data on approximately 78,000 individuals with "non-white British ancestry." While most epidemiology studies have focused predominantly on populations of European ancestry, there is an opportunity to contribute to the study of health and disease for a broader segment of the population by making use of the UK Biobank's "non-white British ancestry" samples. Here, we present an empirical description of the continental ancestry and population structure among the individuals in this UK Biobank subset. RESULTS: Reference populations from the 1000 Genomes Project for Africa, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia were used to estimate ancestry for each individual. Those with at least 80% ancestry in one of these four continental ancestry groups were taken forward (N = 62,484). Principal component and K-means clustering analyses were used to identify and characterize population structure within each ancestry group. Of the approximately 78,000 individuals in the UK Biobank that are of "non-white British" ancestry, 50,685, 6653, 2782, and 2364 individuals were associated to the European, African, South Asian, and East Asian continental ancestry groups, respectively. Each continental ancestry group exhibits prominent population structure that is consistent with self-reported country of birth data and geography. CONCLUSIONS: Methods outlined here provide an avenue to leverage UK Biobank's deeply phenotyped data allowing researchers to maximize its potential in the study of health and disease in individuals of non-white British ancestry.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , /genética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , /genética
12.
BMC Med Genomics ; 15(1): 9, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a complex polygenic trait whose common genetic underpinnings are relatively ill-defined due in part to challenges in measuring pain as a phenotype. Pain sensitivity can be quantified, but this is difficult to perform at the scale required for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Existing GWAS of pain have identified surprisingly few loci involved in nociceptor function which contrasts strongly with rare monogenic pain states. This suggests a lack of resolution with current techniques. We propose an adaptive methodology within a recall-by-genotype (RbG) framework using detailed phenotyping to screen minor alleles in a candidate 'nociceptor' gene in an attempt to estimate their genetic contribution to pain. METHODS/DESIGN: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children will be recalled on the basis of genotype at five common non-synonomous SNPs in the 'nociceptor' gene transient receptor potential ankylin 1 (TRPA1). Those homozygous for the common alleles at each of the five SNPs will represent a control group. Individuals homozygous for the minor alleles will then be recruited in a series of three sequential test groups. The outcome of a pre-planned early assessment (interim) of the current test group will determine whether to continue recruitment or switch to the next test group. Pain sensitivity will be assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) before and after topical application of 10% cinnamaldehyde (a TRPA1 agonist). DISCUSSION: The design of this adaptive RbG study offers efficiency in the assessment of associations between genetic variation at TRPA1 and detailed pain phenotypes. The possibility to change the test group in response to preliminary data increases the likelihood to observe smaller effect sizes relative to a conventional multi-armed design, as well as reducing futile testing of participants where an effect is unlikely to be observed. This specific adaptive RbG design aims to uncover the influence of common TRPA1 variants on pain sensation but can be applied to any hypothesis-led genotype study where costly and time intensive investigation is required and / or where there is large uncertainty around the expected effect size. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN16294731. Retrospectively registered 25th November 2021.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor/genética , Fenótipo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética
14.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 34, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622014

RESUMO

The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a prospective population-based cohort study which recruited pregnant women in 1990-1992 and has followed these women, their partners (Generation 0; G0) and offspring (Generation 1; G1) ever since. The study reacted rapidly to the COVID-19 pandemic, deploying online questionnaires in March and May 2020. Home-based antibody tests and a further questionnaire were sent to 5220 participants during a two-week period of October 2020. 4.2% (n=201) of participants reported a positive antibody test (3.2% G0s [n=81]; 5.6% G1s [n=120]). 43 reported an invalid test, 7 did not complete and 3 did not report their result. Participants uploaded a photo of their test to enable validation: all positive tests, those where the participant could not interpret the result and a 5% random sample were manually checked against photos. We report 92% agreement (kappa=0.853). Positive tests were compared to additional COVID-19 status information: 58 (1.2%) participants reported a previous positive test, 73 (1.5%) reported that COVID-19 was suspected by a doctor, but not tested and 980 (20.4%) believed they had COVID-19 due to their own suspicions.  Of those reporting a positive result on our antibody test, 55 reported that they did not think they had had COVID-19. Results from antibody testing and questionnaire data will be complemented by health record linkage and results of other biological testing- uniting Pillar testing data with home testing and self-report. Data have been released as an update to the original datasets released in July 2020. It comprises: 1) a standard dataset containing all participant responses to all three questionnaires with key sociodemographic factors and 2) as individual participant-specific release files enabling bespoke research across all areas supported by the study. This data note describes the antibody testing, associated questionnaire and the data obtained from it.

15.
Diabetes ; 70(12): 2932-2946, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610981

RESUMO

Humans spend the greater part of the day in a postprandial state. However, the genetic basis of postprandial blood measures is relatively uncharted territory. We examined the genetics of variation in concentrations of postprandial metabolites (t = 150 min) in response to a liquid mixed meal through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (n = 5,705). The metabolite response GWAS identified an association between glucose change and rs10830963:G in the melatonin receptor 1B (ß [SE] -0.23 [0.03], P = 2.15 × 10-19). In addition, the ANKRD55 locus led by rs458741:C showed strong associations with extremely large VLDL (XXLVLDL) particle response (XXLVLDL total cholesterol: ß [SE] 0.17 [0.03], P = 5.76 × 10-10; XXLVLDL cholesterol ester: ß [SE] 0.17 [0.03], P = 9.74 × 10-10), which also revealed strong associations with body composition and diabetes in the UK Biobank (P < 5 × 10-8). Furthermore, the associations between XXLVLDL response and insulinogenic index, HOMA-ß, Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, and HbA1c in the NEO study implied the role of chylomicron synthesis in diabetes (with false discovery rate-corrected q <0.05). To conclude, genetic studies of metabolomics change after a liquid meal illuminate novel pathways for glucose and lipid metabolism. Further studies are warranted to corroborate biological pathways of the ANKRD55 locus underlying diabetes.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Refeições/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Período Pós-Prandial/genética , Soluções
16.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1614-1621, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698778

RESUMO

Importance: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies use genetic variation associated with modifiable exposures to assess their possible causal relationship with outcomes and aim to reduce potential bias from confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To develop the STROBE-MR Statement as a stand-alone extension to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guideline for the reporting of MR studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: The development of the STROBE-MR Statement followed the Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research (EQUATOR) framework guidance and used the STROBE Statement as a starting point to draft a checklist tailored to MR studies. The project was initiated in 2018 by reviewing the literature on the reporting of instrumental variable and MR studies. A group of 17 experts, including MR methodologists, MR study design users, developers of previous reporting guidelines, and journal editors, participated in a workshop in May 2019 to define the scope of the Statement and draft the checklist. The draft checklist was published as a preprint in July 2019 and discussed on the preprint platform, in social media, and at the 4th Mendelian Randomization Conference. The checklist was then revised based on comments, further refined through 2020, and finalized in July 2021. Findings: The STROBE-MR checklist is organized into 6 sections (Title and Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Other Information) and includes 20 main items and 30 subitems. It covers both 1-sample and 2-sample MR studies that assess 1 or multiple exposures and outcomes, and addresses MR studies that follow a genome-wide association study and are reported in the same article. The checklist asks authors to justify why MR is a helpful method to address the study question and state prespecified causal hypotheses. The measurement, quality, and selection of genetic variants must be described and attempts to assess validity of MR-specific assumptions should be well reported. An item on data sharing includes reporting when the data and statistical code required to replicate the analyses can be accessed. Conclusions and Relevance: STROBE-MR provides guidelines for reporting MR studies. Improved reporting of these studies could facilitate their evaluation by editors, peer reviewers, researchers, clinicians, and other readers, and enhance the interpretation of their results.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Epidemiologia , Guias como Assunto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Viés , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Projetos Piloto , Mídias Sociais
17.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003751, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of gaining body muscle for cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility, and how these compare with the potential harms of gaining body fat, are unknown. We compared associations of early life changes in body lean mass and handgrip strength versus body fat mass with atherogenic traits measured in young adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were from 3,227 offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (39% male; recruited in 1991-1992). Limb lean and total fat mass indices (kg/m2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans performed at age 10, 13, 18, and 25 y (across clinics occurring from 2001-2003 to 2015-2017). Handgrip strength was measured at 12 and 25 y, expressed as maximum grip (kg or lb/in2) and relative grip (maximum grip/weight in kilograms). Linear regression models were used to examine associations of change in standardised measures of these exposures across different stages of body development with 228 cardiometabolic traits measured at age 25 y including blood pressure, fasting insulin, and metabolomics-derived apolipoprotein B lipids. SD-unit gain in limb lean mass index from 10 to 25 y was positively associated with atherogenic traits including very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. This pattern was limited to lean gain in legs, whereas lean gain in arms was inversely associated with traits including VLDL triglycerides, insulin, and glycoprotein acetyls, and was also positively associated with creatinine (a muscle product and positive control). Furthermore, this pattern for arm lean mass index was specific to SD-unit gains occurring between 13 and 18 y, e.g., -0.13 SD (95% CI -0.22, -0.04) for VLDL triglycerides. Changes in maximum and relative grip from 12 to 25 y were both positively associated with creatinine, but only change in relative grip was also inversely associated with atherogenic traits, e.g., -0.12 SD (95% CI -0.18, -0.06) for VLDL triglycerides per SD-unit gain. Change in fat mass index from 10 to 25 y was more strongly associated with atherogenic traits including VLDL triglycerides, at 0.45 SD (95% CI 0.39, 0.52); these estimates were directionally consistent across sub-periods, with larger effect sizes with more recent gains. Associations of lean, grip, and fat measures with traits were more pronounced among males. Study limitations include potential residual confounding of observational estimates, including by ectopic fat within muscle, and the absence of grip measures in adolescence for estimates of grip change over sub-periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that muscle strengthening, as indicated by grip strength gain, was weakly associated with lower atherogenic trait levels in young adulthood, at a smaller magnitude than unfavourable associations of fat mass gain. Associations of muscle mass gain with such traits appear to be smaller and limited to gains occurring in adolescence. These results suggest that body muscle is less robustly associated with markers of CVD susceptibility than body fat and may therefore be a lower-priority intervention target.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adiposidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Força da Mão , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2207-2216, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating lipids and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) have been reliably associated with breast cancer. Observational studies suggest an interplay between lipids and IGF-I, however, whether these relationships are causal and if pathways from these phenotypes to breast cancer overlap is unclear. METHODS: Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted to estimate the relationship between lipids or IGF-I and breast cancer risk using genetic summary statistics for lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides, TGs), IGF-I and breast cancer from GLGC/UKBB (N = 239,119), CHARGE/UKBB (N = 252,547), and Breast Cancer Association Consortium (N = 247,173), respectively. Cross-sectional observational and MR analyses were conducted to assess the bi-directional relationship between lipids and IGF-I in SHIP (N = 3,812) and UKBB (N = 422,389), and using genetic summary statistics from GLGC (N = 188,577) and CHARGE/UKBB (N = 469,872). RESULTS: In multivariable MR (MVMR) analyses, the OR for breast cancer per 1-SD increase in HDL-C and TG was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.13] and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98), respectively. The OR for breast cancer per 1-SD increase in IGF-I was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.15). MR analyses suggested a bi-directional TG-IGF-I relationship (TG-IGF-I ß per 1-SD: -0.13; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.04; and IGF-I-TG ß per 1-SD: -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). There was little evidence for a causal relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C with IGF-I. In MVMR analyses, associations of TG or IGF-I with breast cancer were robust to adjustment for IGF-I or TG, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal role of HDL-C, TG, and IGF-I in breast cancer. Observational and MR analyses support an interplay between IGF-I and TG; however, MVMR estimates suggest that TG and IGF-I may act independently to influence breast cancer. IMPACT: Our findings should be considered in the development of prevention strategies for breast cancer, where interventions are known to modify circulating lipids and IGF-I.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Causalidade , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
20.
Cancer Discov ; 11(12): 3106-3125, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244212

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses based on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that ccRCC cells are auxotrophic for exogenous cholesterol to maintain PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and ROS homeostasis. Blocking cholesterol import through the HDL transporter SCARB1 compromises ccRCC cell survival and tumor growth, suggesting a novel pharmacologic target for this disease. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2945.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
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