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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GSTM1 encodes glutathione S-transferase µ-1 (GSTM1), which belongs to a superfamily of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. The highly prevalent GSTM1 deletion variant is associated with kidney disease progression in human cohorts: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: We generated a Gstm1 knockout mouse line to study its role in a CKD model (involving subtotal nephrectomy) and a hypertension model (induced by angiotensin II). We examined the effect of intake of cruciferous vegetables and GSTM1 genotypes on kidney disease in mice as well as in human ARIC study participants. We also examined the importance of superoxide in the mediating pathways and of hematopoietic GSTM1 on renal inflammation. RESULTS: Gstm1 knockout mice displayed increased oxidative stress, kidney injury, and inflammation in both models. The central mechanism for kidney injury is likely mediated by oxidative stress, because treatment with Tempol, an superoxide dismutase mimetic, rescued kidney injury in knockout mice without lowering BP. Bone marrow crosstransplantation revealed that Gstm1 deletion in the parenchyma, and not in bone marrow-derived cells, drives renal inflammation. Furthermore, supplementation with cruciferous broccoli powder rich in the precursor to antioxidant-activating sulforaphane significantly ameliorated kidney injury in Gstm1 knockout, but not wild-type mice. Similarly, among humans (ARIC study participants), high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with fewer kidney failure events compared with low consumption, but this association was observed primarily in participants homozygous for the GSTM1 deletion variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a role for the GSTM1 enzyme in the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and protective metabolites in CKD.

2.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(1): 30-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of multiplexed aptamer-based assays for large-scale proteomic studies. However, the analytic, short- and long-term variation of the measured proteins is largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We quantified 4001 plasma protein analytes from 42 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in split samples and at multiple visits using a multiplexed modified aptamer assay. We calculated the CV, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) between split samples and evaluated the short-term (4-9 weeks) and long-term (approximately 20 years) variability using paired t-tests with log-transformed protein concentrations and Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. We performed principal component (PC) analysis of protein analyte concentrations and evaluated their associations with age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The mean baseline age was 57 years at the first visit, 43% of participants were male and 57% were white. Among 3693 protein analytes that passed quality control, half (n = 1846) had CVs < 5.0%, Spearman correlations > 0.89, and ICCs > 0.96 among the split samples. Over the short term, only 1 analyte had a statistically significant difference between the 2 time points, whereas, over approximately 20 years, 866 analytes (23.4%) had statistically significant differences (P < 1.4 × 10-5, 681 increased, 185 decreased). PC1 had high correlations with age (-0.73) and eGFR (0.60). PC2 had moderate correlation with male sex (0.18) and white race (0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed modified aptamer technology can assay thousands of proteins with excellent precision. Our results support the potential for large-scale studies of the plasma proteome over the lifespan.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1459-1474, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1259-1261, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting that intraprostatic inflammation influences prostate cancer development. Uric acid crystals depositing in the prostate could result in injury and inflammation, increasing prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Included were 6,574 men ages 45-64 years who enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study in 1987 to 1989. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association of serum urate concentration alone and to improve accuracy, jointly with a genetic risk score (GRS, N = 4,983) derived from variants predictive of urate concentration, with prostate cancer (N = 813) risk. RESULTS: Serum urate concentration or joint categories of urate concentration and GRS were not associated with prostate cancer risk (P trend for quartiles = 0.3). Results were generally similar by race and after excluding users of medications that influence uric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Serum urate alone and with a urate-associated GRS were not associated with prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: It is unlikely that circulating urate concentration influences prostate cancer development.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 776-785, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218750

RESUMO

Nontraditional glycemic biomarkers, including fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are potential alternatives or complement to traditional measures of hyperglycemia. Genetic variants are associated with these biomarkers, but the heritability, or extent to which genetics control their variation, is not known. We estimated pedigree-based, SNP-based, and bivariate heritabilities for traditional glycemic biomarkers (fasting glucose, HbA1c), and nontraditional biomarkers (fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-AG) among white participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N = 400 first-degree relatives from sibships, N = 5,575 unrelated individuals). Pedigree-based heritabilities (representing heritability from the entire genome) for nontraditional biomarkers were substantial (0.44-0.55) and comparable to HbA1c (0.34); the fasting glucose estimate was nonsignificant. SNP-based heritabilities (representing heritability from common variants) were lower than pedigree-based heritabilities for all biomarkers. Bivariate heritabilities showed shared genetics between fructosamine and glycated albumin (0.46 pedigree-based, 1.00 SNP-based) and glycated albumin and 1,5-AG (0.50 pedigree-based, 0.47 SNP-based). Genetic factors contribute to a considerable proportion of the variance of fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-AG and a portion of this heritability likely comes from common variants.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Frutosamina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
9.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5941, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976018

RESUMO

Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is an emerging biomarker used to monitor glycemic control in persons with diabetes. We performed whole-exome sequencing, examining the association between rare, coding genetic variants and 1,5-AG among European ancestry (N = 6,589) and African ancestry (N = 2,309) participants without diagnosed diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Five variants representing 3 independent signals on chromosome 17 in SLC5A10, a glucose transporter not previously known to transport 1,5-AG, were associated with 1,5-AG levels up to 10.38 µg/mL lower per allele (1,5-AG range 3.4-32.8 µg/mL) in the European ancestry sample and validated in the African ancestry sample. Together these variants explained 6% of the variance in 1,5-AG. Two of these variants (rs61741107, p = 8.85E-56; rs148178887, p = 1.13E-36) were rare, nonsynonymous, and predicted to be damaging or deleterious by multiple algorithms. Gene-based SKAT-O analysis supported these results (SLC5A10 p = 5.13E-64 in European ancestry, validated in African ancestry, p = 0.006). Interestingly, these novel variants are not associated with other biomarkers of hyperglycemia or diabetes (p > 0.2). The large effect sizes and protein-altering, multiple independent signals suggest SLC5A10 may code for an important transporter of 1,5-AG in the kidney, with a potential nonglucose-related effect on 1,5-AG, impacting its clinical utility as a diabetes biomarker in this subpopulation.

11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(3): 342-353, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data are scarce on blood metabolite associations with proteinuria, a strong risk factor for adverse kidney outcomes. We sought to investigate associations of proteinuria with serum metabolites identified using untargeted profiling in populations with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using stored serum samples from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK; n=962) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study (n=620), two rigorously conducted clinical trials with per-protocol measures of 24-hour proteinuria and GFR, we evaluated cross-sectional associations between urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and 637 known, nondrug metabolites, adjusting for key clinical covariables. Metabolites significantly associated with proteinuria were tested for associations with CKD progression. RESULTS: In the AASK and the MDRD study, respectively, the median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was 80 (interquartile range [IQR], 28-359) and 188 (IQR, 54-894) mg/g, mean age was 56 and 52 years, 39% and 38% were women, 100% and 7% were black, and median measured GFR was 48 (IQR, 35-57) and 28 (IQR, 18-39) ml/min per 1.73 m2. Linear regression identified 66 serum metabolites associated with proteinuria in one or both studies after Bonferroni correction (P<7.8×10-5), 58 of which were statistically significant in a meta-analysis (P<7.8×10-4). The metabolites with the lowest P values (P<10-27) were 4-hydroxychlorthalonil and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; all six quantified metabolites in the phosphatidylethanolamine pathway were also significant. Of the 58 metabolites associated with proteinuria, four were associated with ESKD in both the AASK and the MDRD study. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 58 serum metabolites with cross-sectional associations with proteinuria, some of which were also associated with CKD progression. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2019_02_07_CJASNPodcast_19_03_.mp3.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4228, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315176

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels can cause gout, an excruciating disease with suboptimal treatment. Previous GWAS identified common variants with modest effects on serum urate. Here we report large-scale whole-exome sequencing association studies of serum urate and kidney function among ≤19,517 European ancestry and African-American individuals. We identify aggregate associations of low-frequency damaging variants in the urate transporters SLC22A12 (URAT1; p = 1.3 × 10-56) and SLC2A9 (p = 4.5 × 10-7). Gout risk in rare SLC22A12 variant carriers is halved (OR = 0.5, p = 4.9 × 10-3). Selected rare variants in SLC22A12 are validated in transport studies, confirming three as loss-of-function (R325W, R405C, and T467M) and illustrating the therapeutic potential of the new URAT1-blocker lesinurad. In SLC2A9, mapping of rare variants of large effects onto the predicted protein structure reveals new residues that may affect urate binding. These findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of serum urate, and highlight molecular targets in SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 for lowering serum urate and preventing gout.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 8(4)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297602

RESUMO

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by complex metabolic abnormalities, yet the clinical relevance of specific biomarkers remains unclear. The development of multiplex diagnostic platforms is creating opportunities to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. SOMAscan is an innovative multiplex proteomic platform which can measure >1300 proteins. In the present study, we performed SOMAscan analysis of plasma samples and validated the measurements by comparison with selected biomarkers. We compared concentrations of SOMAscan-measured prostate specific antigen (PSA) between males and females, and validated SOMAscan concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), and FGFR4 using Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median (25th and 75th percentile) SOMAscan PSA level in males and females was 4304.7 (1815.4 to 7259.5) and 547.8 (521.8 to 993.4) relative fluorescence units (p = 0.002), respectively, suggesting biological plausibility. Pearson correlation between SOMAscan and ELISA was high for FGF23 (R = 0.95, p < 0.001) and FGFR4 (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), indicating significant positive correlation, while a weak correlation was found for FGFR1 (R = 0.13, p = 0.16). In conclusion, there is a good to near-perfect correlation between SOMAscan and standard immunoassays for FGF23 and FGFR4, but not for FGFR1. This technology may be useful to simultaneously measure a large number of plasma proteins in ESRD, and identify clinically important prognostic markers to predict outcomes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251872

RESUMO

The inflammatory context of HIV infection has been posited to contribute to the higher comorbidity risk noted in HIV-infected populations. One possible pathway may involve 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which plays a wide biologic role in many tissues. We sought to investigate whether inflammation was associated with vitamin D metabolites in a cohort of HIV-infected (HIV+) men receiving treatment and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men. Vitamin D metabolites, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2D, were measured along with 24 inflammatory markers among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants. Exploratory factor analysis reduced inflammatory marker data to a smaller set of inflammatory processes (IPs). Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate associations between vitamin D metabolites and IPs. There were 466 HIV+ and 100 HIV- men, who contributed 658 stored samples from 1998 to 2008. We found three IPs with IP 1 characterized by sTNF-R2, sIL-2Rα, sCD27, BAFF, sgp130, sCD14, CXCL10 (IP-10), and sIL-6R. While none of the three IPs was associated with 25(OH)D levels in either HIV+ or HIV-, higher levels of IP 1 were significantly associated with the reduced levels of 1,25(OH)2D in HIV+, and a similar although nonsignificant trend was seen in HIV-. The association between 1,25(OH)2D and inflammation found among HIV-infected men suggests a possible mechanism whereby inflammation leads to the increased comorbidity risk noted among HIV-infected individuals.

15.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(7): 1013-1021, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Black Americans with and without APOL1 kidney disease risk variants face high risk of ESKD. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a circulating signaling protein and marker of immune activation, constitutes a promising biomarker of CKD-associated risks. We aimed to quantify the associations between serum suPAR concentration and adverse outcomes in Black Americans with and without APOL1 kidney disease risk variants, over and above iodine-125 iothalamate measured GFR and proteinuria. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using data from the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, a multicenter clinical trial followed by a cohort phase with a median total follow-up of 9.7 years (interquartile range, 6.5-10.9 years), we examined the associations of suPAR with CKD progression (defined as doubling of serum creatinine or ESKD), ESKD, worsening proteinuria (defined as pre-ESKD doubling of 24-hour urine protein-to-creatinine ratio to ≥220 mg/g), and all-cause death. RESULTS: At baseline, the median suPAR was 4462 pg/ml, mean measured GFR was 46 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median 24-hour urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was 80 mg/g. After controlling for baseline demographics, randomization arm, GFR, proteinuria, APOL1 risk status, and clinical risk factors, there was a 1.26-times higher risk for CKD progression per SD higher baseline log-transformed suPAR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.43; P<0.001). Higher suPAR was also independently associated with risk of ESKD (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.58; P<0.001) and death (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.45; P=0.003). suPAR was only associated with worsening proteinuria in patients with two APOLI risk alleles (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.99; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Higher suPAR was associated with various adverse outcomes in Black Americans with CKD, with and without APOL1 kidney disease risk variants, independently of proteinuria and GFR.

16.
Kidney Int ; 94(2): 381-389, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871777

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves significant metabolic abnormalities and has a high mortality rate. Because the levels of serum metabolites in patients with CKD might provide insight into subclinical disease states and risk for future mortality, we determined which serum metabolites reproducibly associate with mortality in CKD using a discovery and replication design. Metabolite levels were quantified via untargeted liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy from serum samples of 299 patients with CKD in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study as a discovery cohort. Six among 622 metabolites were significantly associated with mortality over a median follow-up of 17 years after adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, including urine protein and measured glomerular filtration rate. We then replicated associations with mortality in 963 patients with CKD from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) cohort over a median follow-up of ten years. Three of the six metabolites identified in the MDRD cohort replicated in the AASK cohort: fumarate, allantoin, and ribonate, belonging to energy, nucleotide, and carbohydrate pathways, respectively. Point estimates were similar in both studies and in meta-analysis (adjusted hazard ratios 1.63, 1.59, and 1.61, respectively, per doubling of the metabolite). Thus, selected serum metabolites were reproducibly associated with long-term mortality in CKD beyond markers of kidney function in two well characterized cohorts, providing targets for investigation.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(7): 1939-1947, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777021

RESUMO

Background Metabolite levels reflect physiologic homeostasis and may serve as biomarkers of disease progression. Identifying metabolites associated with APOL1 risk alleles-genetic variants associated with CKD risk commonly present in persons of African descent-may reveal novel markers of CKD progression relevant to other populations.Methods We evaluated associations between the number of APOL1 risk alleles and 760 serum metabolites identified via untargeted profiling in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) (n=588; Bonferroni significance threshold P<6.5×10-5) and replicated findings in 678 black participants with CKD in BioMe, an electronic medical record-linked biobank. We tested the metabolite association with CKD progression in AASK, BioMe, and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study.Results One metabolite, 6-bromotryptophan, was significant in AASK (P=4.7×10-5) and replicated in BioMe (P=5.7×10-3) participants, with lower levels associated with more APOL1 risk alleles. Lower levels of 6-bromotryptophan were associated with CKD progression in AASK and BioMe participants and in white participants in the MDRD Study, independent of demographics and clinical characteristics, including baseline GFR (adjusted hazard ratio per two-fold higher 6-bromotryptophan level, AASK, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.64 to 0.91; BioMe, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85; MDRD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.79). The interaction between the APOL1 risk alleles and 6-bromotryptophan was not significant. The identity of 6-bromotryptophan was confirmed in experiments comparing its molecular signature with that of authentic standards of other bromotryptophan isomers.Conclusions Serum 6-bromotryptophan is a consistent and novel risk factor for CKD progression.

18.
AIDS ; 32(8): 1069-1076, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and durable viral suppression, many HIV-infected individuals still do not achieve CD4 cell count (CD4) normalization. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory functions, including inducing the development of T cells and higher levels may improve CD4 rebound. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who virally suppressed following HAART initiation and had pre-HAART and post-HAART 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D measurements and repeated measures of CD4. METHODS: CD4 rebound was modeled using a nonlinear mixed effects model. We estimated the adjusted effect (adjusted for pre-HAART antiretroviral exposure, black race, age and CD4 at HAART initiation) of pre-HAART and post-HAART vitamin D metabolite levels on the rate of CD4 increase and final CD4 plateau. RESULTS: Among the 263 HIV-infected HAART initiators with pre-HAART vitamin D measurements, a 1-SD higher pre-HAART 25(OH)2D level was associated with a 9% faster rate of rise (P = 0.02) but no gain in final CD4 plateau. In contrast, a 1-SD higher 1,25(OH)2D level was associated with a 43-cell lower final CD4 (P = 0.04). Among 560 men with post-HAART measurements, findings were similar to those for pre-HAART 25(OH)2D with 1-SD higher level associated with faster rate of rise but no improvement in final CD4. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that higher vitamin D metabolite levels pre-HAART or post-HAART are associated with better CD4 outcomes among HIV-infected HAART initiators. However, the value of pre-HAART 1,25(OH)2D levels as an indicator of immune response dysregulation could be further explored.

19.
Diabetologia ; 61(5): 1046-1054, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556673

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolomic profiling offers the potential to reveal metabolic pathways relevant to the pathophysiology of diabetes and improve diabetes risk prediction. METHODS: We prospectively analysed known metabolites using an untargeted approach in serum specimens from baseline (1987-1989) and incident diabetes through to 31 December 2015 in a subset of 2939 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants with metabolomics data and without prevalent diabetes. RESULTS: Among the 245 named compounds identified, seven metabolites were significantly associated with incident diabetes after Bonferroni correction and covariate adjustment; these included a food additive (erythritol) and compounds involved in amino acid metabolism [isoleucine, leucine, valine, asparagine, 3-(4-hydoxyphenyl)lactate] and glucose metabolism (trehalose). Higher levels of metabolites were associated with increased risk of incident diabetes (HR per 1 SD increase in isoleucine 2.96, 95% CI 2.02, 4.35, p = 3.18 × 10-8; HR per 1 SD increase in trehalose 1.16, 95% CI 1.09, 1.25, p = 1.87 × 10-5), with the exception of asparagine, which was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (HR per 1 SD increase in asparagine 0.78, 95% CI 0.71, 0.85, p = 4.19 × 10-8). The seven metabolites modestly improved prediction of incident diabetes beyond fasting glucose and established risk factors (C statistics 0.744 vs 0.735, p = 0.001 for the difference in C statistics). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Branched chain amino acids may play a role in diabetes development. Our study is the first to report asparagine as a protective biomarker of diabetes risk. The serum metabolome reflects known and novel metabolic disturbances that improve prediction of diabetes.

20.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1286, 2017 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097680

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous genetic studies have implicated regulatory mechanisms contributing to CKD. Here we present epigenome-wide association studies of eGFR and CKD using whole-blood DNA methylation of 2264 ARIC Study and 2595 Framingham Heart Study participants to identify epigenetic signatures of kidney function. Of 19 CpG sites significantly associated (P < 1e-07) with eGFR/CKD and replicated, five also associate with renal fibrosis in biopsies from CKD patients and show concordant DNA methylation changes in kidney cortex. Lead CpGs at PTPN6/PHB2, ANKRD11, and TNRC18 map to active enhancers in kidney cortex. At PTPN6/PHB2 cg19942083, methylation in kidney cortex associates with lower renal PTPN6 expression, higher eGFR, and less renal fibrosis. The regions containing the 243 eGFR-associated (P < 1e-05) CpGs are significantly enriched for transcription factor binding sites of EBF1, EP300, and CEBPB (P < 5e-6). Our findings highlight kidney function associated epigenetic variation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Progressão da Doença , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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