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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 14, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed dyslipidemia [elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs), and decreased HDL-C] is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are the preferred therapeutic targets for mixed dyslipidemia. Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) that effectively reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, ApoB, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and is well-tolerated in individuals with T2DM. METHODS: The previously reported open-label ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA trial data demonstrated the effects of alirocumab on individuals with non-HDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL and TGs ≥ 150 and < 500 mg/dL receiving stable maximally tolerated statin (n = 413). This post hoc subgroup analysis of the primary trial investigated the effects of alirocumab [75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) with possible increase to 150 mg Q2W at Week 12] versus usual care [ezetimibe, fenofibrate, or no additional lipid-lowering therapy (LLT)] on non-HDL-C and other lipids in individuals with T2DM and baseline TGs ≥ 200 mg/dL and HDL-C < 40 mg/dL (men) or < 50 mg/dL (women). RESULTS: Alirocumab significantly reduced non-HDL-C [LS mean difference (standard error (SE)), - 35.0% (3.9)], ApoB [LS mean difference (SE), - 34.7% (3.6)], LDL-C [LS mean difference (SE), - 47.3% (5.2)], LDL particle number [LS mean difference (SE), - 40.8% (4.1)], and Lp(a) [LS mean difference (SE), - 29.9% (5.4)] versus usual care from baseline to Week 24 (all P < 0.0001). Results were similar for alirocumab versus usual care. TG reductions were similar between alirocumab and usual care (no significant difference), but greater with fenofibrate versus alirocumab (P = 0.3371). Overall, alirocumab significantly increased HDL-C versus usual care [LS mean difference (SE), 7.9% (3.6); P < 0.05], although differences with alirocumab versus ezetimibe or fenofibrate were non-significant. Most individuals receiving alirocumab achieved ApoB < 80 mg/dL (67.9%) and non-HDL-C < 100 mg/dL (60.9%). Adverse event frequency was similar between alirocumab (67.2%) and usual care (70.7%). Additionally, no clinically relevant effect of alirocumab on change in glycemic parameters or use of antihyperglycemic agents was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab is an effective therapeutic option for individuals with T2DM, TGs ≥ 200 mg/dL, and HDL-C < 40 mg/dL (men) or < 50 mg/dL (women). Atherogenic lipid (ApoB and non-HDL) reductions were greater with alirocumab than ezetimibe, fenofibrate, or no LLT. Consistent with previous studies, alirocumab was generally well tolerated. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02642159. Registered December 24, 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02642159.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(1): e1040, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity has been traditionally implicated in blood pressure through its effects on biogenic amine levels such as catecholamines, serotonin, and dopamine. Nowadays, this role is considered relegated to side-effects such as orthostatic hypotension and/or hypertensive crisis derived from MAO-inhibitory treatments in patients with psychiatric disease. METHODS: In the present work we have found an association between a polymorphic variant of MAOB gene and arterial hypertension in obese hypogonadic patients. The study cases comprised a series of 219 nondiabetic males with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and aged <45 years. Hypogonadism was defined as subnormal testosterone concentrations, when free testosterone values ranged <65 pg/ml. RESULTS: MAOB rs3027452-A allele carriers were significantly over-represented among hypertensive (HT) patients (25.49%) in comparison to either the non-HT patients (10%, OR = 3.079 CI95 [1.364-6.952], p = .005, Chi-square test) and the control population series of nonobese nor hypogonadic males (also 10%, p = .003 Chi-square test). Upon adjusted, an independent association was shown with the hypogonadic group with hypertension when compared with nonhypertensive hypogonadics (Beta = 3.653, p = .005). When quantitative analysis was performed, hypertensive patients harboring rs3027452-A allele showed higher systolic blood pressure values (p = .038, Mann-Whitney U-test) as well as an increased Systolic-Diastolic range despite following HT treatment (∆mmHg 54 vs. 48 for rs3027452-A and rs3027452-G respectively, p-value .019, Mann-Whitney U-test). Previous studies on MAOB revealed that rs3027452-A allele has been correlated to a lower activity of the enzyme, what gives a functional evidence over our observation. CONCLUSION: If this result could be extrapolated to other hypertensive patient groups, it would implicate a review of the markers and therapeutic targets on human hypertension.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 39(1): 215-224, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The benefits of weight loss in subjects with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are still a matter of controversy. We aimed to identify metabolic fingerprints and their associated pathways that discriminate women with MHO with high or low weight loss response after a lifestyle intervention, based on a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity. METHODS: A UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS metabolomics workflow was applied to plasma samples from 27 women with MHO before and after 12 months of a hypocaloric weight loss intervention with a MedDiet and increased physical activity. The subjects were stratified into two age-matched groups according to weight loss: <10% (low weight loss group, LWL) and >10% (high weight loss group, HWL). Random forest analysis was performed to identify metabolites discriminating between the LWL and the HWL as well as within-status effects. Modulated pathways and associations between metabolites and anthropometric and biochemical variables were also investigated. RESULTS: Thirteen metabolites discriminated between the LWL and the HWL, including 1,5-anhydroglucitol, carotenediol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid, N-acetylaspartate and several lipid species (steroids, a plasmalogen, sphingomyelins, a bile acid and long-chain acylcarnitines). 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid and sphingomyelins were positively associated with weight variables whereas N-acetylaspartate and the plasmalogen correlated negatively with them. Changes in very long-chain acylcarnitines and hydroxyphenyllactic levels were observed in the HWL and positively correlated with fasting glucose, and changes in levels of the plasmalogen negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Additionally, the cholesterol profile was positively associated with changes in acid hydroxyphenyllactic, sphingolipids and 1,5-AG. CONCLUSIONS: Higher weight loss after a hypocaloric MedDiet and increased physical activity for 12 months is associated with changes in the plasma metabolome in women with MHO. These findings are associated with changes in biochemical variables and may suggest an improvement of the cardiometabolic risk profile in those patients that lose greater weight. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the response of those subjects with MHO to this intervention differs from those with unhealthy obesity.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. RESULTS: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.

5.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent works have reported that bariatric surgery has remarkable effects on the metabolome, which might be potentially associated to the metabolic improvement of this procedure in patients with obesity. Serum polyamines, metabolites derived from amino acid metabolism, have been recently related to the metabolic status in obese individuals. However, the impact of bariatric surgery on the circulating levels of polyamines remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on serum polyamine levels and to evaluate the association of changes in these molecules with metabolic improvement in patients with morbid obesity. SETTING: Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Malaga, Spain. METHODS: This study included 32 morbidly obese patients (weight index ≥40 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome, who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Serum levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), acetylpolyamines, and polyamine-related amino acids (arginine and ornithine) were assessed at baseline and 6 months after bariatric surgery, and were analyzed in an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. RESULTS: Our metabolomic analysis revealed a significant rise in several metabolites related to the polyamine metabolism, such as putrescine and acetyl derivatives of spermidine and spermine in serum samples from morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery. Changes in serum levels of both putrescine and acetylputrescine were associated to the resolution of metabolic syndrome after surgery. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that bariatric surgery affects the serum polyamine pattern and the resolution of metabolic syndrome after bariatric surgery is associated to specific changes in the serum polyamine metabolome.

6.
Diabetes Ther ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848983

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Basal-bolus (BB) regimens are generally used to intensify basal insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) not meeting glycemic targets. However, drawbacks include multiple injection burden and risk of weight gain and hypoglycemia. A once-daily titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL and lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) may provide a simple, well-tolerated, and efficacious alternative. We compared these treatments in a post hoc propensity score matched analysis using randomized trial data. METHODS: From the LixiLan-L study, 195 patients who had been randomized to iGlarLixi were matched for age, sex, race, T2D duration, baseline body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, insulin dose, and metformin use to 195 patients who had been randomized to a BB regimen in the GetGoal Duo-2 trial. RESULTS: At study end, estimated treatment differences for reduction in HbA1c and weight change, and ratio of hypoglycemia events per patient-year (BB vs iGlarLixi) were - 0.28% (standard error 0.08, P = 0.0002), - 1.32 kg (standard error 0.30, P < 0.0001), and 2.85 (P < 0.0001), respectively, all favoring iGlarLixi over BB. Also, proportions of patients reaching individual and composite goals (HbA1c < 7% [< 53 mmol/mol], no weight gain, and no hypoglycemia) were higher in the iGlarLixi compared with the BB treatment group. Gastrointestinal side effects were more common with iGlarLixi. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D inadequately controlled on basal insulin, iGlarLixi offers an effective alternative to BB regimen for reducing HbA1c, without increased risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02058160 (LixiLan-L trial); NCT01768559 (GetGoal Duo-2 trial). Plain language summary available for this article.

7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 137, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the association between inactive time and measures of adiposity, clinical parameters, obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome components. It further examined the impact of reallocating inactive time to time in bed, light physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2189 Caucasian men and women (age 55-75 years, BMI 27-40 Kg/m2) from the PREDIMED-Plus study (http://www.predimedplus.com/). All participants had ≥3 components of the metabolic syndrome. Inactive time, physical activity and time in bed were objectively determined using triaxial accelerometers GENEActiv during 7 days (ActivInsights Ltd., Kimbolton, United Kingdom). Multiple adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used. Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was performed to assess the relationship of replacing the amount of time spent in one activity for another, on each outcome, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. RESULTS: Inactive time was associated with indicators of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time to 30 min per day of time in bed was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (all p-values < 0.05). Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time with 30 min per day of LPA or MVPA was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, total fat, visceral adipose tissue, HbA1c, glucose, triglycerides, and higher body muscle mass and HDL cholesterol (all p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inactive time was associated with a poor cardio-metabolic profile. Isotemporal substitution of inactive time with MVPA and LPA or time in bed could have beneficial impact on cardio-metabolic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.

8.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779105

RESUMO

Polyamines are involved in the regulation of many cellular functions and are promising biomarkers of numerous physiological conditions. Since the concentrations of these compounds in biological fluids are low, sample extraction is one of the most critical steps of their analysis. Here, we developed a comprehensive, sensitive, robust, and high-throughput LC-MS/MS stable-isotope dilution method for the simultaneous determination of 19 metabolites related to polyamine metabolism, including polyamines, acetylated and diacetylated polyamines, precursors, and catabolites from liquid biopsies. The sample extraction was optimized to remove interfering compounds and to reduce matrix effects, thus being useful for large clinical studies. The method consists of two-step liquid-liquid extraction with a Folch extraction and ethyl acetate partitioning combined with dansyl chloride derivatization. The developed method was applied to a small gender-related trial concerning human serum and urine samples from 40 obese subjects. Sex differences were found for cadaverine, putrescine, 1,3-diaminopropane, γ-aminobutyric acid, N8-acetylspermidine, and N-acetylcadaverine in urine; N1-acetylspermine in serum; and spermine in both serum and urine. The results demonstrate that the developed method can be used to analyze biological samples for the study of polyamine metabolism and its association with human diseases.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 149, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes often have high levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and cholesterol reflected by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and LDL particle number (LDL-PN). The presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, alirocumab, among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), high LDL-C or non-HDL-C, and established ASCVD receiving maximally tolerated statin in ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA (NCT02642159) and DM-INSULIN (NCT02585778). METHODS: In DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA, individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidemia (non-HDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL; n = 413) were randomized to open-label alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or usual care (UC) for 24 weeks, with UC options selected before stratified randomization. In DM-INSULIN, insulin-treated individuals with T2DM (LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL; n = 441) were randomized in a double-blind fashion to alirocumab 75 mg Q2W or placebo for 24 weeks. Study participants also had a glycated hemoglobin < 9% (DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA) or < 10% (DM-INSULIN). Alirocumab dose was increased to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if week 8 LDL-C was ≥ 70 mg/dL (DM-INSULIN) or non-HDL-C was ≥ 100 mg/dL (DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA). Lipid reductions and safety were assessed in patients with ASCVD from these studies. RESULTS: This analysis included 142 DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA and 177 DM-INSULIN participants with ASCVD, including 95.1% and 86.4% with coronary heart disease, and 32.4% and 49.7% with microvascular diabetes complications, respectively. At week 24, alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C, non-HDL-C, ApoB, and LDL-PN from baseline versus control. This translated into a greater proportion of individuals achieving non-HDL-C < 100 mg/dL (64.6% alirocumab/23.8% UC [DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA]; 65.4% alirocumab/14.9% placebo [DM-INSULIN]) and ApoB < 80 mg/dL (75.1% alirocumab/35.4% UC and 76.8% alirocumab/24.8% placebo, respectively) versus control at week 24 (all P < 0.0001). In pooling these studies, 66.4% (alirocumab) and 67.0% (control) of individuals reported treatment-emergent adverse events. The adverse event pattern was similar with alirocumab versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with T2DM and ASCVD who had high non-HDL-C/LDL-C levels despite maximally tolerated statin, alirocumab significantly reduced atherogenic cholesterol and LDL-PN versus control. Alirocumab was generally well tolerated. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT02642159. Registered 30 December 2015 and Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT02585778. Registered 23 October 2015.

10.
Metabolites ; 9(11)2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717482

RESUMO

Beer is the most widely consumed fermented beverage in the world. A moderate consumption of beer has been related to important healthy outcomes, although the mechanisms have not been fully understood. Beer contains only a few raw ingredients but transformations that occur during the brewing process turn beer into a beverage that is enriched in micronutrients. Beer also contains an important number of phenolic compounds and it could be considered to be a source of dietary polyphenols. On the other hand, gut microbiota is now attracting special attention due to its metabolic effects and as because polyphenols are known to interact with gut microbiota. Among others, ferulic acid, xanthohumol, catechins, epicatechins, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, and rutin are some of the beer polyphenols that have been related to microbiota. However, scarce literature exists about the effects of moderate beer consumption on gut microbiota. In this review, we focus on the relationship between beer polyphenols and gut microbiota, with special emphasis on the health outcomes.

11.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 20(4): 415-425, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720986

RESUMO

Gut microbiota (GM) is a key contributor to host metabolism and physiology. Data generated on comparing diseased and healthy subjects have reported changes in the GM profile between both health states, suggesting certain bacterial composition could be involved in pathogenesis. Moreover, studies reported that reshaping of GM could contribute actively to disease recovery. Interestingly, ketogenic diets (KD) have emerged recently as new economic dietotherapeutic strategy to combat a myriad of diseases (refractory epilepsy, obesity, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases…). KD, understood in a broad sense, refers to whatever dietetic approximation, which causes physiological ketosis. Therefore, high fat-low carbs diets, fasting periods or caloric restriction constitute different strategies to produce an increase of main ketones bodies, acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate, in blood. Involved biological mechanisms in ketotherapeutic effects are still to be unravelled. However, it has been pointed out that GM remodelling by KD, from now on "keto microbiota", may play a crucial role in patient response to KD treatment. In fact, germ-free animals were resistant to ketotherapeutic effects; reinforcing keto microbiota may be a powerful contributor to host disease recovery. In this review, we will comment the influence of gut microbiota on host, as well as, therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets and keto microbiota to restore health status. Current progress and limitations will be argued too. In spite of few studies have defined applicability and mechanisms of KD, in the light of results, keto microbiota might be a new useful therapeutic agent.

12.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
13.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(11): 1888-1895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota could be involved in the metabolic improvement after surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term evolution of the gut microbiome after different bariatric surgery procedures and their functionality and relate it with obesity resolution. SETTING: University hospital, Spain. METHODS: We studied 28 patients with severe obesity; 14 underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 14 underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). All patients were examined before and 3 months after the correspondent bariatric surgery. Gut microbiome profile was assessed by the sequencing of amplicons from the 16S rDNA gene by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Gut microbiota profiles significantly differed between surgical procedures. RYGB suffered the largest changes in the microbiota population. SG and RYGB differed in their profiles with higher levels of Akkermansia, Eubacterium, Haemophilus, and Blautia for SG, while Veillonella, Slackia, Granucatiella, and Acidaminococcus occurred with greater levels in RYGB. RYGB microbiota changes were reflected also at the level of functionality, especially in pathways related to environmental adaptation. A biomarker discovery analysis revealed the genus Blautia as characteristic in SG, while Veillonella was of RYGB. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a shift of the gut microbiome after a bariatric surgery in a procedure-related manner. Gut microbiome changes are related to the adaptation to the changing gut environment and could be related to the pH fluctuations.

14.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603141

RESUMO

Erectile dysfunction (ED), a condition closely related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is frequently associated with obesity. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ED and evaluate the associated risk factors in a cohort of 254 young (18-49 years) nondiabetic obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg m-2) men from primary care. Erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5] questionnaire), quality of life (Aging Males' Symptoms [AMS scale]), and body composition analysis (Tanita MC-180MA) were determined. Total testosterone was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the factors associated with ED. ED prevalence was 42.1%. Subjects with ED presented higher BMI, waist circumference, number of components of the metabolic syndrome, AMS score, insulin resistance, and a more unfavorable body composition than those without ED. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a pathological AMS score (odds ratio [OR]: 4.238, P < 0.001), degree of obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg m-2, OR: 2.602, P = 0.005, compared with BMI 30-34.9 kg m-2), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels (OR: 0.956, P = 0.004), and age (OR: 1.047, P = 0.016) were factors independently associated with ED. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, in a primary care-based cohort of nondiabetic young obese men, ED affected >40% of subjects. A pathological AMS score, the degree of obesity, and age were positively associated with ED, while elevated HDL-cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the odds of presenting ED. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of ED in this population.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 290: 118-124, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT) is associated with the incidence of CVD. Several non-modifiable factors (genetics, age, gender) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, regular alcohol) have shown their ability to modulate PPT. We evaluate the influence of regular alcohol intake, physical activity and smoking habit modulating PPT in the CORDIOPREV study (NCT00924937). METHODS: 1002 patients were subject to an oral fat load test meal and serial blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h during postprandial state. A PPT concentration above 2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL) at any time point has been established as a detrimental response. Alcohol consumption was defined as non-drinkers, moderate and severe intake; regular physical activity exceeding than or lower than 1000 MET/week; smoking habit was classified in current, never, recent ex-smokers and long-term ex-smokers. RESULTS: The prevalence of undesirable PPT response was 68% in current, 58% in recent ex-smokers, 49% in long-term ex-smokers and 48% in never smokers (p < 0.001). Current and recent ex-smokers displayed higher PPT response as well as a greater area under the curve (AUC) and higher incremental (iAUC) of triglycerides (TG) compared with long-term ex-smokers and never smokers (p < 0.05), without differences among these subgroups. No differences were observed in the magnitude of PPT according to regular physical activity or alcohol intake habits. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is an independent risk factor modulating the magnitude of PPT. However, after tobacco cessation, ex-smokers show a progressive decrease on their PPT to reach levels similar to those of never smokers.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608009

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the most serious worldwide epidemics of the twenty-first century according to the World Health Organization. Frequently associated with a number of comorbidities, obesity threatens and compromises individual health and quality of life. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment to achieve not only sustained weight loss but also significant metabolic improvement that goes beyond mere weight loss. The beneficial effects of BS on metabolic traits are so widely recognized that some authors have proposed BS as metabolic surgery that could be prescribed even for moderate obesity. However, most of the BS procedures imply malabsorption and/or gastric acid reduction which lead to nutrient deficiency and, consequently, further complications could be developed in the long term. In fact, BS not only affects metabolic homeostasis but also has pronounced effects on endocrine systems other than those exclusively involved in metabolic function. The somatotropic, corticotropic, and gonadal axes as well as bone health have also been shown to be affected by the various BS procedures. Accordingly, further consequences and complications of BS in the long term in systems other than metabolic system need to be addressed in large cohorts, taking into account each bariatric procedure before making generalized recommendations for BS. In this review, current data regarding these issues are summarized, paying special attention to the somatotropic, corticotropic, gonadal axes, and bone post-operative health.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590286

RESUMO

: The preservation of muscle mass and muscle function after weight loss therapy is currently a considerable challenge in the fight against obesity. Muscle mass secretes proteins called myokines that have relevant functions in the regulation of metabolism and health. This study was aimed to evaluate whether a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet may modulate myokine levels, in addition to changes in body composition, compared to a standard, balanced low-calorie (LC) diet or bariatric surgery in patients with obesity. Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and myokines were evaluated in 79 patients with overweight/obesity after a therapy to lose weight with a VLCK diet, a LC diet or bariatric surgery. The follow-up was 6 months. The weight loss therapies induced changes in myokine levels in association with changes in body composition and biochemical parameters. The effects on circulating myokine levels compared to those at baseline were stronger after the VLCK diet than LC diet or bariatric surgery. Differences reached statistical significance for IL-8, MMP2 and irisin. In conclusion, nutritional interventions or bariatric surgery to lose weight induces changes in circulating myokine levels, being this effect potentially most notable after following a VLCK diet.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1584-1590, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated hypoandrogenemia is increasing in parallel to the obesity epidemic. The prevalence of hypoandrogenemia in nondiabetic young men with obesity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypoandrogenemia and associated risk factors in this population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 266 nondiabetic men < 50 years of age with obesity who were referred from primary care. Total testosterone (high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry), sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were determined. Body composition and erectile function were also assessed. Hypoandrogenemia was defined as FT level < 70 pg/mL. RESULTS: Subnormal FT concentrations were found in 25.6% of participants. Hypoandrogenemia prevalence was different along the BMI continuum, being > 75% in individuals with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 . A multivariate regression analysis indicated that increasing BMI (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.049), and reduced LH levels (P = 0.003) were independent risk factors for hypoandrogenemia. CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care-based cohort of nondiabetic young men with obesity, hypoandrogenemia was a very prevalent finding and was directly associated with adiposity. Obesity, age, and reduced LH levels were independent risk factors associated with hypoandrogenemia. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of hypoandrogenemia in this population.

20.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of presenting hypogonadism. Free testosterone (FT) is the fraction of testosterone that carries out the biological function of testosterone, and is determined from total testosterone (TT) and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels. We aimed to study the SHBG polymorphism rs1799941 in a cohort of young non-diabetic obese males to unravel the possible implication of this polymorphism in obesity-related hypogonadism. METHODOLOGY: 212 young (<45 years) non-diabetic obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) males participated in this study. Subjects were classified according to TT and FT levels in: Eugonadal (n = 55, TT > 3.5 ng/mL and FT ≥ 70 pg/mL; EuG), normal FT hypogonadism (n = 40, TT < 3.5 and FT ≥ 70 pg/mL; normal FT HG) and hypogonadism (n = 117, TT < 3.5 ng/mL and TL < 70 pg/mL; HG). The SHBG rs1799941 polymorphism (GG/GA/AA) was analyzed using the Taqman Open Array (Applied biosystem). RESULTS: The rs1799941 frequencies were different among the groups. Higher proportion of the allele (A) was found in HG, compared to EuG and normal FT HG. Among the genotypes, the rare homozygous (AA) were found in the normal FT HG group and higher levels of serum SHBG and lower of FT were observed. The presence of the allele A was related (according to lineal regression models) to an increased of SHBG levels ((GA) ß = 3.28; (AA) ß = 12.45) and a decreased of FT levels ((GA) ß = -9.19; (AA) ß = -18.52). The presence of the allele (A) increased the risk of presenting HG compared to normal FT HG (OR = 2.54). CONCLUSIONS: The rs1799941 of the SHBG gene can partially determine the presence of obesity-related hypogonadism in young non-diabetic males and whether these subjects have normal FT HG.

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