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1.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 286, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772255

RESUMO

The marine iodine cycle has significant impacts on air quality and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the reaction of iodide with ozone in the top few micrometres of the surface ocean is an important sink for tropospheric ozone (a pollutant gas) and the dominant source of reactive iodine to the atmosphere. Sea surface iodide parameterisations are now being implemented in air quality models, but these are currently a major source of uncertainty. Relatively little observational data is available to estimate the global surface iodide concentrations, and this data has not hitherto been openly available in a collated, digital form. Here we present all available sea surface (<20 m depth) iodide observations. The dataset includes values digitised from published manuscripts, published and unpublished data supplied directly by the originators, and data obtained from repositories. It contains 1342 data points, and spans latitudes from 70°S to 68°N, representing all major basins. The data may be used to model sea surface iodide concentrations or as a reference for future observations.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12693, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978998

RESUMO

Organic interfaces that exist at the sea surface microlayer or as surfactant coatings on cloud droplets are highly concentrated and chemically distinct from the underlying bulk or overlying gas phase. Therefore, they may be potentially unique locations for chemical or photochemical reactions. Recently, photochemical production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was reported at a nonanoic acid interface however, subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particle production was incapable of being observed. We investigated SOA particle formation due to photochemical reactions occurring at an air-water interface in presence of model saturated long chain fatty acid and alcohol surfactants, nonanoic acid and nonanol, respectively. Ozonolysis of the gas phase photochemical products in the dark or under continued UV irradiation both resulted in nucleation and growth of SOA particles. Irradiation of nonanol did not yield detectable VOC or SOA production. Organic carbon functionalities of the SOA were probed using X-ray microspectroscopy and compared with other laboratory generated and field collected particles. Carbon-carbon double bonds were identified in the condensed phase which survived ozonolysis during new particle formation and growth. The implications of photochemical processes occurring at organic coated surfaces are discussed in the context of marine SOA particle atmospheric fluxes.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(20): 11041-11048, 2016 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611489

RESUMO

Interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment and many atmospheric key processes, such as gas deposition, aerosol, and cloud formation are, at one stage or another, strongly impacted by physical and chemical processes occurring at interfaces. Here, the photoinduced chemistry of an air/water interface coated with nonanoic acid-a fatty acid surfactant we use as a proxy for chemically complex natural aqueous surface microlayers-was investigated as a source of volatile and semivolatile reactive organic species. The carboxylic acid coating significantly increased the propensity of photosensitizers, chosen to mimic those observed in real environmental waters, to partition to the interface and enhance reactivity there. Photochemical formation of functionalized and unsaturated compounds was systematically observed upon irradiation of these coated surfaces. The role of a coated interface appears to be critical in providing a concentrated medium allowing radical-radical reactions to occur in parallel with molecular oxygen additions. Mechanistic insights are provided from extensive analysis of products observed in both gas and aqueous phases by online switchable reagent ion-time of flight-mass spectrometry and by off-line ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive high resolution mass spectrometer through heated electrospray ionization, respectively.


Assuntos
Processos Fotoquímicos , Água/química , Aerossóis , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácidos Graxos
5.
Science ; 353(6300): 699-702, 2016 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516601

RESUMO

Although fatty acids are believed to be photochemically inert in the actinic region, complex volatile organic compounds are produced during illumination of an air-water interface coated solely with a monolayer of carboxylic acid. When aqueous solutions containing nonanoic acid (NA) at bulk concentrations that give rise to just over a monolayer of NA coverage are illuminated with actinic radiation, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes are seen in the gas phase, and more highly oxygenated products appear in the aqueous phase. This chemistry is probably initiated by triplet-state NA molecules excited by direct absorption of actinic light at the water surface. Because fatty acids-covered interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment, such photochemical processing will have a substantial impact on local ozone and particle formation.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(26): 8348-51, 2015 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068588

RESUMO

We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(6): 3218-27, 2014 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555477

RESUMO

In recent years, it has been proposed that gas phase glyoxal could significantly contribute to ambient organic aerosol (OA) mass through multiphase chemistry. Of particular interest is the reaction between glyoxal and ammonium cations producing light-absorbing compounds such as imidazole derivatives. It was recently shown that imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) can act as a photosensitizer, initiating aerosol growth in the presence of gaseous volatile organic compounds. Given the potential importance of this new photosensitized growth pathway for ambient OA, the related reaction mechanism was investigated at a molecular level. Bulk and flow tube experiments were performed to identify major products of the reaction of limonene with the triplet state of IC by direct (±)ESI-HRMS and UPLC/(±)HESI-HRMS analysis. Detection of recombination products of IC with limonene or with itself, in bulk and flow tube experiments, showed that IC is able to initiate a radical chemistry in the aerosol phase under realistic irradiation conditions. Furthermore, highly oxygenated limonene reaction products were detected, clearly explaining the observed OA growth. The chemistry of peroxy radicals derived from limonene upon addition of oxygen explains the formation of such low-volatile compounds without any traditional gas phase oxidant.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Glioxal/química , Aerossóis/análise , Cicloexenos/química , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Limoneno , Processos Fotoquímicos , Terpenos/química
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