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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 541-548, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017677

RESUMO

Little information exists regarding Ebola vaccine rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP and pregnancy. The Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE) randomized participants without blinding to immediate or deferred (18-24 weeks postenrollment) vaccination. Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion, but 84 women were inadvertently vaccinated in early pregnancy or became pregnant <60 days after vaccination or enrollment. Among immediate vaccinated women, 45% (14/31) reported pregnancy loss, compared with 33% (11/33) of unvaccinated women with contemporaneous pregnancies (relative risk 1.35, 95% CI 0.73-2.52). Pregnancy loss was similar among women with higher risk for vaccine viremia (conception before or <14 days after vaccination) (44% [4/9]) and women with lower risk (conception >15 days after vaccination) (45% [10/22]). No congenital anomalies were detected among 44 live-born infants examined. These data highlight the need for Ebola vaccination decisions to balance the possible risk for an adverse pregnancy outcome with the risk for Ebola exposure.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(2): 176.e1-176.e11, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for many birth defects and is likely to have an increasing impact on birth defect prevalence because of the rise in diabetes in the United States in recent decades. One of the first analyses in which specific birth defects were assessed for their relationship with both pregestational and gestational diabetes used data from the initial 6 years of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. That analysis reported strong associations for pregestational diabetes with several birth defects, but few exposures among some of the less common birth defects led to unstable estimates with wide confidence intervals. Since that analysis, the study continued to collect data for another 8 years, including information on approximately 19,000 additional cases and 6900 additional controls. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the largest population-based birth defects case-control study in the United States, to provide updated and more precise estimates of the association between diabetes and birth defects, including some defects not previously assessed. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data on deliveries from October 1997 through December 2011. Mothers of case and control infants were interviewed about their health conditions and exposures during pregnancy, including diagnosis of pregestational (type 1 or type 2) diabetes before the index pregnancy or gestational diabetes during the index pregnancy. Using logistic regression, we separately assessed the association between pregestational and gestational diabetes with specific categories of structural birth defects for which there were at least 3 exposed case infants. For birth defect categories for which there were at least 5 exposed case infants, we calculated odds ratios adjusted for maternal body mass index, age, education, race/ethnicity, and study site; for defect categories with 3 or 4 exposed cases, we calculated crude odds ratios. RESULTS: Pregestational diabetes was reported by 0.6% of mothers of control infants (71 of 11,447) and 2.5% of mothers of case infants (775 of 31,007). Gestational diabetes during the index pregnancy was reported by 4.7% of mothers of control infants (536 of 11,447) and 5.3% of mothers of case infants (1,653 of 31,007). Pregestational diabetes was associated with strong, statistically significant odds ratios (range, 2.5-80.2) for 46 of 50 birth defects considered. The largest odds ratio was observed for sacral agenesis (adjusted odds ratio, 80.2; 95% confidence interval, 46.1-139.3). A greater than 10-fold increased risk was also observed for holoprosencephaly (adjusted odds ratio, 13.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.0-24.5), longitudinal limb deficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 10.1; 95% confidence interval, 6.2-16.5), heterotaxy (adjusted odds ratio, 12.3; 95% confidence interval, 7.3-20.5), truncus arteriosus (adjusted odds ratio, 14.9; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-29.3), atrioventricular septal defect (adjusted odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 6.2-17.9), and single ventricle complex (adjusted odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-24.3). For gestational diabetes, statistically significant odds ratios were fewer (12 of 56) and of smaller magnitude (range, 1.3- 2.1; 0.5 for gastroschisis). CONCLUSION: Pregestational diabetes is associated with a markedly increased risk for many specific births defects. Because glycemic control before pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk for birth defects, ongoing quality care for persons with diabetes is an important opportunity for prevention.

4.
J Atten Disord ; 24(3): 479-489, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519207

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of, and maternal characteristics associated with, ADHD medication use before and during pregnancy, and associations between early pregnancy ADHD medication use and risk for 12 selected birth defects. Method: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. Results: There was an increase in ADHD medication use from 1998-1999 (0.2%) to 2010-2011 (0.5%; p < .001). Early pregnancy ADHD medication use was more commonly reported by mothers of infants/fetuses with gastroschisis (crude odds ratio [cOR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 6.9]), omphalocele (cOR: 4.0, 95% CI = [1.2, 13.6]), and transverse limb deficiency (cOR: 3.3, 95% CI = [1.1, 9.6]). Conclusion: ADHD medication use before and during pregnancy was rare, but the prevalence of use has increased over time. In this analysis, early pregnancy ADHD medication use was associated with three of 12 selected birth defects.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, atypical antipsychotic use among U.S. pregnant women, and potential associations between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and risk for 14 birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. RESULTS: Atypical antipsychotic use during pregnancy was more common among women with pre-pregnancy obesity, and women who reported illicit drug use before and during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol use during pregnancy, or use of other psychiatric medications during pregnancy. We observed elevated associations (defined as a crude odds ratio [cOR] ≥2.0) between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and conotruncal heart defects (6 exposed cases; cOR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-6.1), and more specifically Tetralogy of Fallot (3 exposed cases; cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.7-8.8), cleft palate (4 exposed cases, cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.6), anorectal atresia/stenosis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 0.8-9.9), and gastroschisis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.6-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the close clinical monitoring of pregnant women using atypical antipsychotics. Women treated with atypical antipsychotics generally access healthcare services before pregnancy; efforts to reduce correlates of atypical antipsychotic use might improve maternal and infant health in this population.

6.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(19): 1501-1512, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a previous neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancy are recommended to consume 4,000 µg daily folic acid (FA) for prevention (10 times the general-population recommendation). Protection from doses between 400 and 4,000 µg for this and other higher risk groups is unclear. METHODS: In the case-control Slone Birth Defects Study (1988-2015), we examined the associations between periconceptional FA doses and NTDs among four higher risk groups: NTD family history, periconceptional antiepileptic drug exposure (AED), pregestational diabetes, and prepregnancy obesity. Mothers completed standardized interviews about pregnancy events and exposures. FA categorizations were based on (a) supplements only and (b) supplements and diet ("total folate"). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (adjusted for age and study center) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cases and controls included: 45 and 119 with family history, 25 and 108 with AED exposure, 12 and 63 with pregestational diabetes, 111 and 1,243 with obesity. Daily FA supplementation was associated with lower NTD risk compared to no supplementation (adjusted ORs were 0.33 [95% CI 0.13, 0.76] for family history, 0.31 [0.09, 0.95] for AED exposure, 0.25 [0.04, 1.05] for pregestational diabetes, 0.65 [0.40, 1.04] for obesity). Though estimates were imprecise, as total folate increased stronger point estimates were observed, notably among family history. No mothers with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy supplemented with 4,000 µg. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce that all women of childbearing potential should consume at least 400 µg FA/day to protect against NTDs. Higher risk groups may benefit from higher doses.

8.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(16): 1205-1216, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate first-year survival of infants born with spina bifida, and examine the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with infant mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 1,533 liveborn infants with nonsyndromic spina bifida with estimated dates of delivery from 1998 to 2011 whose mothers were eligible for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). NBDPS data were linked to death records to conduct survival analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival functions estimated mortality risk over the first year of life. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), and obese (≥30). RESULTS: Infant mortality risk among infants with spina bifida was (4.4% [3.52, 5.60%]). Infants with multiple co-occurring defects, very preterm delivery, multiple gestation, high-level spina bifida lesions, or non-Hispanic Black mothers had an elevated risk of infant mortality. Maternal prepregnancy underweight and obesity were associated with higher infant mortality (15.7% [7.20, 32.30%] and 5.82% [3.60, 9.35%], respectively). Adjusted HR estimates showed underweight and obese mothers had greater hazard of infant mortality compared to normal weight mothers (HR: 4.5 [1.08, 16.72] and 2.6 [1.36, 8.02], respectively). CONCLUSION: The overall risk of infant mortality for infants born with spina bifida was lower than most previously reported estimates. Infants born with spina bifida to mothers who were underweight or obese prepregnancy were at higher risk of infant mortality. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of healthy maternal weight prior to pregnancy.

9.
Cardiol Young ; 29(6): 819-827, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) that, when severe, requires corrective surgery or other catheter-based intervention in the first year of life. Due to its rarity, risk factors for Ebstein anomaly remain largely unknown. Using national data, we examined 18 potential risk factors for Ebstein anomaly. METHODS: Using 1997-2011 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for paternal age, maternal socio-demographics, reproductive history, and modifiable risk factors, and infant characteristics reported by mothers of 135 Ebstein anomaly cases and 11,829 controls. RESULTS: Mothers of Ebstein anomaly cases had 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 9.5) times the odds of reporting a family history of CHD compared with mothers of controls. Ebstein anomaly was associated with maternal second-hand cigarette smoke exposure at home (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.1, 4.4]), but not maternal cigarette smoking (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.1]). Odds were elevated, but the 95% confidence interval included 1.0, for maternal marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.8]) and paternal age ≥40 years at delivery (odds ratio = 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke at home and a family history of CHD were associated with elevated odds of Ebstein anomaly. Genetic analyses could clarify the potential heritability of Ebstein anomaly.


Assuntos
Anomalia de Ebstein/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Anomalia de Ebstein/etiologia , Anomalia de Ebstein/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1136-1143, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976786

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate associations between individual and concurrent (≥2) intakes of one-carbon cofactors vitamins B6 and B12, choline, betaine, and methionine and neural tube defect (NTD) outcomes among mothers meeting the folic acid recommendations. In the Slone Birth Defects Study (case-control design; North America, 1998-2015), mothers of 164 NTD cases and 2,831 nonmalformed controls completed food frequency questionnaires and structured interviews. Estimated intakes of one-carbon cofactors were dichotomized (high vs. low) for all except betaine (low or middle vs. high). We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for center, age, and race. The analysis was restricted to mothers with estimated daily total folate intake of ≥400 µg during periconception. Fewer cases, compared with controls, had high intakes for each one-carbon cofactor except betaine, where the starkest contrast occurred in the middle group. Women with concurrent high intakes of B6, B12, choline, and methionine and moderate intake of betaine had approximately half the risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.23, 1.08). These findings suggest that, in the presence of folic acid, one-carbon cofactors-notably when consumed together-might reduce NTD risk. Additional research should inform any changes to clinical recommendations.

11.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(10): 613-620, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine medications can be used to treat anxiety, a condition affecting 15% of women of childbearing age in the United States. Studies have shown conflicting results for the association between benzodiazepine use during pregnancy and birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed 1997-2011 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite, population-based case-control study. We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with benzodiazepine use in pregnancy among mothers of live-born infants without a birth defect (control mothers). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between specific birth defects and benzodiazepine use; we estimated crude odds ratios (cORs) for defect categories with 3-4 exposed cases. RESULTS: Exposure to benzodiazepines during pregnancy was rare (N = 93/11,614; 0.8%). Benzodiazepine use was more common among control mothers who were ≥30 years, non-Hispanic white, had more education, smoked, and took antidepressant medication. We observed significantly elevated ORs for any benzodiazepine and Dandy-Walker malformation (cOR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 8.6); for alprazolam and anophthalmia or microphthalmia (cOR: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 13.1) and esophageal atresia or stenosis (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.9); and lorazepam and pulmonary valve stenosis (cOR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.2, 14.2), but sample sizes were limited and therefore CIs were wide. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that benzodiazepines use is rare and may be associated with risk for certain birth defects. However, these results need replication and should be interpreted with caution.

12.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 56(2): 151-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for a set of recognized risk factors for orofacial clefts. DESIGN: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. For recognized risk factors for which data were available, we estimated crude population attributable fractions (cPAFs) to account for potential confounding, average-adjusted population attributable fractions (aaPAFs). We assessed 11 modifiable and 3 nonmodifiable parental/maternal risk factors. The aaPAF for individual risk factors and the total aaPAF for the set of risk factors were calculated using a method described by Eide and Geffler. SETTING: Population-based case-control study in 10 US states. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand seven hundred seventy-nine cases with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P), 1310 cases with isolated cleft palate (CP), and 11 692 controls with estimated dates of delivery between October 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude population attributable fraction and aaPAF. RESULTS: The proportion of CL±P and CP cases attributable to the full set of examined risk factors was 50% and 43%, respectively. The modifiable factor with the largest aaPAF was smoking during the month before pregnancy or the first month of pregnancy (4.0% for CL±P and 3.4% for CP). Among nonmodifiable factors, the factor with the largest aaPAF for CL±P was male sex (27%) and for CP it was female sex (16%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results may inform research and prevention efforts. A large proportion of orofacial cleft risk is attributable to nonmodifiable factors; it is important to better understand the mechanisms involved for these factors.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(6): 1027-1034, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767673

RESUMO

Background: The US CDC and the Institute of Medicine recommend that women capable of becoming pregnant consume ≥400 µg synthetic folic acid/d to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The United States has 3 sources of folic acid: fortified enriched cereal grain products (ECGPs), fortified ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and dietary supplements. Objective: Our objectives were as follows: 1) to estimate the usual daily folic acid intake and distributions of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among women consuming folic acid from different sources; 2) to assess the usual daily total folic acid intake associated with optimal RBC folate concentrations for NTD prevention; 3) to predict NTD prevalence; and 4) to estimate the number of preventable folate-sensitive NTDs. Design: NHANES data (2007-2012) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (12-49 y) were used to estimate usual daily intakes of synthetic folic acid and natural food folate. We applied existing models of the relation between RBC folate concentrations and NTD risk to predict NTD prevalence. Results: Based on the distribution of overall RBC folate concentrations (4783 women), the predicted NTD prevalence was 7.3/10,000 live births [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 5.5-9.4/10,000 live births]. Women consuming folic acid from ECGPs as their only source had lower usual daily total folic acid intakes (median: 115 µg/d; IQR: 79-156 µg/d), lower RBC folate concentrations (median: 881 nmol/L; IQR: 704-1108 nmol/L), and higher predicted NTD prevalence (8.5/10,000 live births; 95% UI: 6.4-10.8/10,000 live births) compared with women consuming additional folic acid from diet or supplements. If women who currently consume folic acid from ECGPs only (48% of women) consumed additional folic acid sources, 345 (95% UI: 0-821) to 701 (95% UI: 242-1189) additional NTDs/y could be prevented. Conclusions: This analysis supports current recommendations and does not indicate any need for higher intakes of folic acid to achieve optimal NTD prevention. Ensuring 400 µg/d intake of folic acid prior to pregnancy has the potential to increase the number of babies born without an NTD.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/química , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/química , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Infect ; 76(6): 529-535, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2015-2016. To assist with planning for medical and supportive services for infants affected by prenatal ZIKV infection, we used a model to estimate the number of pregnant women infected with ZIKV and the number of infants with congenital microcephaly from August 2015 to August 2017. METHODS: We used nationally reported cases of symptomatic ZIKV disease among pregnant women and information from the literature on the percent of asymptomatic infections to estimate the number of pregnant women with ZIKV infection occurring August 2015-December 2016. We then estimated the number of infants with congenital microcephaly expected to occur August 2015-August 2017. To compare to the observed counts of infants with congenital microcephaly due to all causes reported through the national birth defects surveillance system, the model was time limited to produce estimates for February-November 2016. FINDINGS: We estimated 1140-2160 (interquartile range [IQR]) infants with congenital microcephaly in Colombia, during August 2015-August 2017, whereas 340-540 infants with congenital microcephaly would be expected in the absence of ZIKV. Based on the time limited version of the model, for February-November 2016, we estimated 650-1410 infants with congenital microcephaly in Colombia. The 95% uncertainty interval for the latter estimate encompasses the 476 infants with congenital microcephaly reported during that approximate time frame based on national birth defects surveillance. INTERPRETATION: Based on modeled estimates, ZIKV infection during pregnancy in Colombia could lead to 3-4 times as many infants with congenital microcephaly in 2015-2017 as would have been expected in the absence of the ZIKV outbreak. FUNDING: This publication was made possible through support provided by the Bureau for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development under the terms of an Interagency Agreement with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Estatísticos , Mães , Gravidez , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(2): 66-70, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346342

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals across the lifespan. ADHD medication use among pregnant women is increasing (1), but consensus about the safety of ADHD medication use during pregnancy is lacking. Given that nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended (2), and early pregnancy is a critical period for fetal development, examining trends in ADHD medication prescriptions among reproductive-aged women is important to quantify the population at risk for potential exposure. CDC used the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* for the period 2003-2015 to estimate the percentage of women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance who filled prescriptions for ADHD medications each year. The percentage of reproductive-aged women who filled at least one ADHD medication prescription increased 344% from 2003 (0.9% of women) to 2015 (4.0% of women). In 2015, the most frequently filled medications were mixed amphetamine salts, lisdexamfetamine, and methylphenidate. Prescribing ADHD medications to reproductive-aged women is increasingly common; additional research on ADHD medication safety during pregnancy is warranted to inform women and their health care providers about any potential risks associated with ADHD medication exposure before and during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(4): 342-351, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As maternal fever affects approximately 6-8% of early pregnancies, it is important to expand upon previous observations of an association between maternal fever and birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, case-control study of major structural birth defects. Telephone interviews were completed by mothers of cases (n = 17,162) and controls (n = 10,127). Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the association between maternal self-report of cold or flu with fever and cold or flu without fever during early pregnancy and 30 categories of non-cardiac birth defects. RESULTS: Maternal report of cold or flu with fever was significantly associated with 8 birth defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, colonic atresia/stenosis, bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia, limb reduction defects, and gastroschisis) with elevated adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 3.7. Maternal report of cold or flu without fever was not associated with any of the birth defects studied. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the evidence that maternal fever during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for selected birth defects. Elevated associations were limited to mothers who reported a fever, suggesting that it is fever that contributes to the excess risk rather than illnesses associated with it. However, fever may also serve as a marker for more severe infections.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Epidemiol ; 27(12): 777-782.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. METHODS: Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Mothers of 375 cases and 8247 nonmalformed controls were included. We observed an elevated risk for NTDs for fever in the periconceptional period (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-4.0). This association was weaker for mothers who reported consuming the recommended amount of folic acid (≥400 µg per day; OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0) than mothers with low folic acid intake (<400 µg per day; OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.2-8.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between maternal periconceptional fever and an increased risk for NTDs and also provide evidence that this association was attenuated for mothers who reported consuming folic acid at recommended levels in the periconceptional period.


Assuntos
Febre/complicações , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/prevenção & controle , Disrafismo Espinal/epidemiologia , Disrafismo Espinal/prevenção & controle , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mães , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Disrafismo Espinal/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(6): 537-545, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are considered a potentially vulnerable population for Zika virus infection. However, data on paediatric Zika virus infection are sparse. METHODS: We analysed data from Colombia's national surveillance system during the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak on patients meeting the clinical case definition of Zika virus disease (ZVD) among children aged 1 month to 18 years to estimate incidence by demographic characteristics and characterize the occurrence of selected complications. RESULTS: Between August 14, 2015, and May 28, 2016, there were 18 576 reported cases of postnatal ZVD among children aged 1 month to 18 years. Laboratory testing was prioritized for high-risk patients (infants, pregnant women, adults aged ≥65 years, and persons with serious co-morbidities); among 1655 that were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 1207 (72.9%) were positive. The cumulative incidence of reported ZVD was 114.4 per 100 000. The incidence differed by sex, depending on age group; the largest difference was observed for 15-18 year olds, with females having a higher incidence than males (cumulative incidence ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3, 2.7). At the time of report to the surveillance system, 631 patients (3.4%) were hospitalised and 96 (0.5%) had a report of an accompanying neurological diagnosis, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in 40 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of reported paediatric ZVD cases in Colombia were hospitalized or had reported neurological conditions following ZVD. However, the potential for some serious outcomes demonstrates the importance of preventing Zika virus infection in children.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(6): 982-984, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296632

RESUMO

We report the results of pathologic examinations of 2 fetuses from women in Colombia with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that revealed severe central nervous system defects and potential associated abnormalities of the eye, spleen, and placenta. Amniotic fluid and tissues from multiple fetal organs tested positive for Zika virus.


Assuntos
Feto/patologia , Feto/virologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Esquizencefalia/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/virologia , Gravidez , Esquizencefalia/virologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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