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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445476

RESUMO

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new synthetic stimulant, and only a little information has been made available so far regarding its pharmaco-toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of both the single (±)cis (0.1-60 mg/kg) and (±)trans (30 and 60 mg/kg) stereoisomers and their co-administration (e.g., (±)cis at 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg + (±)trans at 30 mg/kg) in mice. Moreover, we investigated the effect of 4,4'-DMAR on the expression of markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress (8-OHdG, iNOS, NT and NOX2), apoptosis (Smac/DIABLO and NF-κB), and heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70, HSP90) in the cerebral cortex. Our study demonstrated that the (±)cis stereoisomer dose-dependently induced psychomotor agitation, sweating, salivation, hyperthermia, stimulated aggression, convulsions and death. Conversely, the (±)trans stereoisomer was ineffective whilst the stereoisomers' co-administration resulted in a worsening of the toxic (±)cis stereoisomer effects. This trend of responses was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis on the cortex. Finally, we investigated the potentially toxic effects of stereoisomer co-administration by studying urinary excretion. The excretion study showed that the (±)trans stereoisomer reduced the metabolism of the (±)cis form and increased its amount in the urine, possibly reflecting its increased plasma levels and, therefore, the worsening of its toxicity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/patologia , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oxazóis/classificação , Oxazóis/urina , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/induzido quimicamente , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/urina , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299276

RESUMO

1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS), first discovered in Europe in 2012 as unknown racemic mixture of its three stereoisomers: ortho, meta and para. Each of these has structural similarities with the analgesic tramadol and the dissociative anesthetic phencyclidine. In light of these structural analogies, and based on the fact that both tramadol and phencyclidine are substances that cause toxic effects in humans, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of these molecules, and to compare them with those caused by tramadol and phencyclidine. In vitro studies demonstrated that tramadol, ortho, meta and para were inactive at mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. Systemic administration of the three stereoisomers impairs sensorimotor responses, modulates spontaneous motor activity, induces modest analgesia, and alters thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory responses in the mouse in some cases, with a similar profile to that of tramadol and phencyclidine. Naloxone partially prevents only the visual sensorimotor impairments caused by three stereoisomers, without preventing other effects. The present data show that 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene derivatives cause pharmaco-toxicological effects by activating both opioid and non-opioid mechanisms and suggest that their use could potentially lead to abuse and bodily harm.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/toxicidade , Anisóis/toxicidade , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Alucinógenos/toxicidade , Fenciclidina/toxicidade , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Tramadol/toxicidade , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Animais , Anisóis/química , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Alucinógenos/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Fenciclidina/química , Psicotrópicos/química , Tramadol/química
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299015

RESUMO

Synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among young drug users and are widely used in the clandestine market. While the cathinone-induced behavioral profile has been extensively investigated, information on their neuroplastic effects is still rather fragmentary. Accordingly, we have exposed male mice to a single injection of MDPV and α-PVP and sacrificed the animals at different time points (i.e., 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h) to have a rapid readout of the effect of these psychostimulants on neuroplasticity in the frontal lobe and hippocampus, two reward-related brain regions. We found that a single, low dose of MDPV or α-PVP is sufficient to alter the expression of neuroplastic markers in the adult mouse brain. In particular, we found increased expression of the transcription factor Npas4, increased ratio between the vesicular GABA transporter and the vesicular glutamate transporter together with changes in the expression of the neurotrophin Bdnf, confirming the widespread impact of these cathinones on brain plasticity. To sum up, exposure to low dose of cathinones can impair cortical and hippocampal homeostasis, suggesting that abuse of these cathinones at much higher doses, as it occurs in humans, could have an even more profound impact on neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pentanonas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
4.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(8): 2275-2295, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881584

RESUMO

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and γ-hydroxybutyrate acid (GHB) are synthetic solvents detected in the recreational drug market. GHB has sedative/hypnotic properties and is used for criminal purposes to compromise reaction ability and commit drug-facilitated sexual assaults and other crimes. NMP is a strong solubilizing solvent that has been used alone or mixed with GHB in case of abuse and robberies. The aim of this experimental study is to compare the acute pharmaco-toxicological effects of NMP and GHB on neurological signs (myoclonia, convulsions), sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and overall tactile) responses, righting reflex, thermoregulation, and motor activity (bar, drag, and accelerod test) in CD-1 male mice. Moreover, since cardiorespiratory depression is one of the main adverse effects related to GHB intake, we investigated the effect of NMP and GHB on cardiorespiratory changes (heart rate, breath rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse distension) in mice. The present study demonstrates that NMP inhibited sensorimotor and motor responses and induced cardiorespiratory depression, with a lower potency and efficacy compared to GHB. These results suggest that NMP can hardly be used alone as a substance to perpetrate sexual assault or robberies.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinonas/toxicidade , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxibato de Sódio/toxicidade , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Estupro , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
5.
Drug Test Anal ; 13(8): 1516-1526, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835674

RESUMO

The emerging market of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) is a global-scale phenomenon, and their identification in biological samples is challenging because of the lack of information about their metabolism and pharmacokinetic. In this study, we performed in silico metabolic pathway prediction and in vivo metabolism experiments, in order to identify the main metabolites of mephtetramine (MTTA), an NPS found in seizures since 2013. MetaSite™ software was used for in silico metabolism predictions and subsequently the presence of metabolites in the blood, urine, and hair of mice after MTTA administration was verified. The biological samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) using a benchtop Orbitrap instrument. This confirmed the concordance between software prediction and experimental results in biological samples. The metabolites were identified by their accurate masses and fragmentation patterns. LC-HRMS analysis identified the dehydrogenated and demethylated-dehydrogenated metabolites, together with unmodified MTTA in the blood samples. Besides unmodified MTTA, 10 main metabolites were detected in urine. In hair samples, only demethyl MTTA was detected along with MTTA. The combination of Metasite™ prediction and in vivo experiment was a powerful tool for studying MTTA metabolism. This approach enabled the development of the analytical method for the detection of MTTA and its main metabolites in biological samples. The development of analytical methods for the identification of new drugs and their main metabolites is extremely useful for the detection of NPS in biological specimens. Indeed, high throughput methods are precious to uncover the actual extent of use of NPS and their toxicity.

6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1847-1856, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770233

RESUMO

Recreational use of illicit methiopropamine (MPA) is a public health concern because it produces neurochemical effects comparable with those induced by methamphetamine (METH). The present study investigated the effects of MPA on the expression of an aggressive behaviour. Eighty CD-1 male mice, after receiving intraperitoneal injection of saline, MPA (0.01-10 mg/kg), METH (0.01-10 mg/kg), or AMPH (0.01-10 mg/kg), once a week over a 5-week period, underwent the resident-intruder test and spontaneous locomotor activity measurement. Results showed that all psychostimulants induce aggressive behaviour even at low doses, with a dose-dependent increase and a time-dependent sensitisation. MPA potency was similar to METH and superior to AMPH. Therefore, MPA-induced aggressive behaviour may appear even at MPA dosages free of cardiovascular or other behavioural adverse effects and could become a non-intentional side effect that users experience after increasing and repeating MPA consumption.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/toxicidade , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Metanfetamina/química , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tiofenos/química
7.
J Anal Toxicol ; 45(5): 475-483, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860694

RESUMO

Since the widespread diffusion of new psychoactive substances, forensic laboratories are often required to identify new drugs and their metabolites for which information or reference standards are lacking. We performed a study on N-methyl-2-aminoindane (NM2AI) metabolism in silico and in vivo, in order to identify the main metabolites to be screened in the different biological samples. We performed the in silico metabolism prediction of NM2AI using MetaSiteTM software and subsequently verified the presence of metabolites in the blood, urine and hair of mice after NM2AI administration. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) with a benchtop Orbitrap Exactive mass detector. This allowed the evaluation of the agreement between software prediction and experimental results in biological samples. LC-HRMS analysis identified seven main metabolites in the urine. They were identified, by their accurate masses and fragmentation patterns, as 2-aminoindane (2AI), two hydroxy-2AI and four hydroxy-NM2AI; one of the hydroxy-NM2AI and one of the hydroxy-2AI underwent also to conjugation. NM2AI and 2AI were also detected by LC-HRMS in the hair and blood. Based on these findings, we developed an LC-HRMS method for the screening of NM2AI and metabolites in urine, blood and hair samples. This can be of primary effectiveness to uncover the abuse of NM2AI and related possible intoxications.


Assuntos
Indanos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348640

RESUMO

Psychedelic and stimulating phenethylamines belong to the family of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The acute toxicity framework has begun to be investigated, while studies showing genotoxic potential are very limited or not available. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the genotoxicity by treating TK6 cells with 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, and the popular 3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). On the basis of cytotoxicity and cytostasis results, we selected the concentrations (6.25-35 µM) to be used in genotoxicity analysis. We used the micronucleus (MN) as indicator of genetic damage and analyzed the MNi frequency fold increase by an automated flow cytometric protocol. All substances, except MDMA, resulted genotoxic; therefore, we evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction as a possible mechanism at the basis of the demonstrated genotoxicity. The obtained results showed a statistically significant increase in ROS levels for all genotoxic phenethylamines confirming this hypothesis. Our results highlight the importance of genotoxicity evaluation for a complete assessment of the risk associated also with NPS exposure. Indeed, the subjects who do not have hazardous behaviors or require hospitalization by using active but still "safe" doses could run into genotoxicity and in the well-known long-term effects associated.


Assuntos
Anisóis/farmacologia , Dimetoxifeniletilamina/análogos & derivados , Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetoxifeniletilamina/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Brain Sci ; 10(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847111

RESUMO

The drastic increase in hallucinogenic compounds in illicit drug markets of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide threat. Among these, 2, 5-dimetoxy-4-bromo-amphetamine (DOB) and paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA; marketed as "ecstasy") are frequently purchased on the dark web and consumed for recreational purposes during rave/dance parties. In fact, these two substances seem to induce the same effects as MDMA, which could be due to their structural similarities. According to users, DOB and PMA share the same euphoric effects: increasing of the mental state, increasing sociability and empathy. Users also experienced loss of memory, temporal distortion, and paranoia following the repetition of the same thought. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the acute systemic administration of DOB and PMA (0.01-30 mg/kg; i.p.) on motor, sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and tactile), and startle/PPI responses in CD-1 male mice. Moreover, the pro-psychedelic effect of DOB (0.075-2 mg/kg) and PMA (0.0005-0.5 mg/kg) was investigated by using zebrafish as a model. DOB and PMA administration affected spontaneous locomotion and impaired behaviors and startle/PPI responses in mice. In addition, the two compounds promoted hallucinatory states in zebrafish by reducing the hallucinatory score and swimming activity in hallucinogen-like states.

10.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(5): 1695-1711, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356113

RESUMO

Methiopropamine is a structural analog of methamphetamine that is categorized as a novel psychoactive substance. It primarily acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and, secondarily, as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In humans, methiopropamine induces stimulation and alertness and increases focus and energy. However, significant side effects are reported, such as tachycardia, anxiety, panic attacks, perspiration, headache, and difficulty in breathing. To date, little data is available regarding its pharmacodynamic effects, thereby we aimed to investigate the acute in vivo effects induced by this drug on sensorimotor responses, body temperature, pain thresholds, motor activity, and cardiovascular and respiratory systems in CD-1 male mice. We selected a range of doses that correspond to the whole range of human reported use, in order to evaluate the threshold of adverse effects presentation. This study demonstrates that methiopropamine acts as a dopaminergic and noradrenergic stimulating drug and that the highest doses (10-30 mg/kg) impair the visual placing response, facilitate the acoustic and tactile response, induce hypothermia, increase mechanical and thermal analgesia, stimulate locomotor activity, induce motor stereotypies, and strongly affected cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, increasing heart rate, breath rate, and blood pressure but reducing oxygen saturation. On the contrary, lower doses do not show any of those effects. We hypothesize that there is a range of doses that do enhance performance but do not seem hazardous to users: this gap could induce the perception of safety and increase the abuser population.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia
11.
Neurotoxicology ; 78: 36-46, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050087

RESUMO

The increased diffusion of the so-called novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and their continuous change in structure andconceivably activity has led to the need of a rapid screening method to detect their biological effects as early as possible after their appearance in the market. This problem is very felt in forensic pathology and toxicology, so the preclinical study is fundamental in the approach to clinical and autopsy cases of difficult interpretation intoxication. Zebrafish is a high-throughput suitable model to rapidly hypothesize potential aversive or beneficial effects of novel molecules. In the present study, we measured and compared the behavioral responses to two novel neuroactive drugs, namely APINAC, a new cannabimimetic drug, and methiopropamine (MPA), a methamphetamine-like compound, on zebrafish larvae (ZL) and adult mice. By using an innovative statistical approach (general additive models), it was found that the spontaneous locomotor activity was impaired by the two drugs in both species: the disruption extent varied in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Sensorimotor function was also altered: i) the visual object response was reduced in mice treated with APINAC, whereas it was not after exposure to MPA; ii) the visual placing responses were reduced after treatment with both NPS in mice. Furthermore, the visual motor response detected in ZL showed a reduction after treatment with APINAC during light-dark and dark-light transition. The same pattern was found in the MPA exposed groups only at the dark-light transition, while at the transition from light to dark, the individuals showed an increased response. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the impairment of spontaneous motor and sensorimotor behavior induced by MPA and APINAC administration in both species, thus confirming the usefulness of ZL as a model for a rapid behavioural-based drug screening.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/toxicidade , Animais , Indazóis/toxicidade , Masculino , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tiofenos/toxicidade
12.
Neurotoxicology ; 76: 17-32, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610187

RESUMO

JWH-018-Cl, JWH-018-Br and AM-2201 (JWH-018 halogenated-derivatives; JWH-018-R compounds) are synthetic cannabinoid agonists illegally marketed as "Spice", "K2", "herbal blend" and research chemicals for their cannabis-like psychoactive effects. In rodents, JWH-018 and its halogenated derivatives reproduce the typical effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), i.e. hypothermia, analgesia, hypolocomotion and akinesia. Yet, the effects of JWH-018-R compounds on sensorimotor functions are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of an acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of JWH-018-R compounds (0.01-6 mg/kg) on sensorimotor functions in mice and to compare them to those caused by the reference compound JWH-018 and Δ9-THC. A well validated battery of behavioral tests was used to investigate the effects of these synthetic cannabinoids on the visual, auditory and tactile responses in mice, while the pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) test was used to investigate their effect on sensorimotor gating. The effect of the synthetic cannabinoids on spontaneous locomotion was also measured by a video tracking analysis to assess potential cannabinoid-induced motor impairment. Results showed that, similarly to JWH-018, systemic administration of JWH-018-R compounds inhibits sensorimotor and PPI responses at lower doses (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and reduced spontaneous locomotion at intermediate/high doses (1-6 mg/kg). All effects were prevented by the administration of the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 thus confirming a CB1 receptor-mediated action. Finding that lower doses of JWH-018-R compounds selectively impair sensorimotor and PPI responses without affecting locomotion should be carefully considered to better understand the potential danger that halogenated-derivatives of JWH-018 may pose to public health, with particular reference to decreased performance in driving and hazardous works.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Drogas Ilícitas/toxicidade , Indóis/toxicidade , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Canabinoides/química , Halogenação , Indóis/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Naftalenos/química
14.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736697

RESUMO

AKB48 is a designer drug belonging to the indazole synthetic cannabinoids class, illegally sold as herbal blend, incense, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo pharmacological and behavioral effects of AKB48 in male rats and measured the pharmacodynamic effects of AKB48 and simultaneously determined its plasma pharmacokinetic. AKB48 at low doses preferentially stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell (0.25 mg/kg) and impaired visual sensorimotor responses (0.3 mg/kg) without affecting acoustic and tactile reflexes, which are reduced only to the highest dose tested (3 mg/kg). Increasing doses (0.5 mg/kg) of AKB48 impaired place preference and induced hypolocomotion in rats. At the highest dose (3 mg/kg), AKB48 induced hypothermia, analgesia, and catalepsy; inhibited the startle/pre-pulse inhibition test; and caused cardiorespiratory changes characterized by bradycardia and mild bradipnea and SpO2 reduction. All behavioral and neurochemical effects were fully prevented by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251. AKB48 plasma concentrations rose linearly with increasing dose and were correlated with changes in the somatosensory, hypothermic, analgesic, and cataleptic responses in rats. For the first time, this study shows the pharmacological and behavioral effects of AKB48 in rats, correlating them to the plasma levels of the synthetic cannabinoid. Chemical Compound Studied in This Article: AKB48 (PubChem CID: 57404063); AM251 (PubChem CID: 2125).

15.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(6): 1797-1808, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154497

RESUMO

MDPV is a synthetic cathinone illegally marketed and consumed for its psychostimulant effects, which are similar to those produced by cocaine, amphetamines, and MDMA. Clinical reports indicate that MDPV produces euphoria, increases alertness, and at high doses causes agitation, psychosis, tachycardia and hypertension, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and even death. In rodents, MDPV reproduces the typical physiological effects of psychostimulant drugs, demonstrating greater potency than cocaine. Nevertheless, its role in aggressive behavior has been reported but not yet experimentally confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and repeated MDPV (0.01-10 mg/kg i.p.) administration on aggressive behavior in mice and to compare them with those of cocaine (0.01-10 mg/kg i.p.) administration. To this purpose, the resident-intruder test in isolated mice and the spontaneous and stimulated aggressiveness tests for group-housed mice were employed. The present study shows for the first time that MDPV enhances aggressive behavior and locomotion in mice with greater potency and efficacy than cocaine treatment. Moreover, the aggressive and locomotor responses are enhanced after repeated administration, indicating that a sensitization mechanism comes into play. These results, although from preclinical investigation, are suggestive that human MDPV intake could be a problem for public health and the criminal justice system. Thus, investigation by police officers and medical staff is needed to prevent interpersonal violence induced by the consumption of synthetic cathinones.


Assuntos
Agressão , Benzodioxóis/toxicidade , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Pirrolidinas/toxicidade , Animais , Cocaína/toxicidade , Toxicologia Forense , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Medicamentos Sintéticos/toxicidade
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915427

RESUMO

4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine (25I-NBOMe), commonly called "N-Bomb," is a synthetic phenethylamine with psychedelic and entactogenic effects; it was available on the Internet both as a legal alternative to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and as a surrogate of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), but now it has been scheduled among controlled substances. 25I-NBOMe acts as full agonist on serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors. Users are often unaware of ingesting fake LSD, and several cases of intoxication and fatalities have been reported. In humans, overdoses of "N-Bomb" can cause tachycardia, hypertension, seizures, and agitation. Preclinical studies have not yet widely investigated the rewarding properties and behavioral effects of this compound in both sexes. Therefore, by in vivo microdialysis, we evaluated the effects of 25I-NBOMe on dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) transmissions in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male and female rats. Moreover, we investigated the effect of 25I-NBOMe on sensorimotor modifications as well as body temperature, nociception, and startle/prepulse inhibition (PPI). We showed that administration of 25I-NBOMe affects DA transmission in the NAc shell in both sexes, although showing different patterns; moreover, this compound causes impaired visual responses in both sexes, whereas core temperature is heavily affected in females, and the highest dose tested exerts an analgesic effect prominent in male rats. Indeed, this drug is able to impair the startle amplitude with the same extent in both sexes and inhibits the PPI in male and female rats. Our study fills the gap of knowledge on the behavioral effects of 25I-NBOMe and the risks associated with its ingestion; it focuses the attention on sex differences that might be useful to understand the trend of consumption as well as to recognize and treat intoxication and overdose symptoms.

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