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2.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(2): 258-271, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative frailty may be a strong predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes. We investigated the association between frailty and clinical outcomes in surgical patients admitted to the ICU. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for relevant articles. We included full-text original English articles that used any frailty measure, reporting results of surgical adult patients (≥18 yr old) admitted to ICUs with mortality as the main outcome. Data on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and discharge destination were extracted. The quality of included studies and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesised according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies met inclusion criteria. In total, 58 757 patients were included; 22 793 (39.4%) were frail. Frailty was associated with an increased risk of short-term (risk ratio [RR]=2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-3.56) and long-term mortality (RR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.32-5.37). Frail patients had longer ICU length of stay (mean difference [MD]=1.5 days; 95% CI: 0.8-2.2) and hospital length of stay (MD=3.9 days; 95% CI: 1.4-6.5). Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in frail patients (MD=22 h; 95% CI: 1.7-42.3) and they were more likely to be discharged to a healthcare facility (RR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.36-4.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with frailty requiring postoperative ICU admission for elective and non-elective surgeries had increased risk of mortality, lengthier admissions, and increased likelihood of non-home discharge. Preoperative frailty assessments and risk stratification are essential in patient and clinician planning, and critical care resource utilisation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020210121.

3.
Intern Med J ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older frail patients are more likely to have timely goals of care (GOC) documentation than non-frail patients. AIMS: To investigate whether timely documentation of GOC within 72 h differed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), compared with the pre-COVID era (2019) for older frail patients. METHODS: Multi-site retrospective cohort study was conducted in two public hospitals where all consecutive frail adult patients aged ≥65 years were admitted under medical units for at least 24 h between March 1st and October 31st, in 2019 and between March 1st and October 31st, 2020 were included. The GOC was derived from electronic records. Frailty status was derived from hospital coding data using Hospital Frailty Risk Score (frail≥5). The primary outcome was the documentation of GOC within 72 h of hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, rapid response call, intensive care unit admission, prolonged hospital length of stay (≥10 days), and time to the documentation of GOC. RESULTS: The study population comprised 2021 frail patients admitted in 2019, and 1849 admitted in 2020, aged 81.2 and 90.9 years respectively. The proportion of patients with timely GOC was lower in 2020, than 2019 (48.3% (893/1849) vs. 54.9% (1109/2021); p = 0.021). After adjusting for confounding factors patients in 2020 were less likely to receive timely GOC (odds ratio = 0.77; 95%-CI 0.68-0.88). Overall time to GOC documentation was longer in 2020 (hazard ratio = 0.86; 95%-CI 0.80-0.93). CONCLUSION: Timely GOC documentation occurred less frequently in frail patients during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the pre-COVID-19 era. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melbourne, Australia, successfully halted exponential transmission of COVID-19 via two strict lockdowns during 2020. The impact of such restrictions on healthcare-seeking behaviour is not comprehensively understood, but is of global importance. We explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute, subacute and emergency department (ED) presentations/admissions within a tertiary, metropolitan health service in Melbourne, Australia, over two waves of community transmission (1 March to 20 September 2020). METHODS: We used 4 years of historical data and novel forecasting methods to predict counterfactual hospital activity for 2020, assuming absence of COVID-19. Observed activity was compared with forecasts overall, by age, triage category and for myocardial infarction and stroke. Data were analysed for all patients residing in the health service catchment area presenting between 4 January 2016 and 20 September 2020. RESULTS: ED presentations (n=401 805), acute admissions (n=371 723) and subacute admissions (n=15 676) were analysed. Substantial departures from forecasted presentation levels were observed during both waves in the ED and acute settings, and during the second wave in subacute. Reductions were most marked among those aged >80 and <18 years. Presentations persisted at expected levels for urgent conditions, and ED triage categories 1 and 5, with clear reductions in categories 2-4. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest citizens were willing and able to present with life-threatening conditions during Melbourne's lockdowns, and that switching to telemedicine did not cause widespread spill-over from primary care into ED. During a pandemic, lockdowns may not inhibit appropriate hospital attendance where rates of infectious disease are low.

6.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has effected major changes to healthcare delivery within acute care settings. Rapid response calls (RRCs) in healthcare organisations have been effective at identifying and urgently managing acute clinical deterioration. Code-95 RRC were introduced to prewarn healthcare workers (HCWs) attending to patients suspected or confirmed with COVID-19 infection. AIMS: The primary aim of the study was to identify the personal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs involved in attending Code-95 RRC. We sought to evaluate their perception of risks and effects on wellbeing and identify potential opportunities for improvement at organisational levels. METHODS: We undertook a detailed survey on HCWs attending Code-95 RRCs, including questions that sought to understand the impact of the pandemic as well as their perception of infection risk and emotional wellbeing. This was a substudy of the prospective cross-sectional single-centre survey of HCWs that was conducted over a 3-week period at Frankston Hospital, Victoria, Australia. We adopted a quantitative content analysis approach for free-text responses in this secondary analysis. RESULTS: Four hundred two free-text comments were received from 297 respondents and were analysed. More than two-thirds (68%, 223/297) were female. Of all comments, 39% (155/402) were related to organisational issues including communication, confusion due to constantly changing infection control policies, and insufficient training. Thirty-three percent of comments (133/402) raised issues regarding the adequacy of personal protective equipment. Anxiety was reported in 25% of comments (101/402) with concerns predominantly relating to emotional stress and fatigue, risks of virus exposure and transmitting the infection to others, and COVID-19 precautions impairing care delivery. CONCLUSION(S): Our study raises important issues that have relevance for all healthcare organisations in the management of patients with COVID-19. These include the importance of improving communication, especially when infection control policies are revised, optimising training, maintaining adequate personal protective equipment, and HCW support. Early recognition and management of these issues are crucial to maintain optimal healthcare delivery.

7.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380007

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypercapnia may affect the outcome of sepsis. Very few clinical studies conducted in non-critically ill patients, have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidemia in the context of sepsis. The effect of hypercapnia in critically ill patients with sepsis remains inadequately studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of hypercapnia with hospital mortality in septic critically ill patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in three tertiary public hospitals. Septic critically ill patients from three intensive care units between January 2011 and May 2019 were included. Five cohorts (exposure of at least 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours) were created to account for immortal time bias and informative censoring. The association between hypercapnia exposure and hospital mortality was assessed with multivariable models. Subgroup analyses compared ventilated vs. non-ventilated and pulmonary vs. non-pulmonary sepsis patients. RESULTS: We analyzed 84,819 PaCO2 measurements in 3,153 patients (57.6% male; median age was 62.5 years). After adjustment for key confounders, both in mechanically ventilated and non-ventilated patients and in patients with pulmonary sepsis, there was no independent association of hypercapnia with hospital mortality. In contrast, in ventilated patients, the presence of prolonged exposure to both hypercapnia and acidemia was associated with increased mortality (highest Odds Ratio of 16.5 for at least 120 hours of potential exposure; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: After adjustment, isolated hypercapnia was not associated with increased mortality in septic patients. These hypothesis-generating observations suggest that as hypercapnia is not an independent risk factor for mortality, trials of permissive hypercapnia in sepsis may be safe.

8.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211030837, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290866

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting to hospital with alcohol-induced and gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. Methods: Retrospective study of all patients with alcohol-induced or gallstone-induced pancreatitis during the period 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016. The primary outcome measure was hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included hospital length of stay, requirements for intensive care unit admission, intensive care unit mortality, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, requirement of inotropes and total parenteral nutrition. Results: A total of 642 consecutive patients (49% alcohol; 51% gallstone) were included. No statistically significant differences were found between alcohol-induced and gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis with respect to hospital mortality, requirement for intensive care unit admission, intensive care unit mortality and requirement for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, inotropes or total parenteral nutrition. There was significant difference in hospital length of stay (3.07 versus 4.84; p < 0.0001). On multivariable regression analysis, Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis score (estimate: 0.393; standard error: 0.058; p < 0.0001) and admission haematocrit (estimate: 0.025; standard error: 0.008; p = 0.002) were found to be independently associated with prolonged hospital length of stay. Conclusion: Hospital mortality did not differ between patients with alcohol-induced and gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. The duration of hospital stay was longer with gallstone-induced pancreatitis. Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis score and admission haematocrit were independently associated with hospital length of stay.

9.
Intern Med J ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Code Blues allow a rapid, hospital wide response to acutely deteriorating patients. The concept of frailty is being increasingly recognised as an important element in determining outcomes of critically ill patients. We hypothesised that increasing frailty would be associated with worse outcomes following a Code Blue. AIMS: We investigated the association between increasing frailty and outcomes of Code Blues. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective design of patients admitted to Frankston Hospital in Australia between 1/1/13 and 31/12/17 who triggered a Code Blue. Frailty evaluation was made based on electronic medical records as were the details and the outcomes of the Code Blue. The primary outcome measure was a composite of hospital mortality or Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale ≥3. Secondary outcomes included the immediate outcome of the Code Blue and hospital mortality. RESULTS: 148 of 911 screened patients were included in the final analysis. 73 were deemed 'frail' and the remainder deemed 'fit'. 78% of frail patients reached the primary outcome, compared to 41% of fit patients (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated frailty to be associated with primary outcome (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.28-6.44 p = 0.01). A cardiac aetiology for the Code Blue was also associated with an increased odds of primary outcome (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 1.51-8.05, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is independently associated with the composite outcome of hospital mortality or severe disability following a Code Blue. Frailty is an important tool in prognostication for these patients and may aid in discussions regarding treatment limitations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Intern Med J ; 51(4): 494-505, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To allow better allocation of staff and resources, rapid response teams attending to acutely deteriorating or aggressive patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were pre-warned with the announcement of 'Code-95' with calls. AIM: To assess healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on pre-warning rapid response calls (RRC) with 'Code-95' in announcements when attending to deteriorating or aggressive patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Design: prospective cross-sectional single-centre survey of HCW over a 3-week period. SETTING: tertiary public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: HCW caring for deteriorating or aggressive patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the primary outcome was to assess HCW perspectives in attending Code-95 calls. Secondary outcomes were to identify any differences related to craft group, age, experience or presence of comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 297 responses was analysed; 86.7% of HCW (n = 257) attending Code-95 calls reported anxiety. Medical staff reported greater anxiety in comparison to nursing staff (93.8% vs 78.5%; P = 0.002). Efferent team reported higher anxiety in contrast to afferent team (92.6% vs 58.8%; P = 0.021). There was no significant difference in perceived anxiety based on age (≤40 vs >40 years of age), years of experience (≤5 vs >5 years), comorbidities or mental illness; 54% reported concerns about adequacy of infection-control policies and personal protective equipment; 45% were worried about inadequate training for responding to Code-95 calls. CONCLUSIONS: Most surveyed HCW supported Code-95 announcements pre-warning them of potential COVID-19 exposure when attending a RRC. However, the majority of HCW reported anxiety when attending these calls. Medical and efferent team HCW perceived greater anxiety compared to nursing and afferent team HCW. The Code-95 system to pre-warn rapid response teams may be a useful addition to protecting HCW from infectious diseases, although broader implementation will require greater resourcing, training and support.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): e1001-e1014, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported prone positioning of nonintubated patients with coronavirus diseases 2019-related hypoxemic respiratory failure. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of prone positioning on oxygenation and clinical outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the coronavirus diseases 2019 living systematic review from December 1, 2019, to November 9, 2020. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTION: Studies reporting prone positioning in hypoxemic, nonintubated adult patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data on prone positioning location (ICU vs non-ICU), prone positioning dose (total minutes/d), frequency (sessions/d), respiratory supports during prone positioning, relative changes in oxygenation variables (peripheral oxygen saturation, Pao2, and ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2), respiratory rate pre and post prone positioning, intubation rate, and mortality were extracted. Twenty-five observational studies reporting prone positioning in 758 patients were included. There was substantial heterogeneity in prone positioning location, dose and frequency, and respiratory supports provided. Significant improvements were seen in ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2 (mean difference, 39; 95% CI, 25-54), Pao2 (mean difference, 20 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14-25), and peripheral oxygen saturation (mean difference, 4.74%; 95% CI, 3-6%). Respiratory rate decreased post prone positioning (mean difference, -3.2 breaths/min; 95% CI, -4.6 to -1.9). Intubation and mortality rates were 24% (95% CI, 17-32%) and 13% (95% CI, 6-19%), respectively. There was no difference in intubation rate in those receiving prone positioning within and outside ICU (32% [69/214] vs 33% [107/320]; p = 0.84). No major adverse events were recorded in small subset of studies that reported them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant variability in frequency and duration of prone positioning and respiratory supports applied, prone positioning was associated with improvement in oxygenation variables without any reported serious adverse events. The results are limited by a lack of controls and adjustments for confounders. Whether this improvement in oxygenation results in meaningful patient-centered outcomes such as reduced intubation or mortality rates requires testing in well-designed randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
12.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1362-1366, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768845

RESUMO

A combination of pregabalin and tapentadol may be associated with prolonged encephalopathy.

13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 117, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medical emergency teams (MET) are mostly led by physicians. Some hospitals are currently using nurse practitioners (NP) to lead MET calls. These are no studies comparing clinical outcomes between these two care models. To determine whether NP-led MET calls are associated with lower risk of acute patient deterioration, when compared to intensive care (ICU) registrar (ICUR)-led MET calls. METHODS: The composite primary outcome included recurrence of MET call, occurrence of code blue or ICU admission within 24 h. Secondary outcomes were mortality within 24 h of MET call, length of hospital stay, hospital mortality and proportion of patients discharged home. Propensity score matching was used to reduce selection bias from confounding factors between the ICUR and NP group. RESULTS: A total of 1343 MET calls were included (1070 NP, 273 ICUR led). On Univariable analysis, the incidence of the primary outcome was higher in ICUR-led MET calls (26.7% vs. 20.6%, p = 0.03). Of the secondary outcome measures, mortality within 24 h (3.4% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.002) and hospital mortality (12.7% vs. 20.5%, p = 0.001) were higher in ICUR-led MET calls. Propensity score-matched analysis of 263 pairs revealed the composite primary outcome was comparable between both groups, but NP-led group was associated with reduced risk of hospital mortality (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.91, p = 0.02) and higher likelihood of discharge home (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.2, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Acute patient deterioration was comparable between ICUR- and NP-led MET calls. NP-led MET calls were associated with lower hospital mortality and higher likelihood of discharge home.


Assuntos
Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/normas , Profissionais de Enfermagem/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 106, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented pressure on healthcare system globally. Lack of high-quality evidence on the respiratory management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure (C-ARF) has resulted in wide variation in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Delphi process, an international panel of 39 experts developed clinical practice statements on the respiratory management of C-ARF in areas where evidence is absent or limited. Agreement was defined as achieved when > 70% experts voted for a given option on the Likert scale statement or > 80% voted for a particular option in multiple-choice questions. Stability was assessed between the two concluding rounds for each statement, using the non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test (p < 0·05 was considered as unstable). RESULTS: Agreement was achieved for 27 (73%) management strategies which were then used to develop expert clinical practice statements. Experts agreed that COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is clinically similar to other forms of ARDS. The Delphi process yielded strong suggestions for use of systemic corticosteroids for critical COVID-19; awake self-proning to improve oxygenation and high flow nasal oxygen to potentially reduce tracheal intubation; non-invasive ventilation for patients with mixed hypoxemic-hypercapnic respiratory failure; tracheal intubation for poor mentation, hemodynamic instability or severe hypoxemia; closed suction systems; lung protective ventilation; prone ventilation (for 16-24 h per day) to improve oxygenation; neuromuscular blocking agents for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony; avoiding delay in extubation for the risk of reintubation; and similar timing of tracheostomy as in non-COVID-19 patients. There was no agreement on positive end expiratory pressure titration or the choice of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: Using a Delphi method, an agreement among experts was reached for 27 statements from which 20 expert clinical practice statements were derived on the respiratory management of C-ARF, addressing important decisions for patient management in areas where evidence is either absent or limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT04534569.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Humanos
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 45, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a major complication of critical illness. However, its current epidemiology and its treatment with sodium bicarbonate given to correct metabolic acidosis in the ICU are poorly understood. METHOD: This was an international retrospective observational study in 18 ICUs in Australia, Japan, and Taiwan. Adult patients were consecutively screened, and those with early metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and a Base Excess < -4 mEq/L, within 24-h of ICU admission) were included. Screening continued until 10 patients who received and 10 patients who did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h (early bicarbonate therapy) were included at each site. The primary outcome was ICU mortality, and the association between sodium bicarbonate and the clinical outcomes were assessed using regression analysis with generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: We screened 9437 patients. Of these, 1292 had early metabolic acidosis (14.0%). Early sodium bicarbonate was given to 18.0% (233/1292) of these patients. Dosing, physiological, and clinical outcome data were assessed in 360 patients. The median dose of sodium bicarbonate in the first 24 h was 110 mmol, which was not correlated with bodyweight or the severity of metabolic acidosis. Patients who received early sodium bicarbonate had higher APACHE III scores, lower pH, lower base excess, lower PaCO2, and a higher lactate and received higher doses of vasopressors. After adjusting for confounders, the early administration of sodium bicarbonate was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.62) for ICU mortality. In patients with vasopressor dependency, early sodium bicarbonate was associated with higher mean arterial pressure at 6 h and an aOR of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.19) for ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early metabolic acidosis is common in critically ill patients. Early sodium bicarbonate is administered by clinicians to more severely ill patients but without correction for weight or acidosis severity. Bicarbonate therapy in acidotic vasopressor-dependent patients may be beneficial and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , APACHE , Acidose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
J Perioper Pract ; 31(10): 391-398, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current guidelines recommend withholding sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors perioperatively due to concerns of euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis. However, such guidelines are largely based on case reports and small case series, many extrapolated from non-surgical patients. The aim was to investigate whether withholding sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors as per current perioperative guidelines was associated with a reduction in serious adverse events, including euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: Instances of perioperative management of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, over a four-year period were classified into two categories: those where sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors were withheld as per guidelines and those where sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors were administered in the perioperative period. The primary outcome was 'total major perioperative complications': a composite of serious adverse events including euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, acute kidney injury, urosepsis and death. RESULTS: Eighty-two instances in 64 patients were included. Withholding sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors was associated with an increased incidence of total major perioperative complications and poorer glycaemic control postoperatively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that withholding sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors perioperatively (OR = 13.15; 95% CI = 1.8-138.9) and preoperative urea (OR 1.85 (95% CI = 1.17-3.43) were independently associated with an increase in total major postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Withholding sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors as per current guidelines was associated with an increase in postoperative complications and reduced glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
17.
J Patient Exp ; 7(5): 697-702, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294603

RESUMO

Good quality sleep is considered to be essential for healthy living and recovering from illness. It would be logical to think that good quality sleep is most required when a patient is critically ill in an intensive care unit (ICU). Several studies have demonstrated poor quality of sleep while the patients are in ICU. Subjective tools such as questionnaires while simple are unreliable to accurately assess sleep quality. Relatively few studies have used standardized polysomnography. The use of novel biological markers of sleep such as serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations may help in conjunction with polysomnography to assess sleep quality in critically ill patients. Attempts to improve sleep included nonpharmacological interventions including the use of earplugs, eye sleep masks, and pharmacological agents including ketamine, propofol, dexmedetomidine, and benzodiazepines. The evidence for these interventions remains unclear. Further research is needed to assess quality of sleep and improve the sleep quality in intensive care settings.

19.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hospitalised frail older patients are at risk of clinical deterioration. Early goals of care documentation (GOC) is vital to avoid futile/unwarranted interventions in the event of deterioration. We aimed to investigate the impact of frailty on timely GOC and its association with clinical outcomes in hospitalised older patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Single-centre retrospective study of all medical patients aged ≥80 years admitted to acute medical unit between 1/3/2015 and 31/8/2015, with GOC derived from electronic records. Frailty was measured using Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) derived from hospital coding data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome compared proportions timely GOC within 72-h between frail (HFRS≥5) and non-frail (HFRS<5) patients. Exploratory secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, rapid response calls (RRCs), prolonged length of stay (LOS), and 28-day readmission rates. RESULTS: 529 (47.3%) of the 1118 admitted patients were frail. Timely GOC occurred in 50% (559/1118), more commonly in frail patients (283/529, 53.5%) than non-frail patients (276/589, 46.9%), p = 0.027. Frailty was positively associated with timely GOC independent of age and sex (OR = 1.28; 95%-CI = 1.01-163; p = 0.041). In univariable analyses, timely GOC was associated with greater in-hospital mortality, RRCs, and hospital LOS in both frail and non-frail patients (all p < 0.05); and greater 28-day readmissions only among frail patients (p = 0.028). Multivariable regression demonstrated timely GOC was associated only with in-hospital mortality in both frail and non-frail patients, independent of age and sex. CONCLUSION: Older frail hospitalised patients were more likely to have timely GOC than older non-frail patients. Timely GOC in such patients may avoid burdensome treatments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520937842, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865076

RESUMO

Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) refers to a group of acquired disorders associated with progressive destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile ducts. We report a case of meropenem-induced VBDS in a patient who had undergone surgical repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Meropenem was used to treat Serratia marcescens isolated from blood, urine, sputum, and wound swab cultures. The patient developed severe mixed liver injury with no obstruction noted in radiological imaging. Because of the patient's increasing serum bilirubin level, VBDS was suspected and the meropenem was therefore changed to ciprofloxacin on postoperative day 18. Although the bilirubin level decreased, meropenem was restarted 3 days later because of clinical concerns regarding worsening fever and sepsis. Restarting meropenem was associated with an immediate increase in the serum bilirubin level. This further increase in bilirubin after reintroduction of meropenem strongly suggested meropenem-induced VBDS. The antibiotic therapy was changed from meropenem to ciprofloxacin and metronidazole, leading to a dramatic decrease in the bilirubin level to normal within a few weeks. In patients receiving meropenem, VBDS as a cause of deranged liver function and cholestasis should be considered after ruling out mechanical and other probable causes of liver injury.


Assuntos
Colestase , Ductos Biliares , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Humanos , Fígado , Testes de Função Hepática , Meropeném/efeitos adversos
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