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2.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568295

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) arises in peribronchial locations and infiltrates the bronchial submucosa, including about 15% of lung cancer cases. Despite decades of research, the prognosis for SCLC patients remains poor because this tumor is characterized by an exceptionally high proliferative rate, strong tendency for early widespread metastasis and acquired chemoresistance. Omics profiling revealed that SCLC harbor extensive chromosomal rearrangements and a very high mutation burden. This led to the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy, which however resulted in a prolonged benefit only for a small subset of patients. Thus, the present review discusses the rationale and limitations of immunotherapeutic approaches, presenting the current biological understanding of aberrant signaling pathways that might be exploited with new potential treatments. In particular, new agents targeting DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis pathways showed several promising results in different preclinical models. Epigenetic alterations, gene amplifications and mutations can act as biomarkers in this context. Future research and improved clinical outcome for SCLC patients will depend on the integration between these omics and pharmacological studies with clinical translational research, in order to identify specific predictive biomarkers that will be hopefully validated using clinical trials with biomarker-selected targeted treatments.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRAF mutation involved 2-4% of lung adenocarcinoma. Differences in clinicopathologic features and patient outcome exist between V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutated NSCLC. Thus, we sought to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of BRAF mutations in a real-life population of advanced-NSCLC, investigating the potential prognostic significance of distinct genetic alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present multicenter Italian retrospective study involved advanced BRAF mutant NSCLC. Complete clinicopathologic data were evaluated for BRAF V600E and non-V600E patients. RESULTS: A total of 44 BRAFmut NSCLC patients were included (V600E, n = 23; non-V600E, n = 21). No significant differences in survival outcome and treatment response were documented, according to V600E vs. non-V600E mutations, although a trend towards prolonged PFS was observed in the V600E subgroup (median PFS = 11.3 vs. 6.0 months in non-V600E). In the overall population, ECOG PS and age significantly impacted on OS, while bone lesions were associated with shorter PFS. Compared to immunotherapy, first-line chemotherapy was associated with longer OS in the overall population, and especially in the BRAF V600E subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report on real-life data from a retrospective cohort of advanced-NSCLC harboring BRAF alterations. Our study offers relevant clues on survival outcome, therapeutic response, and clinicopathologic correlations of BRAF-mutant NSCLC.

4.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 3(2): 100278, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the standard treatment for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. Nevertheless, drug resistance inevitably occurs. Here, we report a case of a patient with metastatic ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma with an impressive resistance to sequential treatment with ALK TKIs mediated by YES1 and MYC amplification in a contest of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and high progressive chromosomal instability. METHODS: The patient received, after chemotherapy and 7 months of crizotinib, brigatinib and lorlatinib with no clinical benefit to both treatments. A study of resistance mechanisms was performed with whole exome sequencing on different biological samples; primary cell lines were established from pleural effusion after lorlatinib progression. RESULTS: At whole exome sequencing analysis, YES1 and MYC amplifications were observed both in the pericardial biopsy and the pleural effusion samples collected at brigatinib and lorlatinib progression, respectively. Increasing chromosomal instability from diagnostic biopsy to pleural effusion was also observed. The addition of dasatinib to brigatinib or lorlatinib restored the sensitivity in primary cell lines; data were confirmed also in H3122_ALK-positive model overexpressing both YES1 and MYC. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, YES1 and MYC amplifications are candidates to justify a rapid acquired resistance to crizotinib entailing primary brigatinib and lorlatinib resistance. In this context, a combination strategy of ALK TKI with dasatinib could be effective to overcome a rapid resistance.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been recognized that increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved outcome from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with various malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is unclear whether baseline BMI may influence outcomes from first-line chemoimmunotherapy combinations. METHODS: In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the association between baseline BMI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of patients with stage IV NSCLC consecutively treated with first-line chemoimmunotherapy combinations. BMI was categorized according to WHO criteria. RESULTS: Among the 853 included patients, 5.3% were underweight; 46.4% were of normal weight; 33.8% were overweight; and 14.5% were obese. Overweight and obese patients were more likely aged ≥70 years (p=0.00085), never smokers (p<0.0001), with better baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status (p=0.0127), and had lower prevalence of central nervous system (p=0.0002) and liver metastases (p=0.0395). Univariable analyses showed a significant difference in the median OS across underweight (15.5 months), normal weight (14.6 months), overweight (20.9 months), and obese (16.8 months) patients (log-rank: p=0.045, log rank test for trend: p=0.131), while no difference was found with respect to the median PFS (log-rank for trend: p=0.510). Neither OS nor PFS was significantly associated with baseline BMI on multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to what was observed in the context of chemotherapy-free ICI-based regimens, baseline BMI does not affect clinical outcomes from chemoimmunotherapy combinations in patients with advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159223

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Most of lung cancer cases are classified as non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). EGFR has become an important therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC patients, and inhibitors targeting the kinase domain of EGFR are currently used in clinical settings. Recently, an increasing interest has emerged toward understanding the mechanisms and biological consequences associated with lipid reprogramming in cancer. Increased uptake, synthesis, oxidation, or storage of lipids has been demonstrated to contribute to the growth of many types of cancer, including lung cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of metabolism in cancer and then explore in more detail the role of lipid metabolic reprogramming in lung cancer development and progression and in resistance to therapies, emphasizing its connection with EGFR signaling. In addition, we summarize the potential therapeutic approaches targeting lipid metabolism for lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
7.
Future Oncol ; 18(7): 771-779, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068173

RESUMO

Based on improved survival from the addition of PD-L1 inhibitors in phase III trials, the combination of immunotherapy and platinum-doublet chemotherapy has become the new standard treatment for extended-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Furthermore, the antiangiogenetic agent bevacizumab showed a longer progression-free survival by targeting VEGF that has pleiotropic effects, including immunosuppressive ones. We, therefore, hypothesized that targeting angiogenesis would improve the efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy. The CeLEBrATE trial is an open-label, multicenter, phase II study designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of carboplatin and etoposide plus bevacizumab and atezolizumab in treatment-naive patients with ES-SCLC. The primary end point is overall survival rate at 1 year, while secondary end points include overall response rate, progression-free survival and toxicity.


Lay abstract Extended-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is a highly aggressive lung cancer subtype, accounting for 13­15% of all lung cancers. For several years, the standard treatment for this disease was based on polychemotherapy, with a rapid disease response but with an equally rapid disease progression. The new standard treatment has recently been changed, based on the results of two large clinical trials, which showed the efficacy and safety of the combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone. Nevertheless, prognosis of ES-SCLC remains poor, and new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Therefore, we designed the CeLEBrATE trial to investigate whether the combination of chemotherapy with antiangiogenetic therapy and immunotherapy is safe and could improve survival in patients with ES-SCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
8.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 9, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062993

RESUMO

Family history of cancer (FHC) is a hallmark of cancer risk and an independent predictor of outcome, albeit with uncertain biologic foundations. We previously showed that FHC-high patients experienced prolonged overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. To validate our findings in patients with NSCLC, we evaluated two multicenter cohorts of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving either first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. From each cohort, 607 patients were randomly case-control matched accounting for FHC, age, performance status, and disease burden. Compared to FHC-low/negative, FHC-high patients experienced longer OS (HR 0.67 [95% CI 0.46-0.95], p = 0.0281), PFS (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.48-0.89]; p = 0.0074) and higher disease control rates (DCR, 86.4% vs 67.5%, p = 0.0096), within the pembrolizumab cohort. No significant associations were found between FHC and OS/PFS/DCR within the chemotherapy cohort. We explored the association between FHC and somatic DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations as underlying mechanism to our findings in a parallel cohort of 118 NSCLC, 16.9% of whom were FHC-high. The prevalence of ≥ 1 somatic DDR gene mutation was 20% and 24.5% (p = 0.6684) in FHC-high vs. FHC-low/negative, with no differences in tumor mutational burden (6.0 vs. 7.6 Mut/Mb, p = 0.6018) and tumor cell PD-L1 expression. FHC-high status identifies NSCLC patients with improved outcomes from pembrolizumab but not chemotherapy, independent of somatic DDR gene status. Prospective studies evaluating FHC alongside germline genetic testing are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103561, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856311

RESUMO

The increasing number of approved drugs along with next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies look out as potential revolution of biomolecular characterization of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, several aspects impact on success rate of NGS in clinical practice: a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of strengths and limits of each technologic diagnostic tool are required. Crucial preliminary step is the selection of the best available sample before testing, aware of clinical condition and setting of disease. Genomic data should be than integrated in the clinical context and matched with available therapeutic options; Molecular Tumor Boards (MTB) are worldwide emerging interdisciplinary groups implemented to transfer the impact of precision medicine in clinical practice. In order to guarantee equity in treatment, these considerations should find their application widely and rapidly. Aim of this review is offering an overview of emerging biomarkers, relative upcoming targeted drugs, and new diagnostic chances with an authors' perspective about a real-life diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm useful for daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão
10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103536, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801697

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertions occur rarely among different cancer types, with the highest frequency reported among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, particularly adenocarcinomas (ADCs). Exon 20 insertions fall back in the tyrosine kinase domain, and can be clustered into two principal groups represented by in frame insertions and three to 21 bp (corresponding to 1-7 amino acids) duplications within amino acids 762 and 774. The identification of these alterations is key for an adequate management of NSCLC patients due to the possibility to treat these patients with specific targeted therapies. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, able to detect several hotspot gene mutations for different patients simultaneously, is the best detection approach due to its higher sensitivity and specificity compared to other techniques. Here we reviewed the principal biological characteristics, the main detection technologies and treatment options for NSCLC patients harbouring EGFR exon 20 insertions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
11.
Tumori ; 108(1): 86-92, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730957

RESUMO

Radiomics has emerged as a noninvasive tool endowed with the potential to intercept tumor characteristics thereby predicting clinical outcome. In a recent study on resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we identified highly prognostic computed tomography (CT) -derived radiomic features (RFs), which in turn were able to discriminate hot from cold tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). We aimed at validating a radiomic model capable of dissecting specific TIME profiles bearing prognostic power in resected NSCLC. The validation cohort included 31 radically resected NSCLCs clinicopathologically matched with the training set (n = 69). TIME was classified in hot and cold according to a multiparametric immunohistochemical analysis involving PD-L1 score and incidence of immune effector phenotypes among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). High- throughput radiomic features (n = 841) extracted from CT images were correlated to TIME parameters to ultimately define prognostic classes. We confirmed PD-1 to CD8 ratio as best predictor of clinical outcome among TIME characteristics. Significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) was observed in patients carrying hot (median OS not reached) vs cold (median OS 22 months; hazard ratio 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.09 -0.82; p = 0.015) immune background, thus validating the prognostic impact of these two TIME categories in resected NSCLC. Importantly, in the validation setting, three out of eight previously identified RFs sharply distinguishing hot from cold TIME were endorsed. Among signature-related RFs, Wavelet-HHH_gldm_HighGrayLevelEmphasis highly performed as descriptor of hot immune contexture (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.81 -1.00; p = 0.01). Based on our findings, Radiomics may decipher specific TIME profiles providing a noninvasive prognostic approach in resected NSCLC and an exploitable predictive strategy in advanced cases.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígenos CD8/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
12.
Tumori ; 108(1): 47-55, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CTLA-4, PD-1 (programmed death-1), and PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: A total of 166 consecutive patients were included. We correlated SNPs with clinical benefit, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and overall survival and evaluated the incidence of SNPs in nonresponder and long clinical benefit groups. RESULTS: Considering the entire cohort, no correlation was found between SNPs and clinical outcome; however, PD-L1 rs4143815 SNP and the long clinical benefit group showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.02). The nonresponder cohort displayed distinctive PD-L1 haplotype (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 SNPs seem to be marginally involved in predicting clinical outcome of NSCLC treated with ICI, but further investigations are required.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(3): 483-488, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥50% metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) and ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 treated with first-line immunotherapy have heterogeneous clinical assessment and outcomes. METHODS: To explore the role of immune-inflammatory surrogates by the validated lung immuno-oncology prognostic score (LIPS) score, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the pretreatment use of steroids, alongside other prognostic variables. A retrospective analysis of 128 patients with PS2 and PD-L1 ≥50% mNSCLC treated between April 2018 and September 2019 with first-line pembrolizumab in a real-world setting was performed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 15.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 32.3% (95% CI: 30.9-33.9) and 3.3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.7), respectively. The NLR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pretreatment steroids results were the only significant prognostic factors on the univariate analysis and independent prognostic factors by the multivariate analysis on both OS and PFS. The LIPS score, including the NLR and pretreatment steroids, identified 29 (23%) favourable-risk patients, with 0 factors, 1-year OS of 67.6% and median PFS of 8.2 months; 57 (45%) intermediate-risk patients, with 1 factor, 1-year OS 32.1% and median PFS 2.7 months; 42 (33%) poor-risk patients, with both factors, 1-year OS of 10.7% and median PFS of 1.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of pre-existing imbalance of the host immune response by combined blood and clinical immune-inflammatory markers may represent a way to unravel the heterogeneous outcome and assessment of patients with mNSCLC and poor PS in the immune-oncology setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771566

RESUMO

In order to study alternatives at the tissue biopsy to study EGFR status in NSCLC patients, we evaluated three different liquid biopsy platforms (plasma, urine and exhaled breath condensate, EBC). We also reviewed the literature of the cfDNA biological sources other than plasma and compared our results with it about the sensitivity to EGFR mutation determination. Twenty-two EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC patients in progression to first-line treatment were enrolled and candidate to osimertinib. Plasma, urine and EBC samples were collected at baseline and every two months until progression. Molecular analysis of cfDNA was performed by ddPCR and compared to tissue results. At progression NGS analysis was performed. The EGFR activating mutation detection reached a sensitivity of 58 and 11% and for the T790M mutation of 45 and 10%, in plasma and urine samples, respectively. Any DNA content was recovered from EBC samples. Considering the plasma monitoring study, the worst survival was associated with positive shedding status; both plasma and urine molecular progression anticipated the radiological worsening. Our results confirmed the role of plasma liquid biopsy in testing EGFR mutational status, but unfortunately, did not evidence any improvement from the combination with alternative sources, as urine and EBC.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(12): 2091-2108, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the phase 3 study entitled ALK in Lung cancer Trial of brigAtinib in 1st Line (ALTA-1L), which is a study of brigatinib in ALK inhibitor-naive advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, brigatinib exhibited superior progression-free survival (PFS) versus crizotinib in the two planned interim analyses. Here, we report the final efficacy, safety, and exploratory results. METHODS: Patients were randomized to brigatinib 180 mg once daily (7-d lead-in at 90 mg once daily) or crizotinib 250 mg twice daily. The primary end point was a blinded independent review committee-assessed PFS. Genetic alterations in plasma cell-free DNA were assessed in relation to clinical efficacy. RESULTS: A total of 275 patients were enrolled (brigatinib, n = 137; crizotinib, n = 138). At study end, (brigatinib median follow-up = 40.4 mo), the 3-year PFS by blinded independent review committee was 43% (brigatinib) versus 19% (crizotinib; median = 24.0 versus 11.1 mo, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.66). The median overall survival was not reached in either group (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.53-1.22). Posthoc analyses suggested an overall survival benefit for brigatinib in patients with baseline brain metastases (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.89). Detectable baseline EML4-ALK fusion variant 3 and TP53 mutation in plasma were associated with poor PFS. Brigatinib exhibited superior efficacy compared with crizotinib regardless of EML4-ALK variant and TP53 mutation. Emerging secondary ALK mutations were rare in patients progressing on brigatinib. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In the ALTA-1L final analysis, with longer follow-up, brigatinib continued to exhibit superior efficacy and tolerability versus crizotinib in patients with or without poor prognostic biomarkers. The suggested survival benefit with brigatinib in patients with brain metastases warrants future study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Compostos Organofosforados , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211043427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide, significantly affecting the outcome of a highly vulnerable group such as cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical impact of COVID-19 infection on outcome and oncologic treatment of cancer patients. PATIENT AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled cancer patients with laboratory and/or radiologic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to our center from February to April 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the clinical data and univariate analyses were performed to investigate the impact of anticancer treatment modifications due to COVID-19 outbreak on the short-term overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 61 patients enrolled, 49 (80%) were undergoing anticancer treatment and 41 (67%) had metastatic disease. Most patients were men; median age was 68 years. Median OS was 46.6 days (40% of deaths occurred within 20 days from COVID-19 diagnosis). Among 59 patients with available data on therapeutic course, 46 experienced consequences on their anticancer treatment schedule. Interruption or a starting failure of the oncologic therapy correlated with significant shorter OS. Anticancer treatment delays did not negatively affect the OS. Lymphocytopenia development after COVID was significantly associated with worst outcome. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 diagnosis in cancer patients may affect their short-term OS, especially in case of interruption/starting failure of cancer therapy. Maintaining/delaying cancer therapy seems not to influence the outcome in selected patients with recent COVID-19 diagnosis.

20.
Tumori ; : 3008916211047888, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved as first-line therapy for advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Some osimertinib-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) were shown to be transient, called transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPO)-clinically benign pulmonary opacities that resolve despite continued osimertinib treatment-and are not associated with the clinical manifestations of typical TKI-associated ILDs. METHODS: In this multicentric study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with osimertinib. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were reviewed by two radiologists and TAPO were classified according to radiologic pattern. We also analyzed associations between TAPO and patients' clinical variables and compared clinical outcomes (time to treatment failure and overall survival) for TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. RESULTS: TAPO were found in 18/92 patients (19.6%), with a median follow-up of 114 weeks. Median onset time was 16 weeks (range 6-80) and median duration time 14 weeks (range 8-37). The most common radiologic pattern was focal ground-glass opacity (54.5%). We did not find any individual clinical variable significantly associated with the onset of TAPO or significant difference in clinical outcomes between TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAPO are benign pulmonary findings observed in patients treated with osimertinib. TAPO variability in terms of CT features can hinder the differential diagnosis with either osimertinib-related mild ILD or tumor progression. However, because TAPO are asymptomatic, it could be reasonable to continue therapy and verify the resolution of the CT findings at follow-up in selected cases.

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