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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076288

RESUMO

Improving health and safety at work has been an important issue for the European Union since the 1980s. The existing literature supports that shift work is associated with multiple indicators of poor health but frequently neglects the potential impact of occupational hazards. This study aims at describing and comparing the exposure to different workplace hazards among shift and other workers before and after 1980. Exposure to different workplace hazards (noise, dust, pollutant, and other physical stressors) were analyzed among 119,413 participants from the UK Biobank cohort. After stratifying the analyses before and after 1980, exposure was compared between shift and other workers. Potential confounding variables (sex, age, ethnicity, education level, occupational category, and neuroticism) were adjusted for in the log-binomial regression. Shift workers had a higher prevalence ratio (PR) than other workers of being exposed to almost all identified hazards both before or after 1980. They were also more likely to be exposed to multiple hazards compared to other workers, both before 1980 (PR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.21-1.30) and after 1980 (PR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.30-1.38). The prevalence of all measured risk factors was higher after 1980 than before 1980 among shift workers. Of note, the work environment has improved overall for other workers. Our findings suggest that changes at the workplace have benefited other workers more than shift workers as they are still more exposed to all occupational hazards.

2.
Stroke ; 51(11): 3279-3285, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies of sleep duration in relation to specific types of stroke are scarce. Moreover, the results are inconclusive and causality remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate whether sleep duration is associated with risk of stroke and its types using observational and Mendelian randomization designs. METHODS: The prospective study included 79 881 women and men (45-79 years of age) who were followed up for incident stroke or death over a mean follow-up of 14.6 years (1 164 646 person-years) through linkage to Swedish Registers. For the Mendelian randomization study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sleep duration were identified from a genome-wide association study. Summarized data for genetic associations with stroke were obtained from publicly available data of the MEGASTROKE and the International Stroke Genetics Consortia. RESULTS: Compared with normal sleep duration, long sleep (≥9 hours per day) was associated with increased risk of total and ischemic stroke (hazard ratios [95% CI], 1.12 [1.03-1.22] and 1.14 [1.03-1.24], respectively), whereas short sleep (<7 h/d) was linked to higher risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.21 [1.03-1.41]). The 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis supported no causal association of short or long sleep duration with ischemic stroke as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study, long sleep duration was associated with increased risk of total and ischemic stroke, whereas short sleep was linked to increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. However, the Mendelian randomization analysis did not show a significant detrimental effect of short or long sleep duration on the risk of total stroke or stroke types.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895918

RESUMO

Studies of sleep duration in relation to the risk of site-specific cancers other than breast cancer are scarce. Furthermore, the available results are inconclusive and the causality remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the potential causal associations of sleep duration with overall and site-specific cancers using the Mendelian randomization (MR) design. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sleep traits identified from a genome-wide association study were used as instrumental variables to estimate the association with overall cancer and 22 site-specific cancers among 367 586 UK Biobank participants. A replication analysis was performed using data from the FinnGen consortium (up to 121 579 individuals). There was suggestive evidence that genetic liability to short-sleep duration was associated with higher odds of cancers of the stomach (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.30; P = .018), pancreas (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.32-3.62; P = .002) and colorectum (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.95; P = .006), but with lower odds of multiple myeloma (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = .047). Suggestive evidence of association of genetic liability to long-sleep duration with lower odds of pancreatic cancer (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79; P = .005) and kidney cancer (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.90; P = .025) was observed. However, none of these associations passed the multiple comparison threshold and two-sample MR analysis using FinnGen data did not confirm these findings. In conclusion, this MR study does not provide strong evidence to support causal associations of sleep duration with risk of overall and site-specific cancers. Further MR studies are required.

4.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 111: 104472, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610410

RESUMO

Executive function is defined as a set of cognitive skills that are necessary to plan, monitor, and execute a sequence of goal-directed complex actions. Executive function is influenced by a variety of factors, including habitual sleep duration and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated in 18,769 Swedish adults (mean age: 61 y) the association between executive function, diabetes, and self-reported sleep duration. We observed a significant interaction between diabetes and sleep duration for the Trail Making Test (TMT) ratio (P < 0.01). This ratio is a measure of executive function where higher values indicate worse performance. Among diabetic participants (n = 1,523), long (defined as ≥9 h per day) vs. normal sleep duration (defined as 7-8 hours per day) was associated with a higher TMT ratio (P < 0.05). Similar significant results were observed in diabetic individuals without pharmacological treatment for diabetes (n = 1,062). Among non-diabetic participants (n = 17,246), no association between long sleep duration and the TMT ratio was observed (P > 0.05). Instead, short (defined as <7 h per day) vs. normal sleep duration was linked to a higher TMT ratio (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the association between sleep duration and executive function differs between diabetic and non-diabetic middle-aged and older adults. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the causality of the relations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(3): 431-435, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853046

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The current study sought to examine whether self-reported sleep duration is linked to an adverse body composition in 19,709 adults aged 45 to 75 years. METHODS: All variables used in the current study were derived from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study. Habitual sleep duration was measured by questionnaires. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance. The main outcome variables were fat mass and fat-free mass (in kg). Analysis of covariance adjusting for age, sex, fat mass in the case of fat-free mass (and vice versa), leisure time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption was used to investigate the association between sleep duration and body composition. RESULTS: Short sleep (defined as ≤ 5 hours sleep per day) and long sleep (defined as 8 or more hours of sleep per day) were associated with lower fat-free mass and higher fat mass, compared with 6 to 7 hours of sleep duration (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: These observations could suggest that both habitual short and long sleep may contribute to two common clinical phenotypes in middle-aged and older humans, ie, body adiposity and sarcopenia. However, the observational nature of our study does not allow for causal interpretation.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Sono , Adiposidade , Idoso , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Privação do Sono/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867766

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether the relationship between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and various sleep parameters [sleep duration, symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and sleep disturbances] varies by age. Methods: Waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose were used to determine MetS status in a cohort (N = 19,691) of middle-aged (aged 45-64 years) and older (aged ≥65 years) subjects. Habitual sleep duration (short, ≤6 h/day; normal, 7-8 h/day; and long ≥9 h/day), sleep disturbances (such as problems with falling and staying asleep), and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, such as snoring and sleep apneas) were measured by questionnaires. Results: Among the participants, 4,941 subjects (25.1%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. In the entire sample, both short and long sleep durations were associated with higher prevalence of MetS as compared to normal sleep duration. When stratified by age, a similar pattern was observed for middle-aged subjects (<65 years old; prevalence ratio (PR) [95% CI], 1.13 [1.06-1.22] for short sleep and 1.26 [1.06-1.50] for long sleep duration). In contrast, in older individuals (≥65 years old), only long sleep duration was linked to a higher prevalence of MetS (1.26 [1.12-1.42]; P < 0.01 for sleep duration × age). In the entire cohort, having at least one SDB symptom ≥4 times per week was linked to an increased prevalence of MetS; however, the PR was higher in middle-aged subjects compared with older subjects (1.50 [1.38-1.63] vs. 1.36 [1.26-1.47], respectively; P < 0.001 for SDB × age). Finally, independent of subjects' age, reports of sleep disturbances (i.e., at least one symptom ≥4 times per week) were associated with a higher likelihood of having MetS (1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P > 0.05 for sleep disturbance × age). Conclusion: Our results suggest that age may modify the associations between some sleep parameters and the prevalence of MetS.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 220: 117-128, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28618313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of epigenetics and transcriptional activity in adolescents may provide knowledge about possible preventive strategies of depression. METHODS: We present a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) and cohort validation analysis of depression in adolescents, in two separate cohorts: discovery (n=93) and validation data set 1 (n=78). The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured from whole blood using the Illumina 450K array. A second validation cohort, validation data set 2, consists of post-mortem brain biopsies from depressed adults (n=58). We performed a MWAS by robust multiple linear regressions of methylation to a modified risk-score assessment of depression. Methylation levels of candidate CpG sites were correlated with expression levels of the associated gene in an independent cohort of 11 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: The methylation state of two CpG sites reliably predicted ratings of depression in adolescents (cg13227623 and cg04102384) (p<10E-06). Cohort validation analysis confirmed cg04102384 - located in the promoter region of microRNA 4646 (MIR4646) - to be hypomethylated in both validation data set 1 and validation data set 2 (p<0.05). Cg04102384 was inversely correlated to expression levels of MIR4646-3p in healthy controls (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: MIR4646 was not differentially expressed in a subset of samples with adolescent depression measured by qRT-PCR measurements. CONCLUSION: We identify a specific MIR4646 associated epigenetic risk site to be associated with depression in adolescents. Cg04102384 putatively regulates gene expression of MIR4646-3p. Target gene prediction and gene set overrepresentation analysis revealed involvement of this miRNA in fatty acid elongation, a process related to omega-3 fatty acids, previously associated with depression.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Epigênese Genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Acetiltransferases/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigenômica , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 45: 23-29, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459922

RESUMO

Shift work has been proposed to promote cognitive disturbances in humans; however, conflicting evidence is also present. By using data from 7143 middle-aged and elderly humans (45-75 years) who participated in the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study, the present analysis sought to investigate whether self-reported shift work history would be associated with performance on the trail making test (TMT). The TMT has been proposed to be a useful neuropsychological tool to evaluate humans' executive cognitive function, which is known to decrease with age. After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, education, and sleep duration), it was observed that current and recent former shift workers (worked shifts during the past 5 years) performed worse on the TMT than nonshift workers. In contrast, performance on the TMT did not differ between past shift workers (off from shift work for more than 5 years) and nonshift workers. Collectively, our results indicate that shift work history is linked to poorer performance on the TMT in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 10: 52, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924971

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patterns. We tested connectivity within three, main resting-state networks: default mode (DMN), sensorimotor (SMN), and salience network (SN) in 30 male participants, grouped based on genotype for the rs9939609 FTO SNP, as well as punishment and reward sensitivity measured by the Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaires. Because obesity is associated with anomalies in both systems, we calculated a BIS/BAS ratio (BBr) accounting for features of both scores. A prominence of BIS over BAS (higher BBr) resulted in increased connectivity in frontal and paralimbic regions. These alterations were more evident in the obesity-associated AA genotype, where a high BBr was also associated with increased SN connectivity in dopaminergic circuitries, and in a subnetwork involved in somatosensory integration regarding food. Participants with AA genotype and high BBr, compared to corresponding participants in the TT genotype, also showed greater DMN connectivity in regions involved in the processing of food cues, and in the SMN for regions involved in visceral perception and reward-based learning. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns influence the sensitivity toward punishment and reward more closely in the AA carriers, predisposing them to developing obesity. Our work explains a complex interaction between genetics, neural patterns, and behavioral measures in determining the risk for obesity and may help develop individually-tailored strategies for obesity prevention.

10.
Eur J Neurosci ; 43(9): 1173-80, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797854

RESUMO

Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imaginação , Comportamento Impulsivo , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recompensa , Adulto , Alelos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
11.
Sleep Med ; 16(1): 87-93, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25441744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. METHODS: A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). RESULTS: Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P < 0.001), compared to adolescents without self-reported sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that reports of sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Exp Gerontol ; 48(12): 1443-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24126083

RESUMO

To examine the association between dietary habits, cognitive functioning and brain volumes in older individuals, data from 194 cognitively healthy individuals who participated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were used. At age 70, participants kept diaries of their food intake for 1week. These records were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score (comprising dietary habits traditionally found in Mediterranean countries, e.g. high intake of fruits and low intake of meat), with higher scores indicating more pronounced MeDi-like dietary habits. Five years later, participants' cognitive capabilities were examined by the seven minute screening (7MS) (a cognitive test battery used by clinicians to screen for dementia), and their brain volumes were measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed to examine the association between the total MeDi score and cognitive functioning and brain volumes. In addition, possible associations between MeDi's eight dietary features and cognitive functioning and brain volumes were investigated. From the eight dietary features included in the MeDi score, pertaining to a low consumption of meat and meat products was linked to a better performance on the 7MS test (P=0.001) and greater total brain volume (i.e. the sum of white and gray matter, P=0.03) when controlling for potential confounders (e.g. BMI) in the analysis. Integrating all dietary features into the total MeDi score explained less variance in cognitive functioning and brain volumes than its single dietary component meat intake. These observational findings suggest that keeping to a low meat intake could prove to be an impact-driven public health policy to support healthy cognitive aging, when confirmed by longitudinal studies. Further, they suggest that the MeDi score is a construct that may mask possible associations of single MeDi features with brain health domains in elderly populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Cognição , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Carne , Análise Multivariada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 13: 110, 2013 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23570420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural imaging studies demonstrate brain tissue abnormalities in eating disorders, yet a quantitative analysis has not been done. METHODS: In global and regional meta-analyses of 9 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies, with a total of 228 eating disorder participants (currently ill with anorexia nervosa), and 240 age-matched healthy controls, we compare brain volumes using global and regional analyses. RESULTS: Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have global reductions in gray (effect size = -0.66) and white matter (effect size = -0.74) and increased cerebrospinal fluid (effect size = 0.98) and have regional decreases in left hypothalamus, left inferior parietal lobe, right lentiform nucleus and right caudate, and no significant increases. No significant difference in hemispheric lateralization was found. CONCLUSIONS: Global and regional meta-analyses suggest that excessive restrained eating as found in those with anorexia nervosa coincides with structural brain changes analogous to clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão
14.
Age (Dordr) ; 35(4): 1495-505, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22791395

RESUMO

In the present study, we tested whether elderly with a high dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would have higher cognitive test scores and greater brain volume than those with low dietary intake of these fatty acids. Data were obtained from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The dietary intake of EPA and DHA was determined by a 7-day food protocol in 252 cognitively healthy elderly (122 females) at the age of 70 years. At age 75, participants' global cognitive function was examined, and their brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different multivariate linear regression models were applied to test our hypothesis: model A (adjusted for gender and age), model B (additionally controlled for lifestyle factors, e.g., education), and model C (further controlled for cardiometabolic factors, e.g., systolic blood pressure). We found that the self-reported 7-day dietary intake of EPA and DHA at the age of 70 years was positively associated with global gray matter volume (P < 0.05, except for model C) and increased global cognitive performance score (P < 0.05). However, no significant associations were observed between the dietary intake of EPA and DHA and global white matter, total brain volume, and regional gray matter, respectively. Further, no effects were observed when examining cognitively impaired (n = 27) elderly as separate analyses. These cross-sectional findings suggest that dietary intake of EPA and DHA may be linked to improved cognitive health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Br J Nutr ; 108(8): 1341-5, 2012 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22214977

RESUMO

Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Produtos do Tabaco , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
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