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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780523

RESUMO

There has been great interest in genetic risk prediction using risk scores in recent years, however, the utility of scores developed in European populations and later applied to non-European populations has not been successful. The goal of this study was to create a methylation risk score (MRS) for metabolic syndrome (MetS), demonstrating the utility of MRS across race groups using cross-sectional data from the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN, N = 614 African Americans (AA)) and the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN, N = 995 European Americans (EA)). To demonstrate this, we first selected cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) sites measured on Illumina Methyl450 arrays previously reported to be significantly associated with MetS and/or component conditions in more than one race/ethnic group (CPT1A cg00574958, PHOSPHO1 cg02650017, ABCG1 cg06500161, SREBF1 cg11024682, SOCS3 cg18181703, TXNIP cg19693031). Second, we calculated the parameter estimates for the 6 CpGs in the HyperGEN data (AA) and used the beta estimates as weights to construct a MRS in HyperGEN (AA), which was validated in GOLDN (EA). We performed association analyses using logistic mixed models to test the association between the MRS and MetS, adjusting for covariates. Results showed the MRS was significantly associated with MetS in both populations. In summary, a MRS for MetS was a strong predictor for the condition across two race groups, suggesting MRS may be useful to examine metabolic disease risk or related complications across race/ethnic groups.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672390

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) is an application of instrumental variable (IV) methods to observational data in which the IV is a genetic variant. MR methods applicable to the general exponential family of distributions are currently not well characterized. We adapt a general linear model framework to the IV setting and propose a general MR method applicable to any full-rank distribution from the exponential family. Empirical bias and coverage are estimated via simulations. The proposed method is compared to several existing MR methods. Real data analyses are performed using data from the REGARDS study to estimate the potential causal effect of smoking frequency on stroke risk in African Americans. In simulations with binary variates and very weak instruments the proposed method had the lowest median [Q1 , Q3 ] bias (0.10 [-3.68 to 3.62]); compared with 2SPS (0.27 [-3.74 to 4.26]) and the Wald method (-0.69 [-1.72 to 0.35]). Low bias was observed throughout other simulation scenarios; as well as more than 90% coverage for the proposed method. In simulations with count variates, the proposed method performed comparably to 2SPS; the Wald method maintained the most consistent low bias; and 2SRI was biased towards the null. Real data analyses find no evidence for a causal effect of smoking frequency on stroke risk. The proposed MR method has low bias and acceptable coverage across a wide range of distributional scenarios and instrument strengths; and provides a more parsimonious framework for asymptotic hypothesis testing compared to existing two-stage procedures.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572780

RESUMO

Cervical cancer tumors with undetectable HPV (HPVU) have been underappreciated in clinical decision making. In this study, two independent CC datasets were used to characterize the largest cohort of HPVU tumors to date (HPVU = 35, HPV+ = 430). Genomic and transcriptome tumor profiles and patient survival outcomes were compared between HPV+ and HPVU tumors. In vitro analyses were done to determine efficacy of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib on HPVU cancer cell lines. Patients with HPVU CC tumors had worse progression-free and overall survival outcomes compared to HPV+ patients. TP53, ARID1A, PTEN, ARID5B, CTNNB1, CTCF, and CCND1 were identified as significantly mutated genes (SMGs) enriched in HPVU tumors, with converging functional roles in cell cycle progression. In vitro HPVU, but not HPV+, cancer cell lines with wild type RB1 were sensitive to palbociclib monotherapy. These results indicate that HPVU status can be translated into the clinic as a predictive biomarker of poor patient response to standard of care treatments. We suggest primary cervix tumors be routinely tested for HPV prior to treatment to identify patients who will benefit from more aggressive precision-driven therapy. Our results identify palbociclib as a lead candidate as an alternative treatment strategy for HPVU CC patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. COPD patients with cachexia or weight loss have increased risk of death independent of body mass index (BMI) and lung function. We tested the hypothesis genetic variation is associated with weight loss in COPD using a genome-wide association study approach. METHODS: Participants with COPD (N = 4308) from three studies (COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and SPIROMICS) were analysed. Discovery analyses were performed in COPDGene with replication in SPIROMICS and ECLIPSE. In COPDGene, weight loss was defined as self-reported unintentional weight loss > 5% in the past year or low BMI (BMI < 20 kg/m2 ). In ECLIPSE and SPIROMICS, weight loss was calculated using available longitudinal visits. Stratified analyses were performed among African American (AA) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants with COPD. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed adjusting for confounders. Fine mapping was performed using a Bayesian approach integrating genetic association results with linkage disequilibrium and functional annotation. Significant gene networks were identified by integrating genetic regions associated with weight loss with skeletal muscle protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. RESULTS: At the single variant level, only the rs35368512 variant, intergenic to GRXCR1 and LINC02383, was associated with weight loss (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-5.6, P = 3.2 × 10-8 ) among AA COPD participants in COPDGene. At the gene level in COPDGene, EFNA2 and BAIAP2 were significantly associated with weight loss in AA and NHW COPD participants, respectively. The EFNA2 association replicated among AA from SPIROMICS (P = 0.0014), whereas the BAIAP2 association replicated in NHW from ECLIPSE (P = 0.025). The EFNA2 gene encodes the membrane-bound protein ephrin-A2 involved in the regulation of developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis such as skeletal muscle. The BAIAP2 gene encodes the insulin-responsive protein of mass 53 kD (IRSp53), a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation. Integration of the gene-based findings participants with PPI data revealed networks of genes involved in pathways such as Rho and synapse signalling. CONCLUSIONS: The EFNA2 and BAIAP2 genes were significantly associated with weight loss in COPD participants. Collectively, the integrative network analyses indicated genetic variation associated with weight loss in COPD may influence skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodelling.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106003, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African. OBJECTIVES: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (ß) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off. RESULTS: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%). CONCLUSIONS: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , AVC Hemorrágico/etnologia , AVC Isquêmico/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores Raciais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117573, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260999

RESUMO

Background The burden of stroke in Africa is high. Understanding how age associates with major modifiable stroke risk factors could inform tailored demographic stroke prevention strategies. Purpose To quantify the magnitude and direction of the effect sizes of key modifiable stroke risk factors according to three age groups: <50 years (young), 50-65 years (middle age) and > 65 years (elderly) in West Africa. Methods This was a case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with CT/MRI scan-typed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using conditional logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) with 95% Confidence Interval of vascular risk factors by age groups. Results Among 3553 stroke cases, 813 (22.9%) were young, 1441 (40.6%) were middle-aged and 1299 (36.6%) were elderly. Among the 5 co-shared risk factors, dyslipidemia with PAR and aOR (95%CI) of 62.20% (52.82-71.58) and 4.13 (2.64-6.46) was highest among the young age group; hypertension with PAR of 94.31% (91.82-96.80) and aOR of 28.93 (15.10-55.44) was highest among the middle-age group. Diabetes with PAR of 32.29%(27.52-37.05) and aOR of 3.49 (2.56-4.75); meat consumption with PAR of 42.34%(32.33-52.35) and aOR of 2.40 (1.76, 3.26); and non-consumption of green vegetables, PAR of 16.81%(12.02-21.60) and aOR of 2.23 (1.60-3.12) were highest among the elderly age group. However confidence intervals of risk estimates overlapped across age groups. Additionally, among the young age group cigarette smoking, psychosocial stress and cardiac disease were independently associated with stroke. Furthermore, education, stress, physical inactivity and salt intake were associated with stroke in the middle-age group while cardiac disease was associated with stroke in the elderly age group. Conclusion There is a differential influence of age on the associations of major risk factors with stroke in this West African cohort. Targeting modifiable factors predominant within an age group may be more effective as a stroke prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(5): 549-560, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) applies instrumental variable (IV) methods to observational data using a genetic variant as an IV. Several Monte-Carlo studies investigate the performance of MR methods with binary outcomes, but few consider them in conjunction with binary risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel MR estimator for scenarios with a binary risk factor and outcome; and compare to existing MR estimators via simulations and real data analysis. METHODS: A bivariate Bernoulli distribution is adapted to the IV setting. Empirical bias and asymptotic coverage probabilities are estimated via simulations. The proposed method is compared to the Wald method, two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS), two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI), and the generalized method of moments (GMM). An analysis is performed using existing data from the CLEAR study to estimate the potential causal effect of smoking on rheumatoid arthritis risk in African Americans. RESULTS: Bias was low for the proposed method and comparable to 2SPS. The Wald method was often biased towards the null. Coverage was adequate for the proposed method, 2SPS, and 2SRI. Coverage for the Wald and GMM methods was poor in several scenarios. The causal effect of ever smoking on rheumatoid arthritis risk was not statistically significant using a variety of genetic instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Simulations suggest the proposed MR method is sound with binary risk factors and outcomes, and comparable to 2SPS and 2SRI in terms of bias. The proposed method also provides more natural framework for hypothesis testing compared to 2SPS or 2SRI, which require ad-hoc variance adjustments.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Causalidade , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética
8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(11): 813-818, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans have the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the United States and also high reinfection rates. The primary objective of this study was to develop a Bayesian model to predict the probability of CT reinfection in African American women using immunogenetic data. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort of CT-infected African American women enrolled at the time they returned to a clinic in Birmingham, AL, for the treatment of a positive routine CT test result. We modeled the probability of CT reinfection within 6 months after treatment using logistic regression in a Bayesian framework. Predictors of interest were presence or absence of an HLA-DQB1*06 allele and CT-specific CD4+ IFN-γ response, both of which we had previously reported were independently associated with CT reinfection risk. RESULTS: Among 99 participants evaluated, the probability of reinfection for those with a CT-specific CD4+ IFN-γ response and no HLA-DQB1*06 alleles was 14.1% (95% credible interval [CI], 3.0%-45.0%), whereas the probability of reinfection for those without a CT-specific CD4+ IFN-γ response and at least one HLA-DQB1*06 allele was 61.5% (95% CI, 23.1%-89.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Our model demonstrated that presence or absence of an HLA-DQB1*06 allele and CT-specific CD4+ IFN-γ response can have an impact on the predictive probability of CT reinfection in African American women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Chlamydia , Reinfecção/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alabama , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama
9.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

10.
Front Genet ; 12: 588452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679876

RESUMO

Background: Indices of left ventricular (LV) structure and geometry represent useful intermediate phenotypes related to LV hypertrophy (LVH), a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) outcomes. Methods and Results: We conducted an exome-wide association study of LV mass (LVM) adjusted to height2.7, LV internal diastolic dimension (LVIDD), and relative wall thickness (RWT) among 1,364 participants of African ancestry (AAs) in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN). Both single-variant and gene-based sequence kernel association tests were performed to examine whether common and rare coding variants contribute to variation in echocardiographic traits in AAs. We then used a data-driven procedure to prioritize and select genes for functional validation using a human induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CM) model. Three genes [myosin VIIA and Rab interacting protein (MYRIP), trafficking protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11), and solute carrier family 27 member 6 (SLC27A6)] were prioritized based on statistical significance, variant functional annotations, gene expression in the hiPSC-CM model, and prior biological evidence and were subsequently knocked down in the hiPSC-CM model. Expression profiling of hypertrophic gene markers in the knockdowns suggested a decrease in hypertrophic expression profiles. MYRIP knockdowns showed a significant decrease in atrial natriuretic factor (NPPA) and brain natriuretic peptide (NPPB) expression. Knockdowns of the heart long chain fatty acid (FA) transporter SLC27A6 resulted in downregulated caveolin 3 (CAV3) expression, which has been linked to hypertrophic phenotypes in animal models. Finally, TRAPPC11 knockdown was linked to deficient calcium handling. Conclusions: The three genes are biologically plausible candidates that provide new insight to hypertrophic pathways.

11.
Epigenetics ; 16(8): 862-875, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100131

RESUMO

Target organ damage (TOD) manifests as vascular injuries in the body organ systems associated with long-standing hypertension. DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes can capture inflammatory processes and gene expression changes underlying TOD. We investigated the association between epigenome-wide DNA methylation and five measures of TOD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH)) in 961 African Americans from hypertensive sibships. A multivariate (multi-trait) model of eGFR, UACR, LVMI, and RWT identified seven CpGs associated with at least one of the traits (cg21134922, cg04816311 near C7orf50, cg09155024, cg10254690 near OAT, cg07660512, cg12661888 near IFT43, and cg02264946 near CATSPERD) at FDR q < 0.1. Adjusting for blood pressure, body mass index, and type 2 diabetes attenuated the association for four CpGs. DNA methylation was associated with cis-gene expression for some CpGs, but no significant mediation by gene expression was detected. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested causality between three CpGs and eGFR (cg04816311, cg10254690, and cg07660512). We also assessed whether the identified CpGs were associated with TOD in 614 African Americans in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study. Out of three CpGs available for replication, cg04816311 was significantly associated with eGFR (p = 0.0003), LVMI (p = 0.0003), and RWT (p = 0.002). This study found evidence of an association between DNA methylation and TOD in African Americans and highlights the utility of using a multivariate-based model that leverages information across related traits in epigenome-wide association studies.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1200-1211, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenome-wide association studies identified the cg00574958 DNA methylation site at the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A) gene to be associated with reduced risk of metabolic diseases (hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome), but the mechanism underlying these associations is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to elucidate whether carbohydrate and fat intakes modulate cg00574958 methylation and the risk of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We examined associations between carbohydrate (CHO) and fat (FAT) intake, as percentages of total diet energy, and the CHO/FAT ratio with CPT1A-cg00574958, and the risk of metabolic diseases in 3 populations (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network, n = 978; Framingham Heart Study, n = 2331; and REgistre GIroní del COR study, n = 645) while adjusting for confounding factors. To understand possible causal effects of dietary intake on the risk of metabolic diseases, we performed meta-analysis, CPT1A transcription analysis, and mediation analysis with CHO and FAT intakes as exposures and cg00574958 methylation as the mediator. RESULTS: We confirmed strong associations of cg00574958 methylation with metabolic phenotypes (BMI, triglyceride, glucose) and diseases in all 3 populations. Our results showed that CHO intake and CHO/FAT ratio were positively associated with cg00574958 methylation, whereas FAT intake was negatively correlated with cg00574958 methylation. Meta-analysis further confirmed this strong correlation, with ß = 58.4 ± 7.27, P = 8.98 x 10-16 for CHO intake; ß = -36.4 ± 5.95, P = 9.96 x 10-10 for FAT intake; and ß = 3.30 ± 0.49, P = 1.48 x 10-11 for the CHO/FAT ratio. Furthermore, CPT1A mRNA expression was negatively associated with CHO intake, and positively associated with FAT intake, and metabolic phenotypes. Mediation analysis supports the hypothesis that CHO intake induces CPT1A methylation, hence reducing the risk of metabolic diseases, whereas FAT intake inhibits CPT1A methylation, thereby increasing the risk of metabolic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the proportion of total energy supplied by CHO and FAT can have a causal effect on the risk of metabolic diseases via the epigenetic status of CPT1A.Study registration at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN)-NCT01023750; and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS)-NCT00005121.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 969-983, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839606

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled the analysis of rare variants (RVs) associated with complex phenotypes. Commonly used RV association tests have limited scope to leverage variant functions. We propose STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information), a scalable and powerful RV association test method that effectively incorporates both variant categories and multiple complementary annotations using a dynamic weighting scheme. For the latter, we introduce 'annotation principal components', multidimensional summaries of in silico variant annotations. STAAR accounts for population structure and relatedness and is scalable for analyzing very large cohort and biobank whole-genome sequencing studies of continuous and dichotomous traits. We applied STAAR to identify RVs associated with four lipid traits in 12,316 discovery and 17,822 replication samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. We discovered and replicated new RV associations, including disruptive missense RVs of NPC1L1 and an intergenic region near APOC1P1 associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Simulação por Computador , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 153, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score was shown to predict insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in healthy adults. However, the molecular basis underlying the LPIR utility for classification remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify small molecule lipids associated with variation in the LPIR score, a weighted index of lipoproteins measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 980). METHODS: Linear mixed effects models were used to test the association between the LPIR score and 413 lipid species and their principal component analysis-derived groups. Significant associations were tested for replication with homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), a phenotype correlated with the LPIR score (r = 0.48, p <  0.001), in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study (n = 590). RESULTS: In GOLDN, 319 lipids were associated with the LPIR score (false discovery rate-adjusted p-values ranging from 4.59 × 10- 161 to 49.50 × 10- 3). Factors 1 (triglycerides and diglycerides/storage lipids) and 3 (mixed lipids) were positively (ß = 0.025, p = 4.52 × 10- 71 and ß = 0.021, p = 5.84 × 10- 41, respectively) and factor 2 (phospholipids/non-storage lipids) was inversely (ß = - 0.013, p = 2.28 × 10- 18) associated with the LPIR score. These findings were replicated for HOMA-IR in the HAPI Heart Study (ß = 0.10, p = 1.21 × 10- 02 for storage, ß = - 0.13, p = 3.14 × 10- 04 for non-storage, and ß = 0.19, p = 8.40 × 10- 07 for mixed lipids). CONCLUSIONS: Non-storage lipidomics species show a significant inverse association with the LPIR metabolic dysfunction score and present a promising focus for future therapeutic and prevention studies.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipidômica , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 100, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cachexia contributes to increased mortality and reduced quality of life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and may be associated with underlying gene expression changes. Our goal was to identify differential gene expression signatures associated with COPD cachexia in current and former smokers. METHODS: We analyzed whole-blood gene expression data from participants with COPD in a discovery cohort (COPDGene, N = 400) and assessed replication (ECLIPSE, N = 114). To approximate the consensus definition using available criteria, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low body mass index (BMI) (< 20 kg/m2) and 1/3 criteria: decreased muscle strength (six-minute walk distance < 350 m), anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl), and low fat-free mass index (FFMI) (< 15 kg/m2 among women and < 17 kg/m2 among men) in COPDGene. In ECLIPSE, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low BMI and 3/5 criteria: decreased muscle strength, anorexia, abnormal biochemistry (anemia or high c-reactive protein (> 5 mg/l)), fatigue, and low FFMI. Differential gene expression was assessed between cachectic and non-cachectic subjects, adjusting for age, sex, white blood cell counts, and technical covariates. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed using MSigDB. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD cachexia was 13.7% in COPDGene and 7.9% in ECLIPSE. Fourteen genes were differentially downregulated in cachectic versus non-cachectic COPD patients in COPDGene (FDR < 0.05) and ECLIPSE (FDR < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Several replicated genes regulating heme metabolism were downregulated among participants with COPD cachexia. Impaired heme biosynthesis may contribute to cachexia development through free-iron buildup and oxidative tissue damage.


Assuntos
Caquexia/genética , Caquexia/metabolismo , Heme/genética , Heme/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Caquexia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Chem ; 66(5): 718-726, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) modulates salivary α-amylase levels and is associated with postprandial glycemic traits. Whether AMY1-CNV plays a role in age-mediated change in insulin resistance (IR) is uncertain. METHODS: We measured AMY1-CNV using duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in two studies, the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS, n = 749) and the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drug and Diet Network study (GOLDN, n = 980), and plasma metabolomic profiles in the BPRHS. We examined the interaction between AMY1-CNV and age by assessing the relationship between age with glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D) according to high or low copy numbers of the AMY1 gene. Furthermore, we investigated associations between metabolites and interacting effects of AMY1-CNV and age on T2D risk. RESULTS: We found positive associations of IR with age among subjects with low AMY1-copy-numbers in both studies. T2D was marginally correlated with age in participants with low AMY1-copy-numbers but not with high AMY1-copy-numbers in the BPRHS. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis identified the pentose metabolic pathway based on metabolites that were associated with both IR and the interactions between AMY1-CNV and age. Moreover, in older participants, high AMY1-copy-numbers tended to be associated with lower levels of ribonic acid, erythronic acid, and arabinonic acid, all of which were positively associated with IR. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence supporting a role of AMY1-CNV in modifying the relationship between age and IR. Individuals with low AMY1-copy-numbers tend to have increased IR with advancing age.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , alfa-Amilases Salivares/genética , Fatores Etários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 111, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039707

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], we were notified that Fig. 3 has "Fig. 1" posted on the top of it and Figs. 4 and 5 have "Genomic Position" in a different spot.

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1407-1415, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916850

RESUMO

Rationale: Limited information is available on racial/ethnic differences in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Objectives: Determine effects of race/ethnicity and ancestry on mortality and disease outcomes in diverse patients with PAH.Methods: Patients with Group 1 PAH were included from two national registries with genome-wide data and two local cohorts, and further incorporated in a global meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for transplant-free, all-cause mortality in Hispanic patients with non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) for inpatient-specific mortality in patients with PAH were also calculated for race/ethnic groups from an additional National Inpatient Sample dataset not included in the meta-analysis.Measurements and Main Results: After covariate adjustment, self-reported Hispanic patients (n = 290) exhibited significantly reduced mortality versus NHW patients (n = 1,970) after global meta-analysis (HR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.41-0.87]; P = 0.008). Although not significant, increasing Native American genetic ancestry appeared to account for part of the observed mortality benefit (HR, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.23-1.01]; P = 0.053) in the two national registries. Finally, in the National Inpatient Sample, an inpatient mortality benefit was also observed for Hispanic patients (n = 1,524) versus NHW patients (n = 8,829; OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.50-0.84]; P = 0.001). An inpatient mortality benefit was observed for Native American patients (n = 185; OR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.15-0.93]; P = 0.034).Conclusions: This study demonstrates a reproducible survival benefit for Hispanic patients with Group 1 PAH in multiple clinical settings. Our results implicate contributions of genetic ancestry to differential survival in PAH.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(1): e1008544, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978080

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of the small and isolated Greenlandic population is advantageous for identification of novel genetic variants associated with cardio-metabolic traits. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), to expand the knowledge of the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying obesity. Stage 1 BMI-association analyses were performed in 4,626 Greenlanders. Stage 2 replication and meta-analysis were performed in additional cohorts comprising 1,058 Yup'ik Alaska Native people, and 1,529 Greenlanders. Obesity-related traits were assessed in the stage 1 study population. We identified a common variant on chromosome 11, rs4936356, where the derived G-allele had a frequency of 24% in the stage 1 study population. The derived allele was genome-wide significantly associated with lower BMI (beta (SE), -0.14 SD (0.03), p = 3.2x10-8), corresponding to 0.64 kg/m2 lower BMI per G allele in the stage 1 study population. We observed a similar effect in the Yup'ik cohort (-0.09 SD, p = 0.038), and a non-significant effect in the same direction in the independent Greenlandic stage 2 cohort (-0.03 SD, p = 0.514). The association remained genome-wide significant in meta-analysis of the Arctic cohorts (-0.10 SD (0.02), p = 4.7x10-8). Moreover, the variant was associated with a leaner body type (weight, -1.68 (0.37) kg; waist circumference, -1.52 (0.33) cm; hip circumference, -0.85 (0.24) cm; lean mass, -0.84 (0.19) kg; fat mass and percent, -1.66 (0.33) kg and -1.39 (0.27) %; visceral adipose tissue, -0.30 (0.07) cm; subcutaneous adipose tissue, -0.16 (0.05) cm, all p<0.0002), lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.12 (0.04), p = 0.00021), and favorable lipid levels (triglyceride, -0.05 (0.02) mmol/l, p = 0.025; HDL-cholesterol, 0.04 (0.01) mmol/l, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, we identified a novel variant, where the derived G-allele possibly associated with lower BMI in Arctic populations, and as a consequence also leaner body type, lower insulin resistance, and a favorable lipid profile.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Inuítes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiposidade , Colesterol/sangue , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Groenlândia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Metaboloma , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1046, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection and a leading cause of long-term neurological and sensory sequelae, the most common being sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Despite extensive research, clinical or laboratory markers to identify CMV infected children with increased risk for disease have not been identified. This study utilizes viral whole-genome next generation-sequencing (NGS) of specimens from congenitally infected infants to explore viral diversity and specific viral variants that may be associated with symptomatic infection and SNHL. METHODS: CMV DNA from urine specimens of 30 infants (17 asymptomatic, 13 symptomatic) was target enriched and next generation sequenced resulting in 93% coverage of the CMV genome allowing analysis of viral diversity. RESULTS: Variant frequency distribution was compared between children with symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV and those with (n = 13) and without (n = 17) hearing loss. The CMV genes UL48A, UL88, US19 and US22 were found to have an increase in nucleotide diversity in symptomatic children; while UL57, UL20, UL104, US14, UL115, and UL35 had an increase in diversity in children with hearing loss. An analysis of single variant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic children found UL55 to have the highest number, while the most variants associated with SNHL were in the RL11 gene family. In asymptomatic infants with SNHL, mutations were observed more frequently in UL33 and UL20. CONCLUSION: CMV genomes from infected newborns can be mapped to 93% of the genome at a depth allowing accurate and reproducible analysis of polymorphisms for variant and gene discovery that may be linked to symptomatic and hearing loss outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Criança , Citomegalovirus/classificação , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , DNA Viral/metabolismo , DNA Viral/urina , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/complicações , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
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