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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is found to be associated with the development and progression of gout, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases and several others. However, consistent recommendation in the management of hyperuricemia among physicians in India is absent. This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and barriers in the management of hyperuricemia among physicians in India. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a telephonically-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 physicians treating hyperuricemia patients with co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome etc. The questionnaire included 25 questions on qualitative and quantitative aspects. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (binary logistic regression) was used to identify the relationship between knowledge scores across different physician factors. RESULTS: A total of 350 responses were obtained with a response rate of 100%. Majority of the physicians (90%) were male and 10% were female with median age of 45.5 ± 12.2 years. Mean scores for knowledge and attitude were 7.4 ± 2.35 and 12.1 ± 1.6, respectively. 66.1% (230) of physicians had adequate knowledge score, while the remaining 33.9% (118) had inadequate score. Irrespective of comorbidity status, no change in the attitude of physicians towards management of hyperuricemia was found. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the majority of physicians demonstrated adequate level of knowledge, positive/favourable attitude and reported optimal treatment practices for the management of hyperuricemia while exhibiting a few perceived barriers. Nevertheless, facilitating widespread physician awareness about the benefits of optimal management of hyperuricemia is warranted.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Médicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/terapia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470191

RESUMO

The concept of SGLT2-inhibition, once regarded as a non-physiological approach to glycemia control, now finds a foundational relevance in risk-modification for cardiovascular, kidney, and metabolic outcomes, spanning beyond type-2 diabetes. Major studies have proven meaningful improvements in various clinical outcomes, with different SGLT2-i agents. Apart from glycosuria, SGLT2-inhibition is associated with several patho-physiological effects, which may contribute to the clinical benefits seen with these agents. This narrative review is an attempt to appraise the different patho-physiological effects mediated by SGLT2-inhibition, based on contemporary evidence. The review classifies these effects in the acronym of EUPHORIA, and grades the possible relevance of each effect, in improving clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Euforia , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488059

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the safety with respect to QTc prolongation and effectiveness of Teneligliptin in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Retrospective data of T2DM patients on teneligliptin 20 mg or 40 mg once daily as a monotherapy or add-on therapy and having ECG records (before and after teneligliptin initiation) was collected. Safety was evaluated by change in QTc interval and effectiveness was evaluated by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), and haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) from baseline to 12-weeks. RESULTS: There was no significant change in mean QTc interval from baseline [418.68 milli seconds (ms) to 419 ms; mean change +0.33 ms; P = 0.1023] to follow up visit (mean duration 91 days). There was a significant reduction from baseline to 12 weeks in FPG [173.1 mg/dl (9.61 mmol/L) to 128.4 mg/dl (7.12 mmol/L), mean change - 44.64 mg/dl (2.47 mmol/L), P ≤ 0.001], PPG [242.5 mg/dl (13.46 mmol/L) to 176.5 mg/dl (9.79 mmol/L), mean change - 65.93 mg/dl (3.66 mmol/L), P ≤ 0.001], and HbA1c [8.2% (66 mmol/mol) to 7.2% (55 mmol/mol), mean change - 1.00% (10.9 mmol/mol), P ≤ 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Teneligliptin did not cause QTc interval prolongation and was significantly effective in improving glycemic control.

4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472814

RESUMO

Around 300- 400 AD, ancient Indian physicians described a condition akin to diabetes mellitus which was called "Madhumeha". Sushrutha and Charaka, are also credited with describing two types of diabetes which would roughly correspond to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the history of diabetes in India between the first and 19th century AD. A thorough search of literature revealed a large number of publications on diabetes from India in the 1800s and early 1900s, mostly from Calcutta and the Madras Presidency, suggesting that the prevalence of diabetes was high in these two places. Building on the observations made by a number of English physicians, Chunilal Bose in 1907 suggested the link between diabetes and lifestyle in India. Amazingly, India did not have to wait long after the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best at Toronto in 1921, to get its own supply. Around this time, Dr. J.P. Bose, eminent physician and diabetologist from Calcutta made remarkable contributions to the study of diabetes in India. He was also the first to describe the dramatic effects of insulin administration to children with type 1 diabetes in India. All these facts have remained largely forgotten which prompted the authors to delve deep into the history of diabetes in pre-independence India. This has led to the unearthing of several pearls of knowledge which are presented in this article as a fitting tribute to the 100th year of Insulin Discovery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Médicos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Insulina , Masculino
5.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(9): 11-12, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although metabolic surgery has been shown to offer beneficial primary outcome results in obese individuals / obese Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, there is paucity of information on the underlying mechanisms. In the recent years, estimations of non-invasive molecular parameters viz., telomere length and mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn) assume significance as robust biomarkers. However, there is lack of evidence about this especially, in the Indian context. To assess the changes in the telomere length and mtDNAcn levels after metabolic surgery in obese Asian Indians with dysglycemia along with routine measurements of anthropometry, glycemic/lipidimic parameters and inflammatory markers. METHODS: This study is a prospective one-year follow-up study of 16 obese individuals with dysglycemia who underwent metabolic surgery at a tertiary diabetes centre in South India. Telomere length, mtDNAcn, serum adiponectin, glycated haemoglobin and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were analysed before surgery and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in weight (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting and postprandial glucose (p<0.05), HbA1c (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.05), hs CRP (p<0.05) and increase in serum adiponectin (p<0.05) at 6 and 12 months post-surgery compared to the preoperative status. There was a significant reduction in mtDNAcn (p<0.001) and a significant increase in telomere length (p<0.001) at 6 and 12 months post metabolic surgery. CONCLUSION: We report an increase in telomere length and decrease in circulatory mtDNA copy number levels at 6 and 12 months post metabolic surgery in obese individuals with T2DM in India.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Seguimentos , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Telômero/genética
6.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(9): 11-12, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585892

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 virus spread rapidly all over the globe in 2020 and the second wave has taken our nation, India by storm. The pandemic has posed unique challenges in people with metabolic disorders, including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, pulmonary, cardiovascular, kidney and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Uncontrolled diabetes, in conjunction with endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic effects of the infection itself has made management of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 infection particularly challenging. Furthermore, the post-COVID-19 syndrome has also emerged as a sequela in COVID-19 survivors, increasing the risk of death, complications and adding further burden on the health care system. With more than a year of experience, we have gained substantial insight; and now provide practical recommendations on the management of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 as well as post COVID-19 syndrome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hiperglicemia , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Índia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(9): 11-12, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585893

RESUMO

Acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs) are associated with specific characterizations like fever of less than two weeks' duration with no organ-specific symptoms at onset. These range from mild and self-limiting disease to progressive, life-threatening illness. Acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses are classified into malaria and non-malarial illnesses on the basis of microscopy or malariadiagnostic tests. Various challenges, such as comorbidities, geriatrics, pregnancy, and immune-compromised profile of the patient, impede the treatment regimen. Identifying the root cause of undifferentiated fever becomes critical and involves correct diagnostic tests along with empirical treatment initiation. Doxycycline, being a broad-spectrum antibiotic, confers activity against many Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and "atypical" bacteria. Apart from antimicrobial activity, Doxycycline demonstrates the potential to inhibit dengue virus replication and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads, the clinical management of associated cytokine storm remains unanswered. Considering the probable beneficial effect of doxycycline, it has been recommended by the national and international experts for the empirical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Malária , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(7): 11-12, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various clinical trials have established anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Nimesulide in a controlled setting, however, the fever management in real-world settings is quite different. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of Nimesulide in acute fever management in real-world clinical practice. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted on electronic medical records (EMR) of 302 patients visiting out-patient departments at three centers between Jan 2016 and Jan 2020 and were prescribed Nimesulide for acute fever. The effectiveness of Nimesulide was analyzed as a change in fever from baseline to follow-up visit within 14 days and tolerability as the number of side effects captured post-Nimesulide ingestion. RESULTS: The provisional diagnosis at the baseline visit reported major complaints like fever, fever with abdominal pain, body-ache, cough and myalgia. The mean baseline body temperature was 103.2±1.5°F with a mean duration of 4.4±2.8 days significantly (p 0.0001) decreased to 99.7±1.8°F on the administration of Nimesulide. The liver and the renal profiles were found to be normal on records, and the side effects such as nausea and dyspepsia were reported only in 2% of patients. CONCLUSION: Nimesulide was found to be well-tolerated and effective as an antipyretic for acute fever management in adults during short-term use in real-world clinical practice.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(1): 71-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227779

RESUMO

Tight glycemic control has been recognised as the cornerstone of modern diabetes management. Until recently, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the only reliable tool for measuring glycemic control, but it is not an ideal metric as it is retrospective, unable to pick up hypo- and hyperglycemic excursions and prone to interference by conditions such as anemia and hemoglobinopathies. The advent of continuous glucose monitoring systems is a giant leap in diabetes management as it enables visualisation of glucose trends over periods of time, helping in identification of hypo- and hypoglycemic events and enabling appropriate treatment decisions to be made. The recent launch of the real-time patient CGM in India is a further step in the right direction as it will empower patients to take control of their diabetes by providing them information on their glucose levels and trends in real time.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Glicemia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia , Insulina , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(2): 58-61, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527813

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), the most common form of diabetes, is recognized as being a heterogenous disorder, and presents a universal threat to health. In T2D, the pathophysiology and phenotype differ significantly by ethnicity, particularly among Asian Indians, who are known to have the 'Asian Indian phenotype', which makes them more susceptible to develop T2D than white Caucasians. The recent subclassification of T2D into different subtypes or clusters, which behave differently with respect to clinical presentation and risk of developing complications is a remarkable development. Five unique "clusters" of individuals with diabetes were described in the Scandinavian population [Severe Autoimmune Diabetes (SAID), Severe Insulin Deficient Diabetes (SIDD), Severe Insulin Resistant Diabetes (SIRD), Mild Obesity-related Diabetes (MOD) and Mild Age-Related Diabetes (MARD)]. For the first time in India, identification of clusters of diabetes was done on 19,084 individuals with T2D, using 8 clinically relevant variables (age at diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, HbA1c, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and fasting and stimulated C-peptide). Four replicable clusters were identified [SIDD, MARD, IROD (Insulin Resistant Obese Diabetes) and CIRDD (Combined Insulin Resistant and Deficient Diabetes)], two of which were unique to the Indian population (IROD and CIRDD). Clustering of T2D helps i) to accurately subclassify diabetes into different subtypes, ii) plan therapies based on the pathophysiology, iii) predict prognosis and prevent diabetic complications and iv) helps in our approach to precision diabetes. Further studies would help us to refine the usefulness of these clusters of T2D particularly in the Indian population, with respect to selection of appropriate therapies and hopefully in the prevention of complications of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeo C , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 501-508, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130203

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak all over the world has led the researchers to strive to develop drugs or vaccines to prevent or halt the progression of this ailment. To hasten the treatment process, repurposed drugs are being evaluated. Favipiravir is one such oral drug that was approved for new and reemerging pandemic influenza in Japan in 2014 and has shown potent in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. It has a wide therapeutic safety margin indicated by a wide CC50/EC50 ratio for a high dose. From the clinical studies in COVID-19, it has shown rapid viral clearance as compared to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and superior recovery rate than umifenovir. Overall, favipiravir has shown promising results in clinical studies in China, Russia, and Japan, and more trials are underway in multiple countries, including USA, UK, and India. Recently, treatment guidelines from many countries and some states from India have included favipiravir in the treatment protocol. This review provides insights into the evidence-based evolving role of favipiravir in the management of COVID-19 infection with emphasis on benefits of initiating an early antiviral therapy with special focus on favipiravir, its pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, in vitro, clinical data, and inclusion in the treatment protocols of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 55-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly evolving, thereby posing a profound challenge to the global healthcare system. Cardiometabolic disorders are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with COVID-19. Healthcare challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic are linked to resource constraints including shortage of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE), laboratory tests and medication. In this context, a group of clinical experts discussed the endocrine and cardiology vigilance required in times of COVID-19. Further, the group proposed certain resource husbandry recommendations to be followed during the pandemic to overcome the constraints. METHOD: The clinical experts discussed and provided their inputs virtually. The expert panel included clinical experts comprising endocrinologists, Consultant Physicians and cardiologists from India. The panel thoroughly reviewed existing literature on the subject and proposed expert opinion. RESULTS: The expert panel put forward clinical practice-based opinion for the management of cardiometabolic conditions including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. As these conditions are associated with poor clinical outcomes, the expert panel recommends that these persons be extra-cautious and take necessary precautions during the ongoing pandemic. Further, experts also provided appropriate, affordable, available and accessible solution to the resource constraint situations in times of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The clinical expert opinion put forward in this article will serve as a reference for clinicians treating diabetes and cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Prova Pericial/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(1): 133-142, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314000

RESUMO

The ongoing global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a severe strain on the management of chronic conditions like diabetes. Optimal glycemic control is always important, but more so in the existing environment of COVID-19. In this context, timely insulinization to achieve optimal glycemic control assumes major significance. However, given the challenges associated with the pandemic like restrictions of movement and access to healthcare resources, a simple and easy way to initiate and optimize insulin therapy in people with uncontrolled diabetes is required. With this premise, a group of clinical experts comprising diabetologists and endocrinologists from India discussed the challenges and potential solutions for insulin initiation, titration, and optimization in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during the COVID-19 pandemic and how basal insulin can be a good option in this situation owing to its unique set of advantages like lower risk of hypoglycemia, ease of training, need for less monitoring, better adherence, flexibility of using oral antidiabetic drugs, and improved quality of life compared to other insulin regimens. The panel agreed that the existing challenges should not be a reason to delay insulin initiation in people with uncontrolled T2DM and provided recommendations, which included potential solutions for initiating insulin in the absence or restriction of in-person consultations; the dose of insulin at initiation; the type of insulin preferred for simplified regimen and best practices for optimal titration to achieve glycemic targets during the pandemic. Practical and easily implementable tips for patients and involvement of stakeholders (caregivers and healthcare providers) to facilitate insulin acceptance were also outlined by the expert panel. Simplified and convenient insulin regimens like basal insulin analogues are advised during and following the pandemic in order to achieve glycemic control in people with uncontrolled T2DM.

15.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(12[Special]): 9-12, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247657

RESUMO

Prior to the discovery of insulins, diabetes was managed predominantly by dietary interventions. Discovery of insulin and its first human trial highlighted the need for higher purity insulin thereby steering the subsequent journey of insulin development. Considering the limitations of the early preparations like short duration of action and need for several injections per day, attempts at protracting the duration of insulin action were made. This led to the development of intermediate-acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) and the Lente family of insulins. This review provides insights into the discovery of insulins and the shortcomings of early protracted release preparations, which in turn, gave impetus to the search for a 'true' basal insulin, which could mimic the endogenous human basal insulin secretion.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Insulinas , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur Endocrinol ; 16(2): 113-121, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117442

RESUMO

Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) illustrates the bidirectional link between the heart and the kidneys, with acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ adversely impacting the function of the other. Of the five subtypes identified, type 1 and 2 CRS occur because of the adverse impact of cardiac conditions on the kidneys. Type 3 and 4 occur when renal conditions affect the heart, and in type 5, systemic conditions impact the heart and kidneys concurrently. The cardiovascular and renoprotective benefits evidenced with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors make them a potential choice in the management of CRS. Cardiovascular protection is mediated by a reduction in cardiac workload, blood pressure, and body weight; with improvement in lipid profile, uric acid levels, and adaptive ketogenesis process. Renoprotection is facilitated by reduction in albuminuria and hypoxic stress, and restoration of tubuloglomerular feedback. The favourable effect on cardiovascular complications and death, as well as renal complications and progression to end-stage kidney disease, has been confirmed in clinical trials. Guidelines endorse first-line use of SGLT2 inhibitors after metformin in patients with T2DM with high cardiovascular risk, chronic kidney disease or both. Since most trials with SGLT2 inhibitors excluded subjects with acute illness, patients with CRS subtypes 1 and 3 have not been studied adequately, making SGLT2 initiation in clinical practice challenging. Ongoing trials may provide evidence for SGLT2 inhibitor use in CRS. This review aims to enhance understanding of CRS and provide guidance for judicious use of SGLT2 inhibitors in T2DM.

17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 69-80, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978931

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common problem in the community. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Physicians of India have developed this evidence-based practice guideline for management of GERD in adults. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus containing 43 statements, which were generated by electronic voting iteration as well as face-to-face meeting, and review of the supporting literature primarily from India. These statements include 4 on epidemiology, 9 on clinical presentation, 11 on investigations, 18 on treatment (including medical, endoscopic, and surgical modalities), and one on complications of GERD. The statement was regarded as accepted when the proportion of those who voted either to accept completely or with minor reservation was 80% or higher. The prevalence of GERD in large population-based studies in India is approximately 10% and is probably increasing due to lifestyle changes and increase in obesity. The diagnosis of GERD in the community should be mainly based on presence of classical symptoms like heartburn and sour regurgitation, and empiric treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or H2 receptor antagonist should be given. All PPIs in equipotent doses are similar in their efficacy in the management of symptoms. Patients in whom symptoms do not respond adequately to PPI are regarded as having PPIrefractory GERD. Invasive investigations should be limited to patients with alarm symptoms and those with refractory GERD.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Adulto , Consenso , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
18.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(10): 2257-2268, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Teneligliptin is an antidiabetic medication that has been approved for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan, South Korea and India. It is one of the most commonly prescribed antihyperglycaemic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of teneligliptin in improving glycemic control amongst Indian patients with T2DM in a real-world setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in which a predesigned structured proforma was used to collect information from hospital records of 18 medical centres across India. All participating centres were established primary care hospitals with adequate record keeping, a pre-determined condition in the study design. Data were collected during the period of January 2019 to June 2019. Data extracted from patient records, including glycaemic parameters, concomitant drugs, drug dosage and duration, were collated. The effectiveness of teneligliptin was assessed by analyzing the mean change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) at 12 weeks after initiation of teneligliptin. RESULTS: Data from 10,623 patients were available for analysis. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 51.86 ± 11.76 years. At 12 weeks after initiation of teneligliptin as monotherapy or add-on to other medications (combination therapy), the patients showed a signficant decrease from baseline in mean HbA1c, FPG and PPG. Mean HbA1c dropped from 8.66 ± 1.15% at baseline to 7.67 ± 1.28% at 12 weeks (71 ± 12.6 to 60 ± 14 mmol/mol), with a difference of - 0.99% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.02) or - 10.8 (95% CI 10.5-11.1) mmol/mol (p < 0.0001). The mean reductions in FPG and PPG were 43.12 mg/dL (2.39 mmol/L) and 87.73 mg/dL (4.87 mmol/L) (both p < 0.0001) respectively. HbA1c (%) reductions with teneligliptin when used as add-on to metformin, add-on to metformin + sulfonylurea combination and add-on to metformin + sulfonylurea + alpha glucosidase inhibitor combination were 0.76% (8.3 mmol/mol), 1.24% (13.6 mmol/mol) and 1.04% (11.4 mmol/mol), respectively. Teneligliptin also significantly reduced HbA1c (1.13% or 12.4 mmol/mol, p < 0.0001) in patients with impaired renal function, without worsening the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Teneligliptin consistently reduced HbA1c across all three age categories tested-by 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) in patients aged < 60 years, by 1.15% (12.6 mmol/mol) in patients aged 60-75 years and by 0.88% (9.6 mmol/mol) in patients aged > 75 years. CONCLUSION: Teneligliptin significantly improved glycaemic parameters in Indian patients with T2DM when prescribed either as monotherapy or as an add-on to one or more other commonly prescribed antihyperglycaemic agents.

20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(8): 91-92, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738849

Assuntos
Antivirais , Pirazinas , Amidas
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