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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685998

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman (TBRS) syndrome is a recently described overgrowth syndrome caused by loss of function variants in the DNMT3A gene. This gene encodes for a DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha, which is involved in epigenetic regulation, especially during embryonic development. Somatic variants in DNMT3A have been widely studied in different types of tumors, including acute myeloid leukemia, hematopoietic, and lymphoid cancers. Germline gain-of-function variants in this gene have been recently implicated in microcephalic dwarfism. Common clinical features of patients with TBRS include tall stature, macrocephaly, intellectual disability (ID), and a distinctive facial appearance. Differential diagnosis of TBRS comprises Sotos, Weaver, and Malan Syndromes. The majority of these disorders present other clinical features with a high clinical overlap, making necessary a molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. We here describe seven new patients with variants in DNMT3A, four of them with neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and psychotic behavior. In addition, one of the patients has developed a brain tumor in adulthood. This patient has also cerebral atrophy, aggressive behavior, ID, and abnormal facial features. Clinical evaluation of this group of patients should include a complete neuropsychiatric assessment together with psychological support in order to detect and manage abnormal behaviors such as aggressiveness, impulsivity, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. TBRS should be suspected in patients with overgrowth, ID, tall stature, and macrocephaly, who also have some neuropsychiatric disorders without any genetic defects in the commonest overgrowth disorders. Molecular confirmation in these patients is mandatory.

2.
Early Hum Dev ; 138: 104851, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604576

RESUMO

Severe spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disorder characterized by rapidly progressive hypotonia and weakness with respiratory complications and fatal outcome. It is caused by absence or pathogenic variants in the SMN1 gene. Knowledge and advances of the genetics of the disease allowed the development of tailored therapies that has changed clinical trajectories with evolving phenotypes. Several clinical investigations demonstrate that early diagnosis and intervention are essential for improved response to treatment and better prognosis. Therapeutic interventions that are effective at pre-symptomatic or early stages of the disease creates the need for awareness, expedite diagnosis and consideration of newborn screening programs.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1016, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current scenario of newborn screening is changing as DNA studies are being included in the programs of several countries. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disorders can be detected using quantitative PCR assays to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a byproduct of correct T-cell development. However, in addition to SCID, other T-cell-deficient phenotypes such as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, and trisomy 21 are detected. METHODS: We present our experience with the detection of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 22q11.2 duplication syndrome in a series of 103,903 newborns included in the newborn screening program of Catalonia (Spain). RESULTS: Thirty newborns tested were positive (low TREC levels) and five were found to have copy number variations at the 22q11 region (4 deletions and 1 duplication) when investigated with array comparative genomic hybridization technology and MLPA. CONCLUSION: Newborn screening for SCID enables detection of several conditions, such as 22q syndromes, which should be managed by prompt, proactive approaches with adequate counseling for families by a multidisciplinary team.

4.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600839

RESUMO

Aymé-Gripp syndrome (AYGRPS) is a recognizable condition caused by a restricted spectrum of dominantly acting missense mutations affecting the transcription factor MAF. Major clinical features of AYGRPS include congenital cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and a distinctive flat facial appearance. Skeletal abnormalities have also been observed in affected individuals, even though these features have not been assessed systematically. Expanding the series with four additional patients, here we provide a more accurate delineation of the molecular aspects and clinical phenotype, particularly focusing on the skeletal features characterizing this disorder. Apart from previously reported malar flattening and joint limitations, we document that carpal/tarsal and long bone defects, and hip dysplasia occur in affected subjects more frequently than formerly appreciated.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 458-462, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301241

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 0 is the most severe form of SMA, associated with the SMN1 gene and manifesting at birth. Most patients die in the first weeks of life. In this work, we present 3 patients with SMA type 0 who survived >1 year and presented diffuse and progressive brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging, which are not usually seen in patients with SMA. Thus, severe brain involvement may likely be the full end manifestation of an already extreme SMA phenotype caused by substantial reduction of the SMN protein in the brain. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:458-462.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(5): 932-944, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139691

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate plasma phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) as a biomarker in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods: Levels of pNF-H were measured using the ProteinSimple® platform in plasma samples from infants with SMA enrolled in ENDEAR (NCT02193074) and infants/children without neurological disease. Results: Median pNF-H plasma level was 167.0 pg/mL (7.46-7,030; n = 34) in children without SMA (aged 7 weeks-18 years) and was higher in those aged < 1 versus 1-18 years (P = 0.0002). In ENDEAR participants with infantile-onset SMA, median baseline pNF-H level (15,400 pg/mL; 2390-50,100; n = 117) was ~10-fold higher than that of age-matched infants without SMA (P < 0.0001) and ~90-fold higher than children without SMA (P < 0.0001). Higher pretreatment pNF-H levels in infants with SMA were associated with younger age at symptom onset, diagnosis, and first dose; lower baseline Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders score; and lower peroneal compound muscle potential amplitude. Nusinersen treatment was associated with a rapid and greater decline in pNF-H levels: nusinersen-treated infants experienced a steep 71.9% decline at 2 months to 90.1% decline at 10 months; sham control-treated infants declined steadily by 16.2% at 2 months and 60.3% at 10 months. Interpretation: Plasma pNF-H levels are elevated in infants with SMA. Levels inversely correlate with age at first dose and several markers of disease severity. Nusinersen treatment is associated with a significant decline in pNF-H levels followed by relative stabilization. Together these data suggest plasma pNF-H is a promising marker of disease activity/treatment response in infants with SMA.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1774-1782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053787

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive neuromuscular disorder representing a continuous spectrum of muscular weakness ranging from compromised neonates to adults with minimal manifestations. Patients show homozygous absence or disease-causing variants of the SMN1 gene (-/- or 0/0) and in carriers only one copy is absent or mutated (1/0). Genetic diagnosis and counseling in SMA present several challenges, including the existence of carriers (2/0) that are undistinguishable of non-carriers (1/1) with current genetic testing methods and the report of patients (0/0) with very mild manifestations and even asymptomatic that are discovered when a full symptomatic case appears in the family. Younger asymptomatic siblings of symptomatic SMA patients are usually never tested until adolescence or adult life. However, following regulatory approval of the first tailored treatment for SMA, the prospects for care of these patients have changed. Early testing, including pre-symptomatic newborn screening and confirmation of diagnosis would change proactive measures and opportunities for therapy based in the actual landscape of new treatments. This review discusses the challenges and new perspectives of genetic counseling in SMA.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 797, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770808

RESUMO

FXR1 is an alternatively spliced gene that encodes RNA binding proteins (FXR1P) involved in muscle development. In contrast to other tissues, cardiac and skeletal muscle express two FXR1P isoforms that incorporate an additional exon-15. We report that recessive mutations in this particular exon of FXR1 cause congenital multi-minicore myopathy in humans and mice. Additionally, we show that while Myf5-dependent depletion of all FXR1P isoforms is neonatal lethal, mice carrying mutations in exon-15 display non-lethal myopathies which vary in severity depending on the specific effect of each mutation on the protein.


Assuntos
Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mutação , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Oftalmoplegia/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/deficiência , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Éxons/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/congênito , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/metabolismo , Oftalmoplegia/congênito , Oftalmoplegia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219357

RESUMO

With the recent advances in spinal muscular atrophy therapies, the complete scenario of standard of care and following up is changing not only in the clinical field with new phenotypes emerging but also with new expectations for patients, caregivers and health providers. The actual evidence indicates that early intervention and treatment is crucial for better response and prognosis. Knowledge of the prenatal and pre-symptomatic postnatal stages of the disease are becoming essential to consider the opportunities of timely diagnosis and to decide the earliest therapeutic intervention.

12.
Muscle Nerve ; 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the EXOSC3 gene are responsible for type 1 pontocerebellar hypoplasia, an autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay and anterior horn motor neuron degeneration. Muscle biopsies of these patients often show characteristics resembling classic spinal muscle atrophy, but to date no distinct features have been identified. METHODS: Clinical data and muscle biopsy findings of three unrelated patients with EXOSC3 mutations are described. RESULTS: All patients presented as a severe congenital cognitive and neuromuscular phenotype with short survival, harbouring the same point mutation (c.92G>C; p.Gly31Ala). Muscle biopsies consistently showed variable degrees of sarcomeric disorganization with myofibrillar remnants, Z-line thickening and small nemaline bodies. DISCUSSION: In this uniform genetic cohort of patients with EXOSC3 mutations, sarcomeric disruption and rod structures were prominent features of muscle biopsies. In the context of neonatal hypotonia, ultrastructural studies might provide early clues for the diagnosis of EXOSC3-related pontocerebellar hypoplasia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1554-1557, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904179

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions/mutations in SMN1. Most heterozygous SMA carriers have only one SMN1 copy in one of the alleles (1/0 carriers). However, a few carriers lack SMN1 in one of their chromosomes, but present two gene copies in the other. These "2/0 carriers" are undistinguishable from non-carrier individuals (1/1) with currently available methods. Previous association of SMN1 variants c.*3 + 80 T > G and c.*211_*212del with two SMN1 copies in cis in Ashkenazi population prompted us to analyze them in 270 Spanish individuals (SMA carriers, patients and general population). Both variants were much more frequently detected in chromosomes with 2 SMN1 copies in cis in comparison with chromosomes carrying one copy (17.9 vs. 0.7%; p < 0.001). In particular, one-fifth of 2/0 SMA carriers harboured one or both variants compared to none of 99 non-carriers with two SMN1 copies (p < 0.001). The c.*211_*212del variant was also much more frequent in exon 8 of SMN2-SMN1 hybrids than in that of intact SMN1 genes (20 vs. 0.83%, p < 0.001), suggesting its association with chromosomal rearrangements. Although absence of these variants does not exclude that a particular individual is a 2/0 SMA carrier, their presence is valuable to substantially increase residual risk in putative carriers, thus improving genetic counselling.

15.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(3): 208-215, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433793

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by loss or mutations in SMN1. According to age of onset, achieved motor abilities, and life span, SMA patients are classified into type I (never sit), II (never walk unaided) or III (achieve independent walking abilities). SMN2, the highly homologous copy of SMN1, is considered the most important phenotypic modifier of the disease. Determination of SMN2 copy number is essential to establish careful genotype-phenotype correlations, predict disease evolution, and to stratify patients for clinical trials. We have determined SMN2 copy numbers in 625 unrelated Spanish SMA patients with loss or mutation of both copies of SMN1 and a clear assignation of the SMA type by clinical criteria. Furthermore, we compiled data from relevant worldwide reports that link SMN2 copy number with SMA severity published from 1999 to date (2834 patients with different ethnic and geographic backgrounds). Altogether, we have assembled a database with a total of 3459 patients to delineate more universal prognostic rules regarding the influence of SMN2 copy number on SMA phenotype. This issue is crucial in the present scenario of therapeutic advances with the perspective of SMA neonatal screening and early diagnosis to initiate treatments.

16.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(10): 883-889, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757001

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy is a monogenic, progressive motor neuron disorder caused by deletion or mutation in the SMN1 gene. A broad range of phenotypic severity, from very weak infants (Type 1) to ambulant children (type 3), is modified mainly by the number of copies of the "backup" SMN2 gene. Since the discovery of the role of both genes, basic research into the pathobiology of SMA, with in vitro and animal model studies, has identified therapeutic targets. Development of clinical outcome measures, natural history studies and standard of care guidelines have contributed to the development of protocols for therapeutic drugs now under clinical investigation. Following regulatory approval of the first drug treatment for SMA in the US (December, 2016) and marketing authorization in Europe (June, 2017), the prospects for care of these patients have changed. The evolution of the phenotype of SMA now needs to be considered beyond the clinical trials. This perspective review discusses potential new trajectories in the phenotype of SMA and the need for multidisciplinary teams to prepare for this changing landscape.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(6): 303-307, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344185

RESUMO

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized mainly by cardiovascular, craniofacial and skeletal features. We report on a patient with LDS, whose prenatal examination was compatible with the diagnosis of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neonatal assessment showed craniofacial and cardiovascular findings suggestive of LDS whose diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of a novel mutation (HGVN: NM_003242.5 (TGFBR2): c.1381T > C (p.(Cys461Arg))) in the TGFBR2 gene. Few prenatal and neonatal cases of LDS have been reported in the literature. We reviewed all cases reported to date with perinatal onset to delineate the clinical manifestations that allow us to prompt diagnosis of this syndrome at an early stage to prevent fatal cardiovascular complications. Furthermore we discuss the multidisciplinary follow up required in these patients.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/diagnóstico , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II
18.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44138, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281571

RESUMO

Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome (OTCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies, variable intellectual and psychomotor disability, and variable cardiac defects with a high mortality rate. Different patterns of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity are known in this syndrome. Whole exome and genome sequencing of a 19-year-old girl (P7), initially diagnosed with OTCS, revealed a de novo nonsense mutation, p.Q638*, in the MAGEL2 gene. MAGEL2 is an imprinted, maternally silenced, gene located at 15q11-13, within the Prader-Willi region. Patient P7 carried the mutation in the paternal chromosome. Recently, mutations in MAGEL2 have been described in Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG) and in severe arthrogryposis. Patient P7 bears resemblances with SHFYNG cases but has other findings not described in this syndrome and common in OTCS. We sequenced MAGEL2 in nine additional OTCS patients and no mutations were found. This study provides the first clear molecular genetic basis for an OTCS case, indicates that there is overlap between OTCS and SHFYNG syndromes, and confirms that OTCS is genetically heterogeneous. Genes encoding MAGEL2 partners, either in the retrograde transport or in the ubiquitination-deubiquitination complexes, are promising candidates as OTCS disease-causing genes.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Deficiência Intelectual , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas , Adulto , Craniossinostoses/genética , Craniossinostoses/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
19.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 9: 76, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605908

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. Nowadays there are no effective therapies available to treat patients with SMA, so our aim was to test whether the non-toxic carboxy-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain (TTC), which exhibits neurotrophic properties, might have a therapeutic role or benefit in SMA. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated that TTC enhance the SMN expression in motor neurons "in vitro" and evaluated the effect of intramuscular injection of TTC-encoding plasmid in the spinal cord and the skeletal muscle of SMNdelta7 mice. For this purpose, we studied the weight and the survival time, as well as, the survival and cell death pathways and muscular atrophy. Our results showed that TTC treatment reduced the expression of autophagy markers (Becn1, Atg5, Lc3, and p62) and pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and Casp3 in spinal cord. In skeletal muscle, TTC was able to downregulate the expression of the main marker of autophagy, Lc3, to wild-type levels and the expression of the apoptosis effector protein, Casp3. Regarding the genes related to muscular atrophy (Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbox32, Mt2, Myod1, NogoA, Pax7, Rrad, and Sln), TTC suggest a compensatory effect for muscle damage response, diminished oxidative stress and modulated calcium homeostasis. These preliminary findings suggest the need for further experiments to depth study the effect of TTC in SMA disease.

20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 11696, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26114395

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1), leading to degeneration of alpha motor neurons (MNs) but also affecting other cell types. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human MN models from severe SMA patients have shown relevant phenotypes. We have produced and fully characterized iPSCs from members of a discordant consanguineous family with chronic SMA. We differentiated the iPSC clones into ISL-1+/ChAT+ MNs and performed a comparative study during the differentiation process, observing significant differences in neurite length and number between family members. Analyses of samples from wild-type, severe SMA type I and the type IIIa/IV family showed a progressive decay in SMN protein levels during iPSC-MN differentiation, recapitulating previous observations in developmental studies. PLS3 underwent parallel reductions at both the transcriptional and translational levels. The underlying, progressive developmental decay in SMN and PLS3 levels may lead to the increased vulnerability of MNs in SMA disease. Measurements of SMN and PLS3 transcript and protein levels in iPSC-derived MNs show limited value as SMA biomarkers.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Clonais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Neuritos/metabolismo , Linhagem
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