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1.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 109-118, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324364

RESUMO

Recent studies have found an increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. A compressive search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the World Health Organization Global Health Library databases was undertaken to identify studies reporting on the prevalence, risk factors, and interventions for hypertension and diabetes in Malawi. The findings from 23 included studies revealed a high burden of hypertension and diabetes in Malawi, with estimates ranging from 15.8% to 32.9% and from 2.4% to 5.6%, respectively. Associated risk factors included old age, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, high salt and sugar intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, high body mass index, and high waist-to-hip ratio. Certain antiretroviral therapy regimens were also associated with increased diabetes and hypertension risk in human immunodeficiency virus patient populations. Nationwide, the quality of clinical care was generally limited and demonstrated a need for innovative and targeted interventions to prevent, control, and treat noncommunicable diseases in Malawi.

2.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 149-154, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324369

RESUMO

Africa is experiencing an increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD). However, few reliable data are available on their true burden, main risk factors, and economic impact that are needed to inform implementation of evidence-based interventions in the local context. In Malawi, a number of initiatives have begun addressing the NCD challenge, which have often utilized existing infectious disease infrastructure. It will be crucial to carefully leverage these synergies to maximize their impact. NCD-BRITE (Building Research Capacity, Implementation, and Translation Expertise) is a transdisciplinary consortium that brings together key research institutions, the Ministry of Health, and other stakeholders to build long-term, sustainable, NCD-focused implementation research capacity. Led by University of Malawi-College of Medicine, University of North Carolina, and Dignitas International, NCD-BRITE's specific aims are to conduct detailed assessments of the burden and risk factors of common NCD; assess the research infrastructure needed to inform, implement, and evaluate NCD interventions; create a national implementation research agenda for priority NCD; and develop NCD-focused implementation research capacity through short courses, mentored research awards, and an internship placement program. The capacity-building activities are purposely designed around the University of Malawi-College of Medicine and Ministry of Health to ensure sustainability. The NCD BRITE Consortium was launched in February 2018. In year 1, we have developed NCD-focused implementation research capacity. Needs assessments will follow in years 2 and 3. Finally, in year 4, the generated research capacity, together with findings from the needs assessments, will be used to create a national, actionable, implementation research agenda for NCD prioritized in this consortium, namely cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

3.
Kidney Int ; 95(5): 1027-1036, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010478

RESUMO

In September 2017, KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) convened a Controversies Conference titled Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The purpose of the meeting was to consider which recommendations from the 2012 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Blood Pressure in CKD should be reevaluated based on new evidence from clinical trials. Participants included a multidisciplinary panel of clinical and scientific experts. Discussions focused on the optimal means for measuring blood pressure (BP) as well as managing BP in CKD patients. Consistent with the 2012 Guideline, the conference did not address BP management in patients on maintenance dialysis.

4.
CMAJ ; 191(15): E428, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988047
5.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(5): 606-610, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030862

RESUMO

Clinical practice guidelines serve an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. There is variability among guideline groups in the methods used to assess and grade clinical evidence, resulting in discrepancies in various guidelines. Multiple guidelines focused on different aspects of cardiovascular care can lead to recommendations that are out of sync. Discrepancies between a practice recommendation from 2 different Canadian guideline groups can lead to confusion among clinicians and patients, reducing the likelihood that the practice recommendation will be carried out. Assisting cardiovascular-focused guideline groups to align, to harmonize, and to score highly on appraisal has been a main function of the Canadian Cardiovascular Harmonized National Guidelines Endeavour (C-CHANGE). Validated appraisal tools, harmonized guideline initiatives, and continuous evaluation of the impact of guidelines on quality indicators and practice outcomes are crucial for improving cardiovascular care for all Canadians.

6.
Lancet ; 393(10184): 1937-1947, 2019 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term treatment for people with type 2 diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes. METHODS: We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18-85 years with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m2 of body surface area, and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 300-5000 mg/g who had received maximum labelled or tolerated renin-angiotensin system inhibition for at least 4 weeks. Participants were given atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily during an enrichment period before random group assignment. Those with a UACR decrease of at least 30% with no substantial fluid retention during the enrichment period (responders) were included in the double-blind treatment period. Responders were randomly assigned to receive either atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily or placebo. All patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine (sustained for ≥30 days) or end-stage kidney disease (eGFR <15 mL/min per 1·73 m2 sustained for ≥90 days, chronic dialysis for ≥90 days, kidney transplantation, or death from kidney failure) in the intention-to-treat population of all responders. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01858532. FINDINGS: Between May 17, 2013, and July 13, 2017, 11 087 patients were screened; 5117 entered the enrichment period, and 4711 completed the enrichment period. Of these, 2648 patients were responders and were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group (n=1325) or placebo group (n=1323). Median follow-up was 2·2 years (IQR 1·4-2·9). 79 (6·0%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 105 (7·9%) of 1323 in the placebo group had a primary composite renal endpoint event (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·49-0·88]; p=0·0047). Fluid retention and anaemia adverse events, which have been previously attributed to endothelin receptor antagonists, were more frequent in the atrasentan group than in the placebo group. Hospital admission for heart failure occurred in 47 (3·5%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 34 (2·6%) of 1323 patients in the placebo group (HR 1·33 [95% CI 0·85-2·07]; p=0·208). 58 (4·4%) patients in the atrasentan group and 52 (3·9%) in the placebo group died (HR 1·09 [95% CI 0·75-1·59]; p=0·65). INTERPRETATION: Atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were selected to optimise efficacy and safety. These data support a potential role for selective endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of developing end-stage kidney disease. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Assuntos
Atrasentana/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrasentana/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Albumina Sérica Humana/urina , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(3): 341-351, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographic factors may influence cardiovascular disease outcomes in Canada. Circulatory diseases are a major reason for higher population mortality rates in Northern Ontario, but it is unknown if hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease experience differential outcomes compared with those in the South. METHODS: We examined 30-day and 1-year mortality and readmissions for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), atrial fibrillation (AF), or stroke in Northern compared with Southern Ontario, using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database (2005-2016). Northern patients were defined as those residing and hospitalized in the Northwest or Northeast Local Health Integration Network regions. We used multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for time-to-first event and Prentice-Williams-Peterson method to evaluate repeat and multiply admitted patients. RESULTS: A total of 47,745 Northern and 465,353 Southern patients hospitalized with AMI (n = 182,158), HF (n = 130,770), AF (n = 72,326), or stroke (n = 127,844) were studied. Rates of first readmission were higher among Northern patients for AMI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.32), HF (HR, 1.16), AF (HR, 1.21), and stroke (HR, 1.27) compared with Southern patients (all P < 0.001). Repeat readmission rates among Northern patients for AMI (HR, 1.23), HF (HR, 1.13), AF (HR, 1.18), and stroke (HR, 1.22) were also increased (all P < 0.001 vs Southern). Thirty-day mortality did not differ significantly between Northern and Southern patients. CONCLUSIONS: Readmissions were increased in those residing and hospitalized in the North. To reduce readmissions in the North, the quality of postacute transitional care should be examined further.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474909

RESUMO

Hypertension, the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects more than 1 billion people globally. The rise in mobile health in particular the use of mobile phones and short message service (SMS) to support disease management provides an opportunity to improve hypertension awareness, treatment, and control, in remote and vulnerable patient populations. The primary objective of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effect of active (with hypertension specific management SMS) or passive (health behaviors SMS alone) on the difference in blood pressure (BP) reduction between the active and passive SMS groups in hypertensive Canadian First Nations people from six rural and remote communities. Pragmatic features of the study included shifting of BP measures to non-medical health workers. Despite an overall reduction in BP over the study, there was no difference in the BP change between groups from baseline to final for systolic 0.8 (95% CI -4.2 to 5.8 mm Hg) or diastolic -1.0 (95% CI -3.7 to 1.8 mm Hg, P = 0.5) BP. Achieved BP control was 37.5% (25.6%-49.4%, 95% CI) in the active group and 32.8% (20.6%-44.8%, 95% CI) in the passive group (difference in proportions -4.74% (-21.7% to 12.2%, 95% CI, P = 0.6). The study looked at changes in health services delivery, mobile health technologies, and patient engagement to support better management of hypertension in Canadian First Nations communities. The active hypertension specific SMS did not lead to improvements in BP control.

9.
CMAJ ; 190(43): E1273-E1280, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a popular herbal supplement from the plant turmeric, has prevented ischemic reperfusion and toxin-induced injury in many animal studies and a single-centre randomized human trial. We sought to test whether perioperative oral curcumin (compared with placebo) affects the inflammatory response and risk of postrepair complications after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in humans. METHODS: We conducted a parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients from 10 hospitals in Canada who were scheduled to undergo elective repair of an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (November 2011 to November 2014). Patients in the treatment group received perioperative oral curcumin (2000-mg doses 8 times over 4 d). Patients, health care providers and local research staff were unaware of the treatment assignment. The primary outcomes were median concentrations of 4 bio markers indicating injury and inflammation (postoperative urine interleukin-18 and perioperative rise in serum creatinine, plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups (606 patients overall; median age 76 yr). More than 85% of patients in each group took more than 80% of their scheduled capsules. Neither curcumin nor placebo significantly affected any of the 4 biomarkers (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Regarding the secondary outcomes, there was a higher risk of acute kidney injury with curcumin than with placebo (17% v. 10%, p = 0.01), but no between-group difference in the median length of hospital stay (5 v. 5 days, p > 0.9) or the risk of clinical events (9% v. 9%, p = 0.9). INTERPRETATION: Curcumin had no beneficial effects when used in elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. These findings emphasize the importance of testing turmeric and curcumin before espousing their health benefits, as is currently done in the popular media. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01225094.

11.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(10): 1261-1263, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269826
12.
Can Med Educ J ; 9(1): e21-e32, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140332

RESUMO

Background: The Community Engagement Through Research (CETR) program matches Indigenous communities interested in exploring their own health research questions with NOSM learners seeking experience in health services research, supervised by faculty experienced in community-based participatory research. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted using key informant interviews to examine outcomes of the matching of medical students with Indigenous distributed medical education (DME) communities in NOSM's distributed curriculum, in particular improvements for capacity for Indigenous health research in Northern Ontario. Results: Interviews showed that community-centred research was appreciated by community, students and faculty and the social accountability aspect was acknowledged. Students and community members found meaning in the immediate applicability of the research to real community problems and felt inspired by it. The challenges that were identified were mainly related to time and resource constraints, including providing sufficient research training for learners, and the time period required for research ethics board approvals. Conclusions: The program successfully brought together communities interested in conducting their own health research, with medical students interested in learning about and conducting health research with Indigenous communities. It is therefore an example of successful community based participatory research supporting the social accountability mandate. Challenges are mainly administrative in nature. The program has the potential to be scalable and financially sustainable.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(13)2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of hypertension, the risk associated with low levels of alcohol intake in men and women is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline and Embase for original cohort studies on the association between average alcohol consumption and incidence of hypertension in people without hypertension. Random-effects meta-analyses and metaregressions were conducted. Data from 20 articles with 361 254 participants (125 907 men and 235 347 women) and 90 160 incident cases of hypertension (32 426 men and 57 734 women) were included. In people drinking 1 to 2 drinks/day (12 g of pure ethanol per drink), incidence of hypertension differed between men and women (relative riskwomen vs men=0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93). In men, the risk for hypertension in comparison with abstainers was relative risk=1.19 (1.07-1.31; I2=59%), 1.51 (1.30-1.76), and 1.74 (1.35-2.24) for consumption of 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 or more standard drinks per day, respectively. In women, there was no increased risk for 1 to 2 drinks/day (relative risk=0.94; 0.88-1.01; I2=73%), and an increased risk for consumption beyond this level (relative risk=1.42; 1.22-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Any alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in the risk for hypertension in men. In women, there was no risk increase for consumption of 1 to 2 drinks/day and an increased risk for higher consumption levels. We did not find evidence for a protective effect of alcohol consumption in women, contrary to earlier meta-analyses.

14.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(5): 506-525, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731013

RESUMO

Hypertension Canada provides annually updated, evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children. This year, the adult and pediatric guidelines are combined in one document. The new 2018 pregnancy-specific hypertension guidelines are published separately. For 2018, 5 new guidelines are introduced, and 1 existing guideline on the blood pressure thresholds and targets in the setting of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is revised. The use of validated wrist devices for the estimation of blood pressure in individuals with large arm circumference is now included. Guidance is provided for the follow-up measurements of blood pressure, with the use of standardized methods and electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices in individuals with hypertension, and either ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or home blood pressure monitoring in individuals with white coat effect. We specify that all individuals with hypertension should have an assessment of global cardiovascular risk to promote health behaviours that lower blood pressure. Finally, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor combination should be used in place of either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in individuals with heart failure (with ejection fraction < 40%) who are symptomatic despite appropriate doses of guideline-directed heart failure therapies. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these guidelines are discussed.

16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(8): 1829-1835, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604160

RESUMO

AIM: The SONAR trial uses an enrichment design based on the individual response to the selective endothelin receptor antagonist atrasentan on efficacy (the degree of the individual response in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR]) and safety/tolerability (signs of sodium retention and acute increases in serum creatinine) to assess the effects of this agent on major renal outcomes. The patient population and enrichment results are described here. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR between 300 and 5000 mg/g were enrolled. After a run-in period, eligible patients received 0.75 mg/d of atrasentan for 6 weeks. A total of 2648 responder patients in whom UACR decreased by ≥30% compared to baseline were enrolled, as were 1020 non-responders with a UACR decrease of <30%. Patients who experienced a weight gain of >3 kg and in whom brain natriuretic peptide exceeded ≥300 pg/mL, or who experienced an increase in serum creatinine >20% (0.5 mg/dL), were not randomized. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar for atrasentan responders and non-responders. Upon entry to the study, median UACR was 802 mg/g in responders and 920 mg/g in non-responders. After 6 weeks of treatment with atrasentan, the UACR change in responders was -48.8% (95% CI, -49.8% to -47.9%) and in non-responders was -1.2% (95% CI, -6.4% to 3.9%). Changes in other renal risk markers were similar between responders and non-responders except for a marginally greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and eGFR in responders. CONCLUSIONS: The enrichment period has successfully identified a population with a profound UACR reduction without clinical signs of sodium retention in whom a large atrasentan effect on clinically important renal outcomes is possible. The SONAR trial aims to establish whether atrasentan confers renal protection.

17.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 5: 2054358118761051, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593879

RESUMO

Background: The role of desmopressin (DDAVP) to prevent or treat rapid serum sodium concentration ([Na]s) correction during hyponatremia management remains unclear. Objective: To assess DDAVP use during the first 48 hours of severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia management. The primary study hypothesis was that the use of DDAVP would slow the rate of [Na]s correction compared with those not receiving DDAVP. Design: A retrospective, observational, comparison study. Setting: A single, Canadian, tertiary center. Patients: All admitted patients referred to the nephrology service for severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia ([Na]s < 125 mmol/L) over a 12-month period from November 2015. Measurements: The primary outcomes measure was the [Na]s after medical management for 48 hours. The length of hospital stay was also measured. Methods: Patients were grouped based on whether they received DDAVP during the first 48 hours of treatment, and [Na]s correction was compared between groups using linear regression. An exploratory, multivariable, linear regression model was used to adjust for diabetes status, active malignancy, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hypertonic saline administration. Results: Twenty-eight patients were identified, with baseline mean [Na]s of 112.7 ± 6.6 mmol/L versus 117 ± 4.3mmol/L (P = .06) in those receiving (n = 16) and not receiving DDAVP (n = 12), respectively. The DDAVP group had a more rapid [Na]s correction on the first day compared with those not receiving DDAVP, 7.7 ± 3.8 mmol/L/d versus 5.1 ± 2.0 mmol/L/d (P = .04). On the second day, there was a similar rate of [Na]s correction between groups: 1.3 ± 4.3 mmol/L/d versus 2.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L/d (P = .39), respectively. Overall, there was no difference in [Na]s correction after 48 hours between those who received DDAVP and those who did not: 121.7 ± 7.5 mmol/L versus 124.8 ± 5.7 mmol/L (P = .24). Patients who had experienced an overcorrection were successfully treated with DDAVP (n = 5), so that no patient had an ongoing overcorrection by 48 hours. Limitations: The limited sample size and lack of randomization preclude definitive conclusion on the additional benefit of DDAVP to standard care. Conclusion: DDAVP appears to be safe and effective in the management of severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia, associated with similar [Na]s correction to those who did not receive DDAVP after 48 hours, despite an initial more rapid correction. A randomized trial should examine what benefit DDAVP confers in addition to standard care in the management of severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(6): 1369-1376, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405626

RESUMO

AIMS: Individuals with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for renal events. Recent trials of novel treatments have been negative, possibly because of variability in response to treatment of the target risk factor. Atrasentan is a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist that reduces urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), with a large variability between patients. We are assessing its effect on renal outcomes in the Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan (SONAR; NCT01858532) with an enrichment design (>30% lowering of albuminuria) to select patients most likely to benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SONAR is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with approximately 3500 participants who have stage 2-4 CKD and macroalbuminuria and are receiving a maximum tolerated dose of a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of exposure to atrasentan 0.75 mg once daily (enrichment period), participants with ≥30% UACR decrease and no tolerability issues (responders) were randomly assigned to placebo or atrasentan 0.75 mg/day. The responder group will be used for primary efficacy and safety analyses. Approximately 1000 participants with <30% UACR reduction (non-responders) were also randomized to placebo or atrasentan. The primary endpoint is a composite of a sustained doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. The original power calculation indicated that a total of 425 primary renal events in the responder group provides 90% power to detect a 27% reduction in relative risk (alpha level of .05). CONCLUSION: SONAR aims to determine whether atrasentan added to guideline-recommended therapies safely reduces the risk of CKD progression and delays the onset of end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. SONAR also aims to establish whether the enrichment of patients based on their initial "surrogate" response to atrasentan will deliver a trial design in accord with personalized treatment of diabetic kidney disease.

19.
Perit Dial Int ; 38(1): 73-76, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311199

RESUMO

Steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral ciprofloxacin in 3 continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) outpatients given ciprofloxacin 750 mg b.i.d. for 5 doses was determined. Mean steady-state maximum serum concentration and half-life were 4.4 ± 1.5 mg/L and 10.3 ± 2.6 hours, respectively. Mean maximum dialysate concentration in the daytime long dwell and overnight continuous cycling dwell were 7.4 ± 1.2 mg/L and 3.3 ± 1.2 mg/L, respectively. Oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg b.i.d. may be reasonable for bloodstream and peritoneal infections caused by susceptible bacteria in CCPD patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Soluções para Diálise/farmacocinética , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/etiologia
20.
Can J Diabetes ; 42(2): 166-172, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273294

RESUMO

Hypertension and diabetes are common comorbidities and are both modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. Lowering blood pressure reduces target organ damage and prevents cardiovascular disease outcomes. The harmonized Canadian clinical practice guidelines for managing hypertension in people with diabetes provides health-behaviour advice and medical therapy recommendations for a threshold blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg and above and to target blood pressure to below 130/80 mmHg. We have reviewed the studies supporting these recommendations and others, and they appear to be at odds with the guidelines, including those for elderly people and patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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