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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.

2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226277

RESUMO

Here, we recorded serum proteome profiles of 33 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to respiratory and intensive care units because of respiratory failure. We received, for most patients, blood samples just after admission and at two more later time points. With the aim to predict treatment outcome, we focused on serum proteins different in abundance between the group of survivors and non-survivors. We observed that a small panel of about a dozen proteins were significantly different in abundance between these two groups. The four structurally and functionally related type-3 cystatins AHSG, FETUB, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and KNG1 were all more abundant in the survivors. The family of inter-α-trypsin inhibitors, ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, and ITIH4, were all found to be differentially abundant in between survivors and non-survivors, whereby ITIH1 and ITIH2 were more abundant in the survivor group and ITIH3 and ITIH4 more abundant in the non-survivors. ITIH1/ITIH2 and ITIH3/ITIH4 also showed opposite trends in protein abundance during disease progression. We defined an optimal panel of nine proteins for mortality risk assessment. The prediction power of this mortality risk panel was evaluated against two recent COVID-19 serum proteomics studies on independent cohorts measured in other laboratories in different countries and observed to perform very well in predicting mortality also in these cohorts. This panel may not be unique for COVID-19 as some of the proteins in the panel have previously been annotated as mortality markers in aging and in other diseases caused by different pathogens, including bacteria.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sobreviventes
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276681

RESUMO

Patients with kidney failure have notoriously weak responses to common vaccines. Thus, immunogenicity of novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might be impaired in this group. To determine immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with chronic dialysis, we analyzed the humoral and T-cell response after two doses of mRNA vaccine Tozinameran (BNT162b2 BioNTech/Pfizer). This observational study included 43 patients on dialysis before vaccination with two doses of Tozinameran 21 days apart. Overall, 36 patients completed the observation period until three weeks after the second dose and 32 patients were further analyzed at week 10. Serum samples were analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies ~1, ~3-4 and ~10 weeks after the second vaccination. In addition, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were assessed at ~3-4 weeks by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Antibody and T cell outcomes at this timepoint were compared to a group of 44 elderly patients not on dialysis, after immunization with Tozinameran. Median age of patients on chronic dialysis was 74.0 years (IQR 66.0, 82.0). The proportion of males was higher (69.4%) than females. Only 20/36 patients (55.6%, 95%CI: 38.29-71.67) developed SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies at the first sampling, whereas 32/36 patients (88.9%, 95%CI: 73.00-96.38) demonstrated IgG detection at the second sampling. In a longitudinal follow-up at ~10 weeks after the second dose, the proportion of dialysis patients reactive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG decreased to 27/32 (84.37%, 95%CI: 66.46-94.10) The proportion of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA decreased from 33/36 (91.67%; 95%CI: 76.41-97.82) at weeks 3-4 down to 19/32 (59.38; 95%CI: 40.79-75.78). Compared to a cohort of vaccinees with similar age but not on chronic dialysis seroconversion rates and antibody titers were significantly lower. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses 3 weeks after second vaccination were detected in 21/31 vaccinated dialysis patients (67.7%, 95%CI: 48.53-82.68) compared to 42/44 (93.3%, 95%CI: 76.49-98.84) in controls of similar age. Patients on dialysis demonstrate a delayed, but robust immune response three to four weeks after the second dose, which indicates effective vaccination of this vulnerable group. However, the lower immunogenicity of Tozinameran in these patients needs further attention to develop potential countermeasures such as an additional booster vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2174-2178, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102097

RESUMO

We detected delayed and reduced antibody and T-cell responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in 71 elderly persons (median age 81 years) compared with 123 healthcare workers (median age 34 years) in Germany. These data emphasize that nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease remain crucial and that additional immunizations for the elderly might become necessary.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Vacinação
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2169-2173, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102098

RESUMO

One week after second vaccinations were administered, an outbreak of B.1.1.7 lineage severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections occurred in a long-term care facility in Berlin, Germany, affecting 16/20 vaccinated and 4/4 unvaccinated residents. Despite considerable viral loads, vaccinated residents experienced mild symptoms and faster time to negative test results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Berlim , Surtos de Doenças , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Vacinação
6.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1520.e7-1520.e10, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dexamethasone has become the standard of care for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its virological impact is poorly understood. The objectives of this work were to characterize the kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) concentration in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the antibody response in patients with (D+) and without (D-) dexamethasone treatment. METHODS: Data and biosamples from hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, enrolled between 4th March and 11th December 2020 in a prospective observational study, were analysed. SARS-CoV-2 virus concentration in serial URT samples was measured using RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) were measured in serum samples using S1-ELISA. RESULTS: We compared 101 immunocompetent patients who received dexamethasone (according to the inclusion criteria and dosage determined in the RECOVERY trial) to 93 immunocompetent patients with comparable disease severity from the first months of the pandemic, who had not been treated with dexamethasone or other glucocorticoids. We found no inter-group differences in virus concentration kinetics, duration of presence of viral loads >106 viral copies/mL (D+ median 17 days (IQR 13-24), D- 19 days (IQR 13-29)), or time from symptom onset until seroconversion (IgA: D+ median 11.5 days (IQR 11-12), D- 14 days (IQR 11.5-15.75); IgG: D+ 13 days (IQR 12-14.5), D- 12 days (IQR 11-15)). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone does not appear to lead to a change in virus clearance or a delay in antibody response in immunocompetent patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19.

8.
Infection ; 49(4): 703-714, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adequate patient allocation is pivotal for optimal resource management in strained healthcare systems, and requires detailed knowledge of clinical and virological disease trajectories. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), to analyse viral kinetics in patients with and without IMV and to provide a comprehensive description of clinical course. METHODS: A cohort of 168 hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study at a large European tertiary care centre was analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (71/161) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Shorter duration of symptoms before admission (aOR 1.22 per day less, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, p < 0.01) and history of hypertension (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 2.00-16.82, p < 0.01) were associated with need for IMV. Patients on IMV had higher maximal concentrations, slower decline rates, and longer shedding of SARS-CoV-2 than non-IMV patients (33 days, IQR 26-46.75, vs 18 days, IQR 16-46.75, respectively, p < 0.01). Median duration of hospitalisation was 9 days (IQR 6-15.5) for non-IMV and 49.5 days (IQR 36.8-82.5) for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a short duration of symptoms before admission as a risk factor for severe disease that merits further investigation and different viral load kinetics in severely affected patients. Median duration of hospitalisation of IMV patients was longer than described for acute respiratory distress syndrome unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(11): 2725-2735, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AKI commonly occurs in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The urokinase receptor system is a key regulator of the intersection between inflammation, immunity, and coagulation, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been identified as an immunologic risk factor for AKI. Whether suPAR is associated with COVID-19-related AKI is unknown. METHODS: In a multinational observational study of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19, we measured suPAR levels in plasma samples from 352 adult patients that had been collected within 48 hours of admission. We examined the association between suPAR levels and incident in-hospital AKI. RESULTS: Of the 352 patients (57.4% were male, 13.9% were black, and mean age was 61 years), 91 (25.9%) developed AKI during their hospitalization, of whom 25 (27.4%) required dialysis. The median suPAR level was 5.61 ng/ml. AKI incidence rose with increasing suPAR tertiles, from a 6.0% incidence in patients with suPAR <4.60 ng/ml (first tertile) to a 45.8% incidence of AKI in patients with suPAR levels >6.86 ng/ml (third tertile). None of the patients with suPAR <4.60 ng/ml required dialysis during their hospitalization. In multivariable analysis, the highest suPAR tertile was associated with a 9.15-fold increase in the odds of AKI (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.64 to 22.93) and a 22.86-fold increase in the odds of requiring dialysis (95% CI, 2.77 to 188.75). The association was independent of inflammatory markers and persisted across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Admission suPAR levels in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 are predictive of in-hospital AKI and the need for dialysis. SuPAR may be a key component of the pathophysiology of AKI in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 74, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented a spectrum of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in patients with cerebral malaria, but little is known about the prevalence of such abnormalities in patients with non-cerebral malaria. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of brain MRI findings in returning travellers with non-cerebral malaria. METHODS: A total of 17 inpatients with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum non-cerebral malaria underwent structural brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla, including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Presence of imaging findings was recorded and correlated with clinical findings and parasitaemia. RESULTS: Structural brain abnormalities included a hyperintense lesion of the splenium on T2-weighted imaging (n = 3) accompanied by visible diffusion restriction (n = 2). Isolated brain microhaemorrhage was detected in 3 patients. T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities of the white matter ranged from absent to diffuse (n = 10 had 0-5 lesions, n = 5 had 5-20 lesions and 2 patients had more than 50 lesions). Imaging findings were not associated with parasitaemia or HRP2 levels. CONCLUSION: Brain MRI reveals a considerable frequency of T2-hyperintense splenial lesions in returning travellers with non-cerebral malaria, which appears to be independent of parasitaemia.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Adulto , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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