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Mar Environ Res ; 167: 105291, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691257


Ocean acidification (OA) can negatively affect early-life stages of marine organisms, with the key processes of larval settlement and metamorphosis potentially vulnerable to reduced seawater pH. Settlement success depends strongly on suitable substrates and environmental cues, with marine biofilms as key settlement inducers for a range of marine invertebrate larvae. This study experimentally investigated (1) how seawater pH determines growth and community composition of marine biofilms, and (2) whether marine biofilms developed under different pH conditions can alter settlement success in the New Zealand serpulid polychaete Galeolaria hystrix. Biofilms were developed under six pH(T) treatments (spanning from 7.0 to 8.1 [ambient]) in a flow-through system for up to 14 months. Biofilms of different ages (7, 10 and 14 months) were used to assay successful settlement of competent G. hystrix larvae reared under ambient conditions. Biofilm microbiomes were characterized through amplicon sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA gene (16S and 18S). Biofilm community composition was stable over time within each pH treatment and biofilm age did not affect larval settlement selectivity. Seawater pH treatment strongly influenced biofilm community composition, as well as subsequent settlement success when biofilms were presented to competent Galeolaria larvae. Exposure to biofilms incubated under OA-treatments caused a decrease in larval settlement of up to 40% compared to the ambient treatments. We observed a decrease in settlement on biofilms relative to ambient pH for slides incubated at pH 7.9 and 7.7. This trend was reversed at pH 7.4, resulting in high settlement, comparable to ambient biofilms. Settlement decreased on biofilms from pH 7.2, and no settlement was observed on biofilms from pH 7.0. For the first time, we show that long-term incubation of marine biofilms under a wide range of reduced seawater pH treatments can alter marine biofilms in such a way that settlement success in marine invertebrates can be compromised.

ISME J ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230267


Bottom-up selection has an important role in microbial community assembly but is unable to account for all observed variance. Other processes like top-down selection (e.g., predation) may be partially responsible for the unexplained variance. However, top-down processes and their interaction with bottom-up selective pressures often remain unexplored. We utilised an in situ marine biofilm model system to test the effects of bottom-up (i.e., substrate properties) and top-down (i.e., large predator exclusion via 100 µm mesh) selective pressures on community assembly over time (56 days). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic community compositions were monitored using 16 S and 18 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Higher compositional variance was explained by growth substrate in early successional stages, but as biofilms mature, top-down predation becomes progressively more important. Wooden substrates promoted heterotrophic growth, whereas inert substrates' (i.e., plastic, glass, tile) lack of degradable material selected for autotrophs. Early wood communities contained more mixotrophs and heterotrophs (e.g., the total abundance of Proteobacteria and Euglenozoa was 34% and 41% greater within wood compared to inert substrates). Inert substrates instead showed twice the autotrophic abundance (e.g., cyanobacteria and ochrophyta made up 37% and 10% more of the total abundance within inert substrates than in wood). Late native (non-enclosed) communities were mostly dominated by autotrophs across all substrates, whereas high heterotrophic abundance characterised enclosed communities. Late communities were primarily under top-down control, where large predators successively pruned heterotrophs. Integrating a top-down control increased explainable variance by 7-52%, leading to increased understanding of the underlying ecological processes guiding multitrophic community assembly and successional dynamics.

Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133507, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377366


Systems with strong horizontal and vertical gradients, such as fjords, are useful models for studying environmental forcing. Here we examine microbial (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) community changes associated with the surface low salinity layer (LSL) and underlying seawater in multiple fjords in Fiordland National Park (New Zealand). High rainfall (1200-8000 mm annually) and linked runoff from native forested catchments results in surface LSLs with high tannin concentrations within each fjord. These gradients are expected to drive changes in microbial communities. We used amplicon sequencing (16S and 18S) to assess the impact of these gradients on microbial communities and identified depth linked changes in diversity and community structure. With increasing depth, we observed significant increases in Proteobacteria (15%) and SAR (37%), decreases in Opisthokonta (35%), and transiently increased Bacteroidetes (3% increase from 0 to 40 m, decreasing by 8% at 200 m). Community structure differences were observed along a transect from the head to the mouth, specifically 25% mean relative abundance decreases in Opisthokonta and Bacteroidetes, and increases in SAR (25%) and Proteobacteria (>5%) at the surface, indicating changes based on distance from the ocean. This provides the first in-depth view into the ecological drivers of microbial communities within New Zealand fjords.

Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Archaea/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Estuários , Eucariotos , Nova Zelândia , Salinidade