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4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e242, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023703

RESUMO

The current pandemic is defined by the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that can lead to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). How is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted? In this review, we use a global lens to examine the sociological contexts that are potentially and systematically involved in high rates of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including lack of personal protective equipment, population density and confinement. Altogether, this review provides an in-depth conspectus of the current literature regarding how SARS-CoV-2 disproportionately impacts many minority communities. By contextualising and disambiguating transmission risks that are particularly prominent for disadvantaged populations, this review can assist public health efforts throughout and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociologia
6.
R I Med J (2013) ; 102(7): 17-20, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480813

RESUMO

The Brown Human Rights Asylum Clinic (BHRAC) is a medical student-led organization affiliated with Physicians for Human Rights that collaborates with medical and mental health clinicians, lawyers, and community organizations to provide pro bono medical affidavits to undocumented individuals seeking legal status in the United States. Affidavits can document and corroborate the physical and psychological evidence of trauma alleged by asylum seekers, leading to better legal outcomes. This article describes our innovative program, partnerships, and workflow, as well as demographics and statistics from our past seven years of operation. Since its founding in 2013, BHRAC has conducted 55 medical evaluations, the majority involving Spanish-speaking female-identifying individuals from Guatemala, El Salvador, and the Dominican Republic. Thirteen individuals have been granted legal status, one individual was denied status, and the rest of the cases are pending. BHRAC has experienced a marked increase in affidavit requests. This paper serves as a call to action for medical professionals to become involved in this work.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Médicos/ética , Refugiados/legislação & jurisprudência , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Direitos Humanos/psicologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Refugiados/psicologia , Rhode Island
7.
J Law Med Ethics ; 47(2_suppl): 15-18, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298130

RESUMO

This article discusses how advocacy can be taught to both law and public health students, as well as the role that public health law faculty can play in advocating for public health. Despite the central role that advocacy plans in translating public health research into law, policy advocacy skills are rarely explicitly taught in either law schools or schools of public health, leaving those engaged in public health practice unclear about whether and how to advocate for effective policies. The article explains how courses in public health law and health justice provide ideal opportunities to teach advocacy skills, and it discusses the work of the George Consortium, which seeks to engage public health law faculty in advocacy efforts.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , Currículo , Docentes , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Am J Lifestyle Med ; 13(3): 282-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105492

RESUMO

Medical-legal partnership (MLP) is a health care delivery innovation that embeds civil legal aid expertise into the health care team to address health-harming legal needs for vulnerable populations at risk for poor health. The MLP approach focuses on prevention by addressing upstream structural and systemic social and legal problems that affect patient and population health. Because many unmet legal needs affect health (such as residing in substandard housing; wrongful denial of government income supports, health insurance, or food assistance; family violence; and barriers to care based on immigration status), lawyers are important members of the health care team. This review describes the MLP approach to addressing the social determinants of health, examines its benefits for improving the delivery of primary care for vulnerable patients and populations, and explores new opportunities for MLP in primary care with the advent of systems reforms driven by the Affordable Care Act.

11.
Acad Med ; 92(3): 292-298, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225730

RESUMO

Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) embed civil legal services lawyers into health care settings and interprofessional health care teams delivering care to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities. MLPs present the opportunity to instill in residents a practical understanding of the social determinants of health and provide them with concrete tools to address them. MLP training helps residents develop structural competency and build the skills necessary to address barriers to health at the patient, institutional, and population levels. Through a case study, this Perspective explores how residents can address health-harming legal needs working in partnership with interprofessional health care teams that include lawyers, and illustrates how such MLP experiences can relate to competency-based Milestones that are applicable to training residents in all specialties.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Internato e Residência/normas , Advogados/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Competência Profissional/normas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pobreza/psicologia , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
13.
Acad Med ; 91(6): 761-5, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445082

RESUMO

For too long, many stakeholders in the health care delivery system have ignored the extent to which social determinants of health (SDH) are inextricably woven into and affect individual and population health. The health care system is undergoing a relatively rapid transformation, which has included in part an increasing recognition of SDH's effects. This recognition, in turn, has led to renewed calls for changing the way that physicians are trained and has accelerated medical education curricular reforms. This Perspective focuses on one such innovative method of team-based care and the opportunities for its integration into medical education: medical-legal partnership, a health care delivery model that embeds civil legal services into the spectrum of health care services provided to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Relações Interprofissionais , Serviços Jurídicos/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Currículo , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Educação Médica/ética , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Serviços Jurídicos/ética , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Estados Unidos
14.
R I Med J (2013) ; 97(9): 36-9, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25181745

RESUMO

As the United States embarks on health care reform through the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to practice medicine will change. Education centered on health disparities and social determinants of health will become increasingly more important as 32 million Americans receive coverage through the ACA. In this paper, we describe future initiatives at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in training medical students on health disparities and social determinants of health through mechanisms such as the Primary Care-Population Medicine Program, the Rhode Island Area Health Education Center, the Scholarly Concentration program and other mechanisms.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Congressos como Assunto , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Rhode Island , Faculdades de Medicina , Ensino/métodos , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/tendências
15.
Health Hum Rights ; 15(2): 80-96, 2013 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24421171

RESUMO

Much of the discussion about "health as a human right" has centered on global health initiatives, largely ignoring the application of human rights principles to the significant socioeconomic and racial health disparities in the United States. Given the persistent gaps in insurance coverage and access to quality preventive care in the US, the health and human rights movement has primarily focused its efforts on achieving universal health care coverage. However, this focus has left unaddressed how a human rights strategy might also address the social determinants of health. As Americans' health continues to worsen-the US Institute of Medicine recently reported that the US now fares worse in nine areas of health than 16 peer high-income democracies--a broader social determinants approach is warranted. This article explores the application of international human rights principles, including a "right to health" to the US context, and analyzes how existing domestic law may be used to advance health as a human right for America's most vulnerable populations. It demonstrates that an effective health and human rights strategy must build partnerships among health care providers, public health professionals, and lawyers to identify rights violations, hold officials and systems accountable, and mobilize communities to advocate for systems and policy change.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Nível de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Defesa do Paciente , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/normas , Poder Psicológico , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Responsabilidade Social , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
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