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Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4723-4739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308655


Background: Much consideration has been paid to the toxicological assessment of nanoparticles prior to clinical and biological applications. While in vitro studies have been expanding continually, in vivo investigations of nanoparticles have not developed a cohesive structure. This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of different concentrations of chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs) in main organs, including liver, kidneys, and spleen. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n=7). Group 1 was kept as a negative control group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated intraperitoneally with Ch-AgNPs each day for 14 days at doses of 50, 25, and 10 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed as well as oxidative stress evaluations, and specific functional examinations for each organ were elucidated. Results: It was revealed that Ch-AgNPs induced dose-dependent toxicity, and the repeated dosing of rats with 50 mg/kg Ch-AgNPs induced severe toxicities. Histopathological examination showed congestion, hemorrhage, cellular degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic and renal tissue as well as lymphocytic depletion with increasing tangible macrophages in the spleen. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (MDA, ALT, AST) and the lowest levels of reduced glutathione, immunoglobulin G, M and total protein (GSH, IgG, IgM, TP) were observed in this group. On the other hand, repeated dosing with 25 mg/kg induced mild to moderate disturbance in the previous parameters, while there was no significant difference in results of pathological examination and biochemical tests between the control group and those treated with 10 mg/kg bwt Ch-AgNPs. Conclusion: Chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rats.

Quitosana/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
Daru ; 27(1): 233-241, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134491


PURPOSE: Cisplatin, one of the most effective anticancer drugs, is known to cause undesirable adverse effects, including immunotoxicity. Echinacea purpurea is an important medicinal plant with immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. We have investigated the protective effect of an herbal formulation (Immulant) containing E. purpurea extract against cisplatin-induced immunotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Forty mature albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 rats/group). Control (group 1) animals were subjected to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline solution (0.2 ml) once every 3 days. Group 2 animals received cisplatin (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.) once every 3 days for successive 2 weeks. Group 3 rats received oral Immulant (150 mg/kg) once daily for 2 weeks. Group 4 animals received oral Immulant treatment as in group 3 in addition to cisplatin as in group 2. Serum level of total protein and albumin, total and differential leukocytic count, phagocytic activity of monocytes, humoral activity and splenic histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used as diagnostic markers of immunotoxicity. RESULTS: Cisplatin induced marked inhibition of cellular immunity as exhibited by significant decrease of leukocytic count, lymphocyte percentage and phagocytic activity with marked increase in neutrophil percentage. Humoral immunity represented by marked inhibition in total protein and γ-globulin concentration and significant inhibition in antibody titer against Mycoplasma gallisepticum were recorded. Histopathological and immunohistochemical observation of the spleen of cisplatin-treated rats revealed obvious pathological findings of marked depletion and degeneration of lymphoid tissue. Co-oral administration of Immulant resulted in substantial improvement of various immunotoxicological indices compared to cisplatin control. CONCLUSION: The herbal medicine Immulant is an immunostimulant which could be used to treat the immunotoxic effects of cisplatin. Graphical abstract Cisplatin (CP) is a highly effective antineoplastic DNA alkylating agent. CP induces free radical production causing an oxidative damage.Cisplatin induced marked inhibition in cellular and humoral immunityEchinacea purpurea (Immulant) is a powerful anticytotoxic agent against cisplatin toxicity.

Acta Histochem ; 116(5): 844-54, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24657072


Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of ß-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained ß-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina