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1.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; : e12491, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567334

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the factors associated with reduced research activities during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 by comparing nursing researchers working in academic and clinical settings. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected by the Japan Academy of Nursing Sciences, which conducted a cross-sectional online survey when the pandemic began. We included respondents who worked in either academic or clinical settings and responded that the pandemic negatively affected their research activities. First, we computed a propensity score (PS) using a logistic regression model. Then we performed a one-to-one ratio matching between the groups based on the PS to control imbalances between the groups. We identified the factors negatively affecting research activities and who to consult about research concerns by comparing the groups using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: There were 1,532 participants, with a response rate of 16.1%. After PS matching, 214 participants (107 for each group) were included. We identified three significant factors associated with reduced research activities: (i) time required for learning new information and communication technology (ICT) skills; (ii) time required for supporting colleagues with ICT issues; and (iii) time required for preparing and evaluating teaching materials. Approximately 20% of our participants in both settings had nobody to consult regarding research concerns. CONCLUSION: We found that the time spent on ICT-related issues negatively affected the research activities of nursing researchers when the pandemic began in Japan. In such an emergency, nursing researchers needed an opportunity to share their difficulties as a part of a support service.

2.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 74, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calls for emergency medical assistance at the scene of a motor vehicle crash (MVC) substantially contribute to the demand on ambulance services. Triage by emergency medical dispatch systems is therefore important, to ensure the right care is provided to the right patient, in the right amount of time. A lights and sirens (L&S) response is the highest priority ambulance response, also known as a priority one or hot response. In this context, over triage is defined as dispatching an ambulance with lights and sirens (L&S) to a low acuity MVC and under triage is not dispatching an ambulance with L&S to those who require urgent medical care. We explored the potential for crash characteristics to be used during emergency ambulance calls to identify those MVCs that required a L&S response. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using ambulance and police data from 2014 to 2016. The predictor variables were crash characteristics (e.g. road surface), and Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) dispatch codes. The outcome variable was the need for a L&S ambulance response. A Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector technique was used to develop decision trees, with over/under triage rates determined for each tree. The model with an under/over triage rate closest to that prescribed by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS COT) will be deemed to be the best model (under triage rate of ≤ 5% and over triage rate of between 25-35%. RESULTS: The decision tree with a 2.7% under triage rate was closest to that specified by the ACS COT, had as predictors-MPDS codes, trapped, vulnerable road user, anyone aged 75 + , day of the week, single versus multiple vehicles, airbag deployment, atmosphere, surface, lighting and accident type. This model had an over triage rate of 84.8%. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to derive a model with a reasonable under triage rate, however this model also had a high over triage rate. Individual EMS may apply the findings here to their own jurisdictions when dispatching to the scene of a MVC.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidentes de Trânsito , Algoritmos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos
3.
Emerg Med J ; 39(1): 37-44, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus usual care for prehospital patients with severe respiratory distress. METHODS: We conducted a parallel group, individual patient, non-blinded randomised controlled trial in Western Australia between March 2016 and December 2018. Eligible patients were aged ≥40 years with acute severe respiratory distress of non-traumatic origin and unresponsive to initial treatments by emergency medical service (EMS) paramedics. Patients were randomised (1:1) to usual care or usual care plus CPAP. The primary outcomes were change in dyspnoea score and change in RR at ED arrival, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: 708 patients were randomly assigned (opaque sealed envelope) to usual care (n=346) or CPAP (n=362). Compared with usual care, patients randomised to CPAP had a greater reduction in dyspnoea scores (usual care -1.0, IQR -3.0 to 0.0 vs CPAP -3.5, IQR -5.2 to -2.0), median difference -2.0 (95% CI -2.5 to -1.6); and RR (usual care -4.0, IQR -9.0 to 0.0 min-1 vs CPAP -8.0, IQR -14.0 to -4.0 min-1), median difference -4.0 (95% CI -5.0 to -4.0) min-1. There was no difference in hospital length of stay (usual care 4.2, IQR 2.1 to 7.8 days vs CPAP 4.8, IQR 2.5 to 7.9 days) for the n=624 cases admitted to hospital, median difference 0.36 (95% CI -0.17 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: The use of prehospital CPAP by EMS paramedics reduced dyspnoea and tachypnoea in patients with acute respiratory distress but did not impact hospital length of stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12615001180505.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
4.
Inform Health Soc Care ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965817

RESUMO

We derived machine learning models utilizing features generated by natural language processing (NLP) of free-text data from an ambulance services provider to identify fall cases. The data comprised samples of electronic patient care records care records (ePCRs) from St John Western Australia (WA), the sole ambulance services provider in most of WA. We manually labeled fall cases by reviewing the free-text summary. The models used features including case characteristics (e.g., age) and text frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) of each word of the free-text generated by NLP. Support vector machine (SVM) and random forest were used as classifiers. We compared the performance of the models against the manual identification of falls by recall, precision, and F-measure. A total of 9,447 cases (1%) were randomly sampled, of which 1,648 (17%) were labeled as fall. The best model was an SVM model using case characteristics and tf-idf's of the first 100 words of free-text, with recall of 0.84, precision of 0.86, and F-measure of 0.85. This performance was better than an SVM model with only case characteristics. Machine-learning models incorporated with features generated by NLP improved the performance of classifying fall cases compared with models without such features. Scope remains for further improvement.

5.
Resusc Plus ; 8: 100183, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the incidence, patient and arrest characteristics, and survival outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Western Australia (WA) in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Adult OHCA cases attended by St John WA Emergency Medical Service (EMS) between 16th March and 17th May 2020 ('COVID-19 period') were compared with those for the same period in 2017-9. We calculated crude OHCA incidence for all OHCA cases and modelled the effect of the 'COVID-19 period' on 30-day survival for OHCA cases with EMS attempted resuscitation; comparing our results with those published for Victoria (Australia), which had a higher incidence of COVID-19. RESULTS: In WA there was no significant difference between the 2020 'COVID-19 period' (n = 423) and the same period in 2017-9 (n = 1,334) in the OHCA incidence in adults (117.9 vs 126.1 per 100,000 person-years, p = 0.23). In OHCA cases with EMS-resuscitation attempted, there was no change in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates. Despite an increase in EMS response time, neither the crude nor risk-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for 30-day survival in 2020 was significantly different to 2017-9 (11.7% vs 9.6%; p = 0.45) (aOR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.57-2.51, p = 0.65). This contrasts with a significant reduction in survival to hospital discharge reported in Victoria. CONCLUSION: In WA, with a relatively low incidence of COVID-19, OHCA incidence and survival was not significantly different during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the three previous years. Our study suggests that OHCA survival may be more closely related to the incidence of COVID-19 in the community, rather than COVID-19 restrictions per se.

6.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484801

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members. As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

7.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 53, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433491

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members.As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

8.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(3): 351-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) comprise a significant component of emergency medical service workload. Due to the potential for life-threatening injuries, ambulances are often dispatched at the highest priority to MVCs. However, previous research has shown that only a small proportion of high-priority ambulance responses to MVCs encounter high acuity patients. Alternative methods for triaging patients over the phone are required to reduce the burden of over-triage. One method is to use information readily available at the scene (e.g. whether a person was a motorcyclist, ejection status or whether an airbag deployed) as potential predictors of high acuity. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all MVC patients in Perth attended by St John Western Australia between 2014 and 2016. Ambulance data was linked with Police crash data. The outcome variable of interest was patient acuity, where high acuity was defined as where a patient (1) died on-scene or (2) was transported by ambulance on priority one (lights & sirens) from the scene to hospital. Crash characteristics that are predictive of high acuity patients were identified by estimating crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of the 18,917 MVC patients attended by SJ-WA paramedics, 6.4% were classified as high acuity patients. The odds of being a high acuity patient was greater for vulnerable road users (motorcyclists, pedestrians and cyclists) than for motor vehicle occupants (OR 3.19, 95% CI, 2.80-3.64). A 'not ambulant patient' (one identified by paramedics as unable to walk or having an injury incompatible with being able to walk) had 15 times the odds of being high acuity than ambulant patients (OR 15.34, 95% CI, 11.48-20.49). Those who were trapped in a vehicle compared to those not trapped (OR 4.68, 95% CI, 3.95-5.54); and those who were ejected (both partial and full) from the vehicle compared to those not ejected (OR 6.49, 95% CI, 4.62-9.12) had higher odds of being high acuity patients. Discussion: There were two important findings from this study: (1) few MVC patients were deemed to be high acuity; and (2) several crash scene characteristics were strong predictors of high acuity patients.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
9.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 60: 557-565, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia, although a high income economy, carries a significant burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and RHD are endemic in the Indigenous population. Immigrants from low/lower-income countries ('non-Indigenous high-risk') are also at increased risk compared with 'non-Indigenous low-risk' Australians. This study describes the utilisation of surgical and percutaneous procedures for RHD-related valve disease among patients aged less than 50 years, from 2002 to 2017. METHODS: A descriptive study using data from the 'End RHD in Australia: Study of Epidemiology (ERASE) Project' linking RHD Registers and hospital inpatient data from five states/territories, and two surgical databases. Trends across three-year periods were determined and post-procedural all-cause 30-day mortality calculated. RESULTS: A total of 3900 valves interventions were undertaken in 3028 procedural episodes among 2487 patients. Over 50% of patients were in the 35-49 years group, and 64% were female. Over 60% of procedures for 3-24 year-olds were for Indigenous patients. There were few significant changes across the study period other than downward trends in the number and proportion of procedures for young Indigenous patients (3-24 years) and 'non-Indigenous/low risk' patients aged ≥35 years. Mitral valve procedures predominated, and multi-valve interventions increased, including on the tricuspid valve. The majority of replacement prostheses were mechanical, although bioprosthetic valve use increased overall, being highest among females <35 years and Indigenous Australians. All-cause mortality (n = 42) at 30-days was 1.4% overall (range 1.1-1.7), but 2.0% for Indigenous patients. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of cardiac valve procedures, and 30-day mortality remained steady across 15 years. Some changes in the distribution of procedures in population groups were evident. Replacement procedures, the use of bioprosthetic valves, and multiple-valve interventions increased. The challenge for Australian public health officials is to reduce the incidence, and improve the early detection and management of ARF/RHD in high-risk populations within Australia.

10.
Australas Emerg Care ; 23(2): 90-96, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of a lower risk of death, major trauma patients are not always transported to Trauma Centres. This study examines the characteristics and outcomes of major trauma patients between transport destinations. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of major trauma patients (Injury Severity Score >15) transported by ambulance was undertaken. Cases were divided into transport destination groups: (1) Direct, those transported to the Trauma Centre directly from the scene; (2) Indirect, those transported to another hospital prior to Trauma Centre transfer and (3) Non-transfers, those transported to a non-Trauma Centre and never subsequently transferred. Median and interquartile range (IQR) were used to describe the groups and differences were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square for categorical. RESULTS: A total of 1625 patients were included. The median age was oldest in the non-transfers cohort (72 years IQR 46-84). This group had the highest proportion of falls from standing and head injuries (n = 298/400, 75%, p < 0.001). The non-transfers had the highest proportion of 30-day mortality (n = 134/400, 34%). CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences between the groups with older adults, falls and head injuries over-represented in the non-transfer group. Considering the ageing population, trauma systems will need to adapt.


Assuntos
Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
11.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(4): 449-451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095419

RESUMO

Objective: A recent study published in this journal has provided a description and summary of changes made to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) through the 5 latest versions. However, there has already been a considerable body of related research published during the past decade. Methods: A brief narrative review of recent research in this field is presented. Results: Over the past decade, considerable research has been undertaken to describe the code set differences that have arisen between different AIS versions. Much of this research has been focused on developing or evaluating mapping tools to provide continuity in how the AIS has been used to describe injury over time. In addition, severity changes and changes by body region have also been summarized for some AIS versions. Conclusions: The changes that have been successively introduced to the AIS since 1990 have been well documented, and validated strategies to enable registries to adjust for AIS change are well established. However, further research into the effects of adopting the latest (2015) AIS version is encouraged.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Sistema de Registros
12.
Emerg Med Australas ; 31(5): 763-771, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of older adult (≥65 years) major trauma patients in comparison with younger adults (16-64 years). To determine whether older age is associated with a reduced likelihood of transport (directly or indirectly) to a major trauma centre and whether this is associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of major trauma patients transported to hospital by St John Ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between age and major trauma centre transport. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to determine if major trauma centre transport was associated with in-hospital mortality in older adults. RESULTS: One thousand six hundred and twenty-five patients were included; of these 576 (35%) were ≥65 years. In comparison with younger adults, older adults had more falls as their mechanism of injury (n = 358 [62%] versus n = 102 [10%], P ≤ 0.001) and more major head injuries (n = 472 [82%] versus n = 609 [58%], P ≤ 0.001). Older adults had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.78) of major trauma centre transport and this was associated with 1.7 times the likelihood of in-hospital mortality (95% CI 1.04-2.7). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who were not transported to the trauma centre had an increased odds of in-hospital mortality. However, older age was associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of trauma centre transport. With the aging population, the development of specific prehospital triage criteria to enable the complexities of this higher-risk population to be identified is important.


Assuntos
Ageismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
13.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 23(4): 527-537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462550

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between prehospital time and outcomes in adult major trauma patients, transported by ambulance paramedics. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of major trauma patients (Injury Severity Score >15) attended by St John Ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia, who were transported to hospital between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score was performed to limit selection bias and confounding. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and the secondary outcome was the length of hospital stay (LOS) for 30-day survivors. Multivariate logistic and log-linear regression analyses with IPTW were used to determine if prehospital time of more than the one hour (from receipt of the emergency call to arrival at hospital) or any individual prehospital time interval (response, on-scene, transport, or total time) was associated with 30-day mortality or LOS. Results: A total of 1,625 major trauma patients were included and 1,553 included in the IPTW sample. No significant association between prehospital time of one hour and 30-day mortality was found (adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.69). No association between any individual prehospital time interval and 30-day mortality was identified. In the 30-day survivors, one-minute increase of on-scene time was associated with 1.16 times (95% CI 1.03-1.31) longer LOS. Conclusion: Longer prehospital times were not associated with an increased likelihood of 30-day mortality in major trauma patients transported to hospital by ambulance paramedics. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prehospital time longer than one hour resulted in an increased risk of 30-day mortality. However, longer on-scene time was associated with longer hospital LOS (for 30-day survivors). Our recommendation is that prehospital care is delivered in a timely fashion and delivery of the patient to hospital is reasonably prompt.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
14.
Emerg Med Australas ; 30(6): 827-833, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of trauma in adult patients attended by ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of trauma patients aged ≥16 years attended by St John Ambulance Western Australia (SJA-WA) paramedics in greater metropolitan Perth between 2013 and 2016 using the SJA-WA database and WA death data. Incidence and 30 day mortality rates were calculated. Patients who died prehospital (immediate deaths), on the day of injury (early deaths), within 30 days (late deaths) and those who survived longer than 30 days (survivors) were compared for age, sex, mechanism of injury and acuity level. Prehospital interventions were also reported. RESULTS: Overall, 97 724 cases were included. A statistically significant increase in the incidence rate occurred over the study period (from 1466 to 1623 per 100 000 population year P ≤ 0.001). There were 2183 deaths within 30 days (n = 2183/97 724, 2.2%). Motor vehicle accidents were responsible for most immediate and early deaths (n = 98/203, 48.3% and n = 72/156, 46.2%, respectively). The majority of transported patients were low acuity (acuity levels 3 to 5, n = 60 594/79 887, 75.8%) and high-acuity patients accounted for 2.7% (n = 2176/79 997). Analgesia administration was the most frequently performed intervention (n = 32 333/80 643, 40.1%), followed by insertion of intravenous catheters (n = 25 060/80 643, 31.1%). Advanced life support interventions such as endotracheal intubation were performed in <1% of patients. CONCLUSION: The trauma incidence rate increased over time and the majority of patients had low-acuity injuries. Focusing research, training and resources solely on high-acuity patients will not cater for the needs of the majority of patients.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
16.
Resuscitation ; 116: 60-65, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476475

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the relationship between chest compression fraction (CCF) and survival outcomes in OHCA, including whether the relationship varied based upon downtime from onset of arrest to provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services (EMS). METHODS: Data from resuscitations performed by St John Ambulance Western Australia (SJA-WA) paramedics between July 2014 and June 2016 was captured using the Q-CPR feedback device. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between CCF and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Various lengths of Q-CPR data were used ranging from the first 3min to all available episode data. Cases were subsequently divided into groups based upon downtime; ≤15min, >15min and unknown. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed in each group. RESULTS: There were 341 cases eligible for inclusion. CCF >80% was significantly associated with decreased odds of ROSC compared to CCF≤80% (aOR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.28-0.87). This relationship remained significant whether the first 3min of data was used, the first 5min or all available episode data. Among the group with a downtime >15min, CCF was significantly lower for those who achieved ROSC compared to those who did not (mean (SD): 73.01 (12.99)% vs. 83.05 (9.38)% p=0.002). The adjusted odds ratio for achieving ROSC in this group was significantly less with CCF>80% compared to CCF≤80% (aOR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01-0.38). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated an inverse relationship between CCF and ROSC that varied depending upon the time from arrest to provision of EMS-CPR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Emerg Med Australas ; 29(1): 69-76, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was to describe the trends in the incidence, characteristics and survival of paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) over an 18 year period. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data from all OHCA patients aged <18 years who were attended by St John Ambulance Western Australia paramedics in the Perth metropolitan area, WA, between 1997 and 2014. The incidence, characteristics and survival were compared across 4 year periods (1997-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2014). The Paediatric Cerebral Performance Category at hospital discharge was determined by medical record review. Incidence per 100 000 population was calculated for four age groups (<1, 1-4, 5-12 and 13-17). RESULTS: In total, 723 OHCAs were identified, and 451 (62.4%) had resuscitation commenced by paramedics. The patients were predominantly male (61.6%) with a median age of 2 years (IQR 0-14 years). Bystander CPR increased over time from 35.0% (1997-2000) to 63.0% (2011-2014) (P < 0.001). Any return of spontaneous circulation was 39/451 (8.6%), and survival to hospital discharge was 21/451 (5.0%). Of the 20 survivors assessed, 11 had good neurological status at hospital discharge (Paediatric Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2). The overall incidence decreased from 14.1 (1997-2000) to 8.7 (2011-2014) per 100 000 population (P < 0.001). This was almost halved in children aged <1 year group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The incidence of paediatric OHCA decreased over time, but survival remained poor. Strategies to strengthen the chain of survival for paediatric OHCA need to be considered.


Assuntos
Incidência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Espectador , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
18.
Resuscitation ; 111: 116-126, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) abnormalities are common after cardiac arrest (CA). Maintaining a normal PaCO2 makes physiological sense and is recommended as a therapeutic target after CA, but few studies have examined the association between PaCO2 and patient outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of a low or high PaCO2 on patient outcomes after CA. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL, for studies that evaluated the association between PaCO2 and outcomes after CA. The primary outcome was hospital survival. Secondary outcomes included neurological status at the end of each study's follow up period, hospital discharge destination and 30-day survival. Meta-analysis was conducted if statistical heterogeneity was low. RESULTS: The systematic review included nine studies; eight provided sufficient quantitative data for meta-analysis. Using PaCO2 cut-points of <35mmHg and >45mmHg to define hypo- and hypercarbia, normocarbia was associated with increased hospital survival (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23, 1.38). Normocarbia was also associated with a good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category score 1 or 2) compared to hypercarbia (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.13, 2.51) when the analysis also included an additional study with a slightly different definition for normocarbia (PaCO2 30-50mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: From the limited data it appears PaCO2 has an important U-shape association with survival and outcomes after CA, consistent with international resuscitation guidelines' recommendation that normocarbia be targeted during post-resuscitation care.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Artérias , Humanos
19.
Emerg Med Australas ; 28(6): 716-724, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare chief complaints of the Medical Priority Dispatch System in terms of the match between dispatch priority and patient condition. METHODS: This was a retrospective whole-of-population study of emergency ambulance dispatch in Perth, Western Australia, 1 January 2014 to 30 June 2015. Dispatch priority was categorised as either Priority 1 (high priority), or Priority 2 or 3. Patient condition was categorised as time-critical for patient(s) transported as Priority 1 to hospital or who died (and resuscitation was attempted by paramedics); else, patient condition was categorised as less time-critical. The χ2 statistic was used to compare chief complaints by false omission rate (percentage of Priority 2 or 3 dispatches that were time-critical) and positive predictive value (percentage of Priority 1 dispatches that were time-critical). We also reported sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: There were 211 473 cases of dispatch. Of 99 988 cases with Priority 2 or 3 dispatch, 467 (0.5%) were time-critical. Convulsions/seizures and breathing problems were highlighted as having more false negatives (time-critical despite Priority 2 or 3 dispatch) than expected from the overall false omission rate. Of 111 485 cases with Priority 1 dispatch, 6520 (5.8%) were time-critical. Our analysis highlighted chest pain, heart problems/automatic implanted cardiac defibrillator, unknown problem/collapse, and headache as having fewer true positives (time-critical and Priority 1 dispatch) than expected from the overall positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: Scope for reducing under-triage and over-triage of ambulance dispatch varies between chief complaints of the Medical Priority Dispatch System. The highlighted chief complaints should be considered for future research into improving ambulance dispatch system performance.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Gravidade do Paciente , Triagem/normas , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália Ocidental
20.
Emerg Med Australas ; 28(6): 647-653, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of paramedics to identify patients who could be managed in the community and to identify predictors that could be used to accurately identify patients who should be transported to EDs. METHODS: Lower acuity patients who were assessed by paramedics in the Perth metropolitan area in 2013 were studied. Paramedics prospectively indicated on the patient care record if they considered that the patient could be treated in the community. The paramedic decisions were compared with actual disposition from the ED (discharge and admission), and the occurrence of subsequent events (ambulance request, ED visit, admission and death) for discharged patients at the scene was investigated. Decision tree analysis was used to identify predictors that were associated with hospital admission. RESULTS: In total, 57 183 patients were transported to the ED, and 10 204 patients were discharged at the scene by paramedics. Paramedics identified 2717 patients who could potentially be treated in the community among those who were transported to the ED. Of these, 1455 patients (53.6%) were admitted to hospital. For patients discharged at the scene, those who were indicated as suitable for community care were more likely to experience subsequent events than those who were not. The decision tree found that two predictors (age and aetiology) were associated with hospital admission. Overall discriminative power of the decision tree was poor; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.686. CONCLUSION: Lower acuity patients who could be treated in the community were not accurately identified by paramedics. This process requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Auxiliares de Emergência , Transporte de Pacientes , Triagem/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Competência Clínica , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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