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2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899881

RESUMO

Recently, the relationship between emotional arousal and depression has been studied. Focusing on this relationship, we first developed an arousal level voice index (ALVI) to measure arousal levels using the Interactive Emotional Dyadic Motion Capture database. Then, we calculated ALVI from the voices of depressed patients from two hospitals (Ginza Taimei Clinic (H1) and National Defense Medical College hospital (H2)) and compared them with the severity of depression as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Depending on the HAM-D score, the datasets were classified into a no depression (HAM-D < 8) and a depression group (HAM-D ≥ 8) for each hospital. A comparison of the mean ALVI between the groups was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a significant difference at the level of 10% (p = 0.094) at H1 and 1% (p = 0.0038) at H2 was determined. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.66 when categorizing between the two groups for H1, and the AUC for H2 was 0.70. The relationship between arousal level and depression severity was indirectly suggested via the ALVI.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970753

RESUMO

Wuhan, China was the epicenter of the 2019 coronavirus outbreak. As a designated hospital for COVID-19, Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital has received over 700 COVID-19 patients. With the COVID-19 becoming a pandemic all over the world, we aim to share our epidemiological and clinical findings with the global community. We studied 340 confirmed COVID-19 patients with clear clinical outcomes from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, including 310 discharged cases and 30 death cases. We analyzed their demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data and implemented our findings into an interactive, free access web application to evaluate COVID-19 patient's severity level. Our results show that baseline T cell subsets results differed significantly between the discharged cases and the death cases in Mann Whitney U test: Total T cells (p < 0.001), Helper T cells (p <0.001), Suppressor T cells (p <0.001), and TH/TSC (Helper/Suppressor ratio, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression model with death or discharge as the outcome resulted in the following significant predictors: age (OR 1.05, 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.10), underlying disease status (OR 3.42, 95% CI, 1.30 to 9.95), Helper T cells on the log scale (OR 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.40), and TH/TSC on the log scale (OR 4.80, 95% CI, 2.12 to 11.86). The AUC for the logistic regression model is 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95), suggesting the model has a very good predictive power. Our findings suggest that while age and underlying diseases are known risk factors for poor prognosis, patients with a less damaged immune system at the time of hospitalization had higher chance of recovery. Close monitoring of the T cell subsets might provide valuable information of the patient's condition change during the treatment process. Our web visualization application can be used as a supplementary tool for the evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(6): e16880, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring emotional status objectively is challenging, but voice pattern analysis has been reported to be useful in the study of emotion. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the association between specific sleep measures and the change of emotional status based on voice patterns measured before and after nighttime sleep. METHODS: A total of 20 volunteers were recruited. Their objective sleep measures were obtained using a portable single-channel electroencephalogram system, and their emotional status was assessed using MIMOSYS, a smartphone app analyzing voice patterns. The study analyzed 73 sleep episodes from 18 participants for the association between the change of emotional status following nighttime sleep (Δvitality) and specific sleep measures. RESULTS: A significant association was identified between total sleep time and Δvitality (regression coefficient: 0.036, P=.008). A significant inverse association was also found between sleep onset latency and Δvitality (regression coefficient: -0.026, P=.001). There was no significant association between Δvitality and sleep efficiency or number of awakenings. CONCLUSIONS: Total sleep time and sleep onset latency are significantly associated with Δvitality, which indicates a change of emotional status following nighttime sleep. This is the first study to report the association between the emotional status assessed using voice pattern and specific sleep measures.

5.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(7): e16455, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed a system for monitoring mental health using voice data from daily phone calls, termed Mind Monitoring System (MIMOSYS), by implementing a method for estimating mental health status from voice data. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of this system for detecting depressive states and monitoring stress-induced mental changes. METHODS: We opened our system to the public in the form of a prospective study in which data were collected over 2 years from a large, unspecified sample of users. We used these data to analyze the relationships between the rate of continued use, the men-to-women ratio, and existing psychological tests for this system over the study duration. Moreover, we analyzed changes in mental data over time under stress from particular life events. RESULTS: The system had a high rate of continued use. Voice indicators showed that women have more depressive tendencies than men, matching the rate of depression in Japan. The system's voice indicators and the scores on classical psychological tests were correlated. We confirmed deteriorating mental health for users in areas affected by major earthquakes in Japan around the time of the earthquakes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although this system is insufficient for detecting depression, it may be effective for monitoring changes in mental health due to stress. The greatest feature of our system is mental health monitoring, which is most effectively accomplished by performing long-term time-series analysis of the acquired data considering the user's life events. Such a system can improve the implementation of patient interventions by evaluating objective data along with life events.

6.
Am J Disaster Med ; 15(4): 251-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mental health issues of personnel dealing with the deceased at times of disasters is a problem and techniques are needed that allow for real-time, easy-to-use stress checks. We have studied techniques for measuring mental state using voice analysis which has the benefit of being non-invasive, easy-to-use, and can be performed in real-time. For this study, we used voice measurement to determine the stress experienced during body identification training workshops for dentists. We studied whether or not stress levels were affected by having previous experience with body identification either in actual disaster settings or during training. DESIGN: Since participants training using actual dead bodies in particular are expected to suffer higher stress exposure, we also assessed their mental state pre- and post-training using actual dead bodies. RESULTS: The results confirmed marked differences in the mental state between before and after training in participants without any actual experience, between participants who engaged in training using manikins before actual dead bodies and participants who did not. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, in body identification training, the level of stress when coming into contact with dead bodies varies depending on participants' experience and the training sequence. Moreover, it is believed that voice-based stress assessment can be conducted in the limited time during training sessions and that it can be usefully implemented in actual disaster response settings.


Assuntos
Desastres , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 126: 109822, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare a wearable device, the Fitbit Versa (FV), to a validated portable single-channel EEG system across multiple nights in a naturalistic environment. METHODS: Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women) aged 25-67 years were recruited for the present study. Study duration was 14 days during which participants were asked to wear the FV daily and nightly. The study intended to reproduce free-living conditions; thus, no guidelines for sleep or activity were imposed on the participants. A total of 138 person-nights, equivalent to 76,539 epochs, were used in the validation process. Sleep measures were compared between the FV and portable EEG using Bland-Altman plots, paired t-tests and epoch-by-epoch (EBE) analyses. RESULTS: The FV showed no significant bias with the EEG for the global sleep measures time in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST), and for calculated sleep efficiency (cSE = [TST/TIB] x 100). The FV had 92.1% sensitivity, 54.1% specificity, and 88.5% accuracy with a Cohen's kappa of 0.41, but a prevalence- and bias adjusted kappa of 0.77. The predictive values for sleep (PVS; positive predictive value) and wakefulness (PVW; negative predictive value) were 95.0% and 42.0%, respectively. The FV showed significant bias compared to the portable EEG for time spent in specific sleep stages, for SE as provided by FV, for sleep onset latency, sleep period time, and wake after sleep onset. CONCLUSIONS: The consumer sleep tracker could be a useful tool for measuring sleep duration in longitudinal epidemiologic naturalistic studies albeit with some limitations in specificity.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 77(9): 827-836, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053086

RESUMO

Detonation of explosive devices creates blast waves, which can injure brains even in the absence of external injuries. Among these, blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bmTBI) is increasing in military populations, such as in the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria. Although the clinical presentation of bmTBI is not precisely defined, it is frequently associated with psycho-neurological deficits and usually manifests in the form of poly-trauma including psychiatric morbidity and cognitive disruption. Although the underlying mechanisms of bmTBI are largely unknown, some studies suggested that bmTBI is associated with blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, and edema in the brain. The present study investigated the effects of novel antioxidant, molecular hydrogen gas, on bmTBI using a laboratory-scale shock tube model in mice. Hydrogen gas has a strong prospect for clinical use due to easy preparation, low-cost, and no side effects. The administration of hydrogen gas significantly attenuated the behavioral deficits observed in our bmTBI model, suggesting that hydrogen application might be a strong therapeutic method for treatment of bmTBI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/etiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Traumatismos por Explosões/patologia , Traumatismos por Explosões/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Natação/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Psychiatry ; 81(1): 85-92, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlates of psychological responses in dentists who conducted disaster victim identification (DVI) in Fukushima following the 2011 earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 49 male dentists six to nine months after the disaster. Psychological distress and posttraumatic stress were measured using the General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, participant disaster exposures, DVI-related exposures, and fear of radiation exposure during DVI. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine independent-dependent variable relations. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants (77.6%) had examined ≥ 40 corpses, 20 (40.8%) reported ≥ 4 corpse-related exposures, and six (12.2%) reported ≥ 5 gruesome corpse exposures. Mean (SD) GHQ-30 and IES-R scores were 5.08 (5.31) and 9.90 (10.1), respectively. Higher levels of psychological distress were associated with younger age (adjusted ß = -0.29), extensive property loss (ß = 0.34), and anxiety for the future (ß = 0.33). Higher levels of posttraumatic stress were associated with extensive property loss (adjusted R2 = 17.7%, ß = 0.30). Neither outcome was associated with DVI-related exposures or fear of radiation exposure during DVI (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dentists' psychological burden was associated with disaster, but not DVI, exposures.


Assuntos
Odontólogos/psicologia , Vítimas de Desastres/classificação , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Oncol Rep ; 38(1): 449-455, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535011

RESUMO

To evaluate systemic immunity associated with tumor growth limited to a subcutaneous site versus growth proceeding at multiple tumor sites, we established syngeneic mouse subcutaneous and pulmonary tumor models by local subcutaneous and intravenous injection of colon carcinoma CT26 cells. We found that splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) levels were significantly increased in the subcutaneous tumor model but not in the pulmonary tumor model. Furthermore, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were significantly decreased in the subcutaneous tumor model and were largely unchanged in the pulmonary tumor model. In addition, the subcutaneous model, but not the pulmonary model, displayed a Th1 polarization bias. This bias was characterized by decreased IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10 production, whereas the pulmonary model displayed increased production of IL-10. These results suggest that the mode of tumor development has differential effects on systemic immunity that may, in turn, influence approaches to treatment of cancer patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transplante de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Tela Subcutânea/imunologia , Tela Subcutânea/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Transplante Isogênico/métodos
11.
Disaster Mil Med ; 3: 4, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disaster relief personnel tend to be exposed to excessive stress, which can be a cause of mental disorders. To prevent from mental disorders, frequent assessment of mental status is important. This pilot study aimed to examine feasibility of stress assessment using vocal affect display (VAD) indices as calculated by our proposed algorithms in a situation of comparison between different durations of stay in stricken area as disaster relief operation, which is an environment highly likely to induce stress. METHODS: We used Sensibility Technology (ST) software to analyze VAD from voices of participants exposed to extreme stress for either long or short durations, and we proposed algorithms for indices of low VAD (VAD-L), high VAD (VAD-H), and VAD ratio (VAD-R), calculated from the intensity of emotions as measured by voice emotion analysis. As a preliminary validation, 12 members of Japan Self-Defense Forces dispatched overseas for long (3 months or more) or short (about a week) durations were asked to record their voices saying 11 phrases repeatedly across 6 days during their dispatch. RESULTS: In the validation, the two groups showed an inverse relationship in VAD-L and VAD-H, in that long durations in disaster zones resulted in higher values of both VAD-L and VAD-R, and lower values of VAD-H, compared with short durations. Interestingly, phrases produced varied results in terms of group differences and VAD indices, demonstrating the sensitivity of the ST. CONCLUSIONS: A comparison of the values obtained for the different groups of subjects clarified that there were tendencies of the VAD-L, VAD-H, and VAD-R indices observed for each group of participants. The results suggest the possibility of using ST software in the measurement of affective aspects related to mental health from vocal behavior.

12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 478(1): 424-430, 2016 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396623

RESUMO

Fatigue reduces productivity and is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases and mental disorders. Everyone experiences physiological fatigue and recovers with rest. Pathological fatigue, however, greatly reduces quality of life and requires therapeutic interventions. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the two but there has been no biomarker for this. We report on the measurement of salivary human herpesvirus (HHV-) 6 and HHV-7 as biomarkers for quantifying physiological fatigue. They increased with military training and work and rapidly decreased with rest. Our results suggested that macrophage activation and differentiation were necessary for virus reactivation. However, HHV-6 and HHV-7 did not increase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are thought to cause pathological fatigue. Thus, HHV-6 and HHV-7 would be useful biomarkers for distinguishing between physiological and pathological fatigue. Our findings suggest a fundamentally new approach to evaluating fatigue and preventing fatigue-related diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 7/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral/métodos
13.
Int Heart J ; 57(1): 61-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26742880

RESUMO

There have been very few studies on serum biomarkers associated with hypertension in disaster situations. We assessed biomarkers associated with disaster-related hypertension (DRH) due to the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011.We collected blood samples from members of the Japan Self Defense Forces (JSDF) (n = 77) after completing disaster relief operations. We divided them into two groups based on systolic blood pressure. We defined DRH as either systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg at the time of completing missions.In subjects with DRH, the mean blood pressure was 143.5 ± 5.0/99.5 ± 2.4 mmHg. Height and body weight measurements were slightly greater in the DRH group but the differences were not significant, and age was significantly higher in the DRH group. There were no differences in serum biochemical tests including metabolic markers, sulfur-containing amino acids, and cytokines. Among nitric oxide-related amino acids, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was lower in the DRH group than in the normotension group (0.40 ± 0.02 versus 0.31 ± 0.02 µmol/L P = 0.04). The serum oxidative stress metabolite levels (d-ROMs; indicators of active oxygen metabolite products) were significantly higher in the DRH group (273.6 ± 6.08 versus 313.5 ± 13.7 U.CARR P = 0.016). Using multivariable regression analysis, d-ROMs levels were particularly predictive for DRH.Oxidative stress is associated with DRH in responders to the disaster of the Great East Japan Earthquake.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terremotos , Hipertensão/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 9(4): 459-63, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate news article reporting of adverse public psychosocial behaviors, in particular, rumor-related coverage (eg, panic, demagoguery) and exclusive behavior coverage (negative behaviors, eg, discrimination, bullying) during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) influenza pandemic in Japan. METHODS: We examined 154 Internet news-site articles reporting adverse public psychosocial responses in the first 60 days of the outbreak. Rumor-related coverage and exclusive behavior coverage were dichotomously coded as included or not. Moreover, we assessed whether or not health information (eg, coping methods, virus toxicity information) or emphasis on information quality (eg, importance of information, cautions about overreactions) were simultaneously reported. RESULTS: Rumor-related coverage (n=120, 77.9%) was less likely to simultaneously report public health information (eg, toxicity information, health support information, and cautions about overreactions; P<.05). Conversely, exclusive behavior coverage (n=41, 26.6%) was more likely to report public health information (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Rumor-related coverage was less likely to have accompanying public health information, whereas exclusive behavior coverage was more likely to include it. During public health crises, it is essential to understand that rumors and exclusive behaviors have adverse effects on the public and that accompanying public health information may help people take proactive coping actions.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia , Saúde Pública/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Risco
15.
Disaster Mil Med ; 1: 19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Japan, participants in the disaster-specific medical transportation system have received ongoing training since 2002, incorporating lessons learned from the Great Hanshin Earthquake. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, and the very first disaster-specific medical transport was performed. This article reviews in detail the central government's control and coordination of the disaster medical transportation process following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. CASE DESCRIPTION: In total, 124 patients were air transported under the coordination of the C5 team in the emergency response headquarter of the Japanese Government. C5 includes experts from the Cabinet Office, Cabinet Secretariat, Fire Defense Agency, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and Ministry of Defense. In the 20-30 km evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 509 bedridden patients were successfully evacuated without any fatalities during transportation. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Many lessons have been learned in disaster-specific medical transportation. The national government, local government, police, and fire agencies have made significant progress in their mutual communication and collaboration. RESULTS: Fortunately, hospital evacuation from the 20-30 km area was successfully performed with the aid of local emergency physicians and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) who have vast experience in patient transport in the course of day-to-day activities. The emergency procedures that are required during crises are an extension of basic daily procedures that are performed by emergency medical staff and first responders, such as fire fighters, emergency medical technicians, or police officers. Medical facilities including nursing homes should have a plan for long-distance (over 100 km) evacuation, and the plan should be routinely reevaluated with full-scale exercises. In addition, hospital evacuation in disaster settings should be supervised by emergency physicians and be handled by disaster specialists who are accustomed to patient transportation on a daily basis.

16.
Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi ; 118(2): 84-90, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24640788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the trends in refractive correction in Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces' (JGSDF) soldiers. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 519 soldiers of the Camp Funaoka in the northeastern region. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixteen subjects (99.4%) responded. In total, 246 soldiers (47.7%) wore spectacles or contact lenses. Among the contact lens wearers, 52 had experienced problems previously and 35 reported problems that occurred during military exercises. With regard to military exercises, 66.9% and 63.5% of the spectacle or disposable soft contact lens-users reported inconvenience. Among contact lens users, 33.1% reported that they changed to new sterilized contact lenses only occasionally and 61.9% did not change their contact lenses at all during exercises. During disaster-relief work, subjects worried 'very' (21.5%) or 'somewhat' (46.9%) about problems associated with their spectacles or contact lenses. Twenty-four had undergone refractive surgery (4.9%). CONCLUSION: About one-half of the JGSDF soldiers surveyed required refractive correction. Attention to convenient and safe refractive correction in the military is warranted.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Erros de Refração , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Lentes de Contato , Óculos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e89455, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24586790

RESUMO

Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos , Privação do Sono/sangue , Privação do Sono/genética , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
18.
Aviat Space Environ Med ; 82(8): 782-9, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21853856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After a report of H1N1 novel influenza in Mexico and North America, Japan conducted onboard quarantine inspections from late April 2009. The detection rate in border quarantine inspection is low due to incubation period and thus inspection is considered to be ineffective in blocking the entry of influenza. However, little is known about the concomitant effects of such inspection, such as increased traceability, upon secondary transmission. METHODS: Epidemiological data were collected from the web sites of the Department of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan. The number of weekly patients with H1N1 pandemic influenza in eight districts of Japan was summarized. The number of patients who passed through quarantine inspection at the airports was also calculated. A person with overseas travel history was defined as a person who had a flight only from the United States, Canada, or Mexico and passed through the quarantine inspection (according to the quarantine policy of the Japanese government). The numbers were adjusted for the population of each district and expressed as the number of patients per one million people. RESULTS: Despite Kanto district having the largest population, the number of patients with H1N1 novel influenza was relatively small. The total number of cases in each district correlated inversely to the percentage of cases with airport quarantine inspection. DISCUSSION: Quarantine inspection at the airports, follow-up observation by local authorities, and overall concomitant efforts may have contributed to secondary infection control in Japan.


Assuntos
Aeroportos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Quarentena/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 58(5): 528-34, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21795989

RESUMO

Hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) could be a useful blood substitute in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of HbV on cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) ex vivo. Isolated rat hearts were perfused according to the Langendorff method. An ischemia-reperfusion group (n = 6) was subjected to 25 minutes of global ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. HbV (hemoglobin, 0.33 g/dL) was perfused before ischemia-reperfusion for 10 minutes (HbV group, n = 6). Hemodynamics were monitored, and tissue glutathione contents were measured. The redox state of reactive thiols in cardiac tissues was assessed by the biotinylated iodoacetamide labeling method. Left ventricular developed pressure was significantly recovered in the HbV group after 30 minutes of reperfusion (56.3 ± 2.8 mm Hg vs. ischemia-reperfusion group 27.0 ± 8.0 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Hemodynamic changes induced by HbV were similar to those observed when N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was perfused for 10 minutes before ischemia-reperfusion (L-NAME group). The oxidized glutathione contents of cardiac tissues significantly decreased, and biotinylated iodoacetamide labeling of thiols was maintained in both the HbV and the L-NAME groups. HbV improved the recovery of cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. This mechanism is dependent on functional protection against thiol oxidation.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos/uso terapêutico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Lipossomas Unilamelares , Animais , Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/uso terapêutico , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfusão , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle
20.
Lasers Surg Med ; 42(4): 313-8, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20432280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary blast injury is produced by shock waves. Blast injuries to lungs are extremely critical threats to survival, but their etiology is largely undefined. The majority of animal models for these injuries use explosive or complex experimental settings, limiting the laboratory study of blast injury. The aim of this study was to establish a small-animal model for blast injuries, using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) with high controllability, high reproducibility, and easy experimental settings. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: LISWs were used to produce isolated pulmonary blast effects in mice. An LISW was generated by the irradiation of an elastic laser target with 532-nm nanosecond laser pulses of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Histopathological evaluations of damage to lung tissue were conducted to estimate the relevance between peak pressure and trauma intensity. Blood pressure, heart rate, and percutaneous oxygen saturation were monitored for 60 minutes. RESULTS: We could flexibly control the peak pressure of the shock wave by varying the laser energy. Non-lethal doses of LISWs caused pulmonary contusions with alveolar hemorrhages depending on peak pressure. Pulmonary contusion was observed only in areas that were exposed to LISWs, allowing study of isolated injuries without concomitant ones. These injuries caused decreased blood pressure, heart rate, and percutaneous oxygen saturation, immediately after LISW exposure. CONCLUSION: Mice exposed to thoracic LISWs showed pathologic and physiologic changes similar to those seen in other studies in this area, and in clinical practice. Our newly developed model allows fine management of trauma intensity, and concomitant injuries of the exposed animals were limited. This novel mouse model of blast injury using LISWs is suitable for detailed studies of blast lung contusion and other blast injuries in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lasers , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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