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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 183, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) service usage within refugee camp primary health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by analyzing surveillance data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Health Information System (HIS). Such information is crucial for efforts to strengthen MNS services in primary health care settings for refugees in LMICs. METHODS: Data on 744,036 MNS visits were collected from 175 refugee camps across 24 countries between 2009 and 2018. The HIS documented primary health care visits for seven MNS categories: epilepsy/seizures, alcohol/substance use disorders, mental retardation/intellectual disability, psychotic disorders, severe emotional disorders, medically unexplained somatic complaints, and other psychological complaints. Combined data were stratified by 2-year period, country, sex, and age group. These data were then integrated with camp population data to generate MNS service utilization rates, calculated as MNS visits per 1000 persons per month. RESULTS: MNS service utilization rates remained broadly consistent throughout the 10-year period, with rates across all camps hovering around 2-3 visits per 1000 persons per month. The largest proportion of MNS visits were attributable to epilepsy/seizures (44.4%) and psychotic disorders (21.8%). There were wide variations in MNS service utilization rates and few consistent patterns over time at the country level. Across the 10 years, females had higher MNS service utilization rates than males, and rates were lower among children under five compared to those five and older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased efforts to integrate MNS services into refugee primary health care settings over the past 10 years, there does not appear to be an increase in overall service utilization rates for MNS disorders within these settings. Healthcare service utilization rates are particularly low for common mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use. This may be related to different health-seeking behaviors for these disorders and because psychological services are often offered outside of formal health settings and consequently do not report to the HIS. Sustained and equitable investment to improve identification and holistic management of MNS disorders in refugee settings should remain a priority.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 303: 114994, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been increasingly used to test the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support(MHPSS) interventions for populations affected by humanitarian crises. Process evaluations are often integrated within RCTs of psychological interventions to investigate the implementation of the intervention, the impact of context, and possible mechanisms of action. We aimed to explore limitations and strengths of how process evaluations are currently conceptualised and implemented within MHPSS RCTs specifically. METHODS: In April-June 2021 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 researchers involved in RCTs of MHPSS interventions in 23 different countries. Participants were selected based on systematic reviews of MHPSS interventions, funders' databases, and personal networks. Data were analysed using codebook thematic analysis. RESULTS: The conduct of process evaluations was characterized by high heterogeneity in perceived function, implementation outcomes assessed, and methods used. While process evaluations were overwhelmingly considered as an important component of an RCT, there were different opinions on their perceived quality. This could be explained by the varying prioritization of effectiveness data over implementation data, confusion around the nature of process evaluations, and challenges in the collection and analysis of process data in humanitarian settings. Various practical recommendations were made by participants to improve future process evaluations in relation to: (i) study design (e.g., embedding process evaluations in study protocol and overall study objectives); (ii) methods (e.g., use of mixed methods); and (iii) increased financial and human resources dedicated to process evaluations. CONCLUSION: The current state of process evaluations in MHPSS RCTs is heterogeneous. The quality of process evaluations should be improved to strengthen implementation science of the growing number of evidence-informed MHPSS interventions.

4.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-15, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108167

RESUMO

An integrated approach to reduce intimate partner violence and improve mental health in humanitarian settings requires coordination across health and protection services. We developed and tested the Nguvu intervention, which combined evidence-based interventions for psychological distress and intimate partner violence among Congolese refugee women in Nyarugusu refugee camp (Tanzania). We conducted 29 semi-structured interviews with Nguvu participants and stakeholders to explore the relevance, acceptability, feasibility, and impact of this intervention. Participants reported that the intervention aligned with needs and filled a gap in programming, yet further adaptations may improve the fit of the intervention. The Nguvu intervention was acceptable to participants, including group discussion of sensitive topics. Confidentiality was highly regarded among staff and participants, which improved safety and acceptability. It was feasible to train non-specialist refugee workers to deliver the intervention with adequate supervision. Facilitators noted contextual challenges that made it difficult to implement the intervention: limited infrastructure, competing priorities, and population mobility. The intervention was perceived to improve awareness of the association between violence and mental health, reduce self-blame, and build skills to improve wellbeing. Recommended adaptations reveal promising, yet challenging future directions for addressing social determinants of mental health and implementing multi-sectoral programmes in complex humanitarian settings.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886211

RESUMO

Inter-agency guidelines recommend that survivors of intimate partner violence in humanitarian settings receive multisectoral services consistent with a survivor-centered approach. Providing integrated services across sectors is challenging, and aspirations often fall short in practice. In this study, we explore factors that influence the implementation of a multisectoral, integrated intervention intended to reduce psychological distress and intimate partner violence in Nyarugusu Refugee Camp, Tanzania. We analyzed data from a desk review of donor, legal, and policy documents; a gender-based violence services mapping conducted through 15 interviews and 6 focus group discussions; and a qualitative process evaluation with 29 stakeholders involved in the implementation of the integrated psychosocial program. We identified the challenges of implementing a multisectoral, integrated intervention for refugee survivors of intimate partner violence at the structural, inter-institutional, intra-institutional, and in social and interpersonal levels. Key determinants of successful implementation included the legal context, financing, inter-agency coordination, engagement and ownership, and the ability to manage competing priorities. Implementing a multisectoral, integrated response for survivors of intimate partner violence is complex and influenced by interrelated factors from policy and financing to institutional and stakeholder engagement. Further investment in identifying strategies to overcome the existing challenges of implementing multisectoral approaches that align with global guidelines is needed to effectively address the burden of intimate partner violence in humanitarian settings.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Refugiados , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Sobreviventes
6.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 73, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for evidence-based, scalable, psychological interventions to improve the mental health of adolescents affected by adversity in low-resource settings. Early Adolescents Skills for Emotions (EASE) was developed by the WHO as a brief, transdiagnostic, group intervention for early adolescents exhibiting internalising problems, delivered by trained and supervised lay providers. This study describes the cultural adaptation of EASE for Burundian adolescents living in Mtendeli refugee camps in Tanzania. METHODS: A phased approach to adaptation of the EASE intervention and its implementation, was adopted and comprised of: (1) a desk review to synthesize existing research on mental health issues in conflict-affected Burundian communities, (2) a rapid qualitative assessment involving free listing and key informant interviews with multiple stakeholders, (3) cognitive interviews with end users, and (4) a two-part adaptation workshop involving the implementing partner staff, members of the refugee community and mental health experts. We applied the Bernal framework to systematically document and track adaptations across eight dimensions of the intervention. RESULTS: Problems associated with worry, stress, sadness, shame and fear were identified as amongst the most critical mental health concerns, alongside a range of experiences of different forms of violence (such as gender-based violence, violence when fleeing from their homes) and associated problems. Problems associated with violence that included past experiences of fleeing as well as ongoing problems of gender-based violence in the camp. The most significant adaptations that were required included providing options for low literacy of participants, safety planning to address the high prevalence of sexual violence, simplification of strategies for the benefit of the end users and of lay facilitators, and implementation changes to consider involvement of refugee incentive workers. A majority of changes were across dimensions of language, people, metaphors, content, methods and context, while there were fewer changes regarding the goals and concepts of EASE. CONCLUSIONS: The approach to adaptation of a psychological intervention suggested both minor and major required changes. Adaptations based on the findings of this study are anticipated to enhance relevance and acceptability of the EASE intervention and its delivery for camp-residing Burundian refugees in Tanzania.

7.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 71, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations affected by humanitarian emergencies are vulnerable to substance (alcohol and other drug) use disorders, yet treatment and prevention services are scarce. Delivering substance use disorder treatment services in humanitarian settings is hampered by limited guidance around the preparation, implementation, and evaluation of substance use disorder treatment programs. This study aims to identify and prioritize key gaps and opportunities for addressing substance use disorder in humanitarian settings. METHODS: UNODC convened a consultation meeting (n = 110) in coordination with UNHCR and WHO and administered an online survey (n = 34) to, thirteen program administrators and policymakers, eleven service providers, nine researchers, and one person with lived experience to explore best practices and challenges to addressing substance use disorder in diverse populations and contexts. Participants presented best practices for addressing substance use disorder, identified and ranked challenges and opportunities for improving the delivery of substance use disorder treatment interventions, and provided recommendations for guidelines that would facilitate the delivery of substance use disorder treatment services in humanitarian emergencies. RESULTS: Participants agreed on key principles for delivering substance use disorder treatment in humanitarian settings that centered on community engagement and building trust, integrated service delivery models, reducing stigma, considering culture and context in service delivery, and an ethical 'do no harm' approach. Specific gaps in knowledge that precluded the delivery of appropriate substance use disorder treatment include limited knowledge of the burden and patterns of substance use in humanitarian settings, the effectiveness of substance use disorder treatment services in humanitarian settings, and strategies for adapting and implementing interventions for a given population and humanitarian context. Participants emphasized the need to strengthen awareness and commitment related to the burden of substance use disorder treatment interventions among communities, practitioners, and policymakers in humanitarian settings. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this consultation process highlight existing gaps in knowledge related to the epidemiology and treatment of substance use disorders in humanitarian emergencies. Epidemiological, intervention, and implementation research as well as operational guidance are needed to fill these gaps and improve access to substance use treatment services in humanitarian settings.

8.
Behav Res Ther ; 145: 103944, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392115

RESUMO

There is a paucity of evidence regarding interventions that can improve the mental health of adversity-affected young adolescents living in low-resource settings. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, relevance, and safety of the World Health Organization's Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) intervention among Burundian refugee adolescents and their caregivers in Tanzania. This study consisted of a feasibility cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) and a process evaluation. The feasibility cRCT included 82 young adolescents and their 64 caregivers, with two clusters randomized to EASE and two to an enhanced control condition. EASE was delivered by adult refugees without prior training in mental health. The process evaluation consisted of 36 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, including adolescents, caregivers, and facilitators. EASE participants and facilitators gave positive feedback about its format, accessibility, and content. Trained non-specialist refugee facilitators were able to deliver EASE with high fidelity. The research protocol functioned well in terms of balanced randomization, limited loss to follow-up, and psychometrically promising measures, but discordance was observed between the short screener and psychological distress symptom checklist. This formative study suggests the potential of EASE in targeting psychological distress among displaced young adolescents and lays the groundwork for a future definitive trial.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Intervenção Psicossocial
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1930690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262667

RESUMO

Background: Refugees and asylum seekers face various stressors due to displacement and are especially vulnerable to common mental disorders. To effectively manage psychological distress in this population, innovative interventions are required. The World Health Organization (WHO) Self-Help Plus (SH+) intervention has shown promising outcomes in reducing symptoms of common mental disorders among refugees and asylum seekers. However, individual participant differences in response to SH+ remain largely unknown. The Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis synthesizes raw datasets of trials to provide cutting-edge evidence of outcomes that cannot be examined by conventional meta-analytic approaches. Objectives: This protocol outlines the methods of a series of IPD meta-analyses aimed at examining the effects and potential moderators of SH+ in (a) reducing depressive symptoms at post-intervention and (b) preventing the six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Method: RCTs on SH+ have been identified through WHO and all authors have agreed to share the datasets of the trials. The primary outcomes of the IPD meta-analyses are (a) reduction in depressive symptoms at post-intervention, and (b) prevention of six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. Secondary outcomes include post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, well-being, functioning, quality of life, and twelve-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be performed using mixed-effects linear/logistic regression. Missing data will be handled by multiple imputation. Conclusions: These results will enrich current knowledge about the response to SH+ and will facilitate its targeted dissemination. The results of these IPD meta-analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals.


Antecedentes: Los refugiados y solicitantes de asilo enfrentan numerosos estresores debido al desplazamiento y son especialmente vulnerables a trastornos de salud mental comunes. Para poder manejar efectivamente el malestar psicológico en esta población, se requieren intervenciones innovadoras. La intervención Self- Help Plus (SH+) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha mostrado resultados prometedores en la reducción de síntomas de trastornos de salud mental comunes entre refugiados y solicitantes de asilo. Sin embargo, las diferencias individuales de los participantes en respuesta a SH+ permanecen mayormente desconocida. El meta-análisis de Datos de Participantes Individuales (IPD) sintetiza bases de datos puros para proveer evidencia de resultados de vanguardia que no puede ser examinada mediante enfoques meta-analíticos convencionales.Objetivos: Este protocolo delinea los métodos de una serie de meta-análisis de IPD enfocados en examinar los efectos y potenciales moderadores de SH+ en (a) reducir síntomas depresivos en la post-intervención y (b) prevenir la incidencia acumulada de trastornos mentales en refugiados y solicitantes de asilo durante seis meses.Método: Se identificaron RCT sobre SH+ a través de la OMS y todos los autores acordaron compartir la base de datos de sus ensayos. Los resultados primarios de los meta-análisis de IPD son (a) reducción en síntomas depresivos después de la intervención, y (b) prevención de la incidencia acumulada de trastornos mentales en refugiados y solicitantes de asilo durante 6 meses. Entre los resultados secundarios de incluyó síntomas de trastorno de estrés postraumático, bienestar, funcionamiento, calidad de vida e incidencia acumulada de trastornos de salud mental durante 12 meses. Se realizaran meta-análisis de IPD de una etapa usando regresión linear/logística de efectos mixtos. Los datos faltantes se manejaran mediante imputación múltiple.Conclusiones: Estos resultados enriquecerán el conocimiento actual sobre la respuesta a SH+ y facilitarán su diseminación en su público objetivo. Los resultados de estos meta-análisis de IPD serán publicados en revistas revisadas por pares.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252982, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complex relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological distress warrants an integrated intervention approach. In this study we examined the relevance, acceptability, and feasibility of evaluating a multi-sectoral integrated violence- and mental health-focused intervention (Nguvu). METHODS: We enrolled 311 Congolese refugee women from Nyarugusu refugee camp in Tanzania with past-year intimate partner violence and elevated psychological distress in a feasibility cluster randomized trial. Women were recruited from local women's groups that were randomized to the Nguvu intervention or usual care. Participants from women's groups randomized to Nguvu received 8 weekly sessions delivered by lay refugee incentive workers. Psychological distress, intimate partner violence, other wellbeing, and process indicators were assessed at baseline and 9-weeks post-enrollment to evaluate relevance, acceptability, and feasibility of implementing and evaluating Nguvu in refugee contexts. RESULTS: We found that Nguvu was relevant to the needs of refugee women affected by intimate partner violence. We found reductions in some indicators of psychological distress, but did not identify sizeable changes in partner violence over time. Overall, we found that Nguvu was acceptable and feasible. However, challenges to the research protocol included baseline imbalances between study conditions, differential intervention completion related to intimate partner violence histories, differences between Nguvu groups and facilitators, and some indication that Nguvu may be less beneficial for participants with more severe intimate partner violence profiles. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence supporting the relevance of Nguvu to refugee women affected by partner violence and psychological distress and moderate evidence supporting the acceptability and feasibility of evaluating and implementing this intervention in a complex refugee setting. A definitive cluster randomized trial requires further adaptations for recruitment and eligibility screening, randomization, and retention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN65771265, June 27, 2016.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Refugiados/psicologia , Congo/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tanzânia/etnologia
11.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 15(1): 18, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports about child witchcraft are not uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we approach child witchcraft as an idiom of distress. In an environment that may prohibit children from openly expressing distress, the shared imagery of witchcraft can provide a cultural idiom to communicate about psychosocial suffering. We used an ecological approach to study how some children in distressing circumstances come to a witchcraft confession, with the aim to set out pathways for mental health interventions. METHODS: We employed rapid qualitative inquiry methodology, with an inductive and iterative approach, combining emic and etic perspectives. We conducted 37 interviews and 12 focus group discussions with a total of 127 participants in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Inductive analysis was used to identify risk and protective factors related to witchcraft accusations and confessions. RESULTS: We identified risk and protective factors related to the individual child, the family, peer relations, teachers and other professionals in a child's life, traditional healers, pastors and the wider society. We found that in the context of a macrosystem that supports witchcraft, suspicions of witchcraft are formed at the mesosystem level, where actors from the microsystem interact with each other and the child. The involvement of a traditional healer or pastor often forms a tipping point that leads to a confession of witchcraft. CONCLUSIONS: Child witchcraft is an idiom of distress, not so much owned by the individual child as well as by the systems around the child. Mental health interventions should be systemic and multi-sectoral, to prevent accusations and confessions, and address the suffering of both the child and the systems surrounding the child. Interventions should be contextually relevant and service providers should be helped to address conscious and subconscious fears related to witchcraft. Beyond mental health interventions, advocacy, peacebuilding and legislation is needed to address the deeper systemic issues of poverty, conflict and abuse.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 211, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men living in low- and middle-income countries are unlikely to seek mental health care, where poor healthcare infrastructure, differences in illness conceptualization, and stigma can impact treatment seeking. Vulnerable groups, such as former political prisoners, are more likely than others to experience potentially traumatic events that may lead to negative mental health outcomes. To improve the likelihood of successful engagement of vulnerable men in psychotherapy, it is necessary to identify factors that influence treatment adherence, and to better understand men's attitudes surrounding decisions to seek and initiate care. The purpose of this investigation was to explore themes of masculinity, treatment seeking, and differences between male former political prisoners who accepted and declined therapy in an urban low-income context. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative, interview-based investigation with 30 former political prisoners in Yangon, Myanmar who were eligible to receive mental health counseling provided by the non-governmental organization (NGO), Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. Men were initially screened using a composite questionnaire with items related to depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptom severity. After screening, if potential clients were identified as having probable mental health problems, they were asked if they would like to participate in a multi-session cognitive behavioral therapy program. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 15 participants who accepted and 15 participants who declined therapy. Interviews were transcribed and translated by local partners and thematically coded by the authors. We used thematic analysis to identify and explore differences in treatment-seeking attitudes between men who accepted and men who declined the intervention. RESULTS: Men described that being a community leader, self-reliance, morality, and honesty were defining characteristics of masculinity. A focus on self-correction often led to declining psychotherapy. A general lack of familiarity with psychological therapy and how it differed from locally available treatments (e.g. astrologists) was connected to stigma regarding mental health treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Masculinity was described in similar terms by both groups of participants. The interpretation of masculine qualities within the context of help-seeking (e.g. self-reliance as refusing help from others versus listening to others and applying that guidance) was a driving factor behind men's decision to enter psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Mianmar , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia
13.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

14.
Transcult Psychiatry ; : 1363461520949005, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351725

RESUMO

The experience of grief varies across different cultures and contexts. Women in Nepal who lose their husbands confront discrimination, social isolation, and abuse that influence their experience of grief. Through eight focus group discussions with Nepali widows, we elicited socially sanctioned grief reactions and local idioms used to describe common cognitive, behavioral, and emotional symptoms of grief. Accordingly, modifications to an existing instrument for Prolonged Grief Disorder, the PG-13, are suggested to capture grief symptoms as experienced by Nepali widows. Items in the PG-13 were translated to colloquial Nepali and adapted to maintain comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Based on the grief-related issues reported in the focus group discussions, the addition of five new items and a new criterion to capture symptoms related to social discrimination are proposed. Widows perceived elevated symptoms one year after the loss to be problematic. It is thus recommended that the duration criterion in the original PG-13 be adjusted from at least six months to at least one year after the loss. These proposed modifications to the instrument should be validated through future psychometric testing.

15.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 82: 101935, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126036

RESUMO

Longitudinal studies on children's and adolescents' psychological reactions to conflict-related traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze children's and adolescents' responses to conflict-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the impact of the number of different types of PTEs on psychological symptoms and resilience over time. We investigated the presence of psychological symptoms and resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms and high levels of hope, in a sample of 597 conflict-affected children and adolescents allocated to a waiting list condition in four randomized trials conducted in Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A decrease in functional impairment (p < 0.001), symptoms of PTSD (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.052), and an increase in social support (p < 0.001), was observed over a six-month follow-up. More than one third of children and adolescents (34.6%) exposed to conflict-related traumatic events improved at follow-up. Levels of hope did not significantly change. Improvement in psychological symptoms and resilience were significantly associated with the number of different types of PTEs experienced before study entry. This study showed that children and adolescents have the capacity to react to multiple traumatic events, and that the number of different types of traumatic events has an impact on resilience mechanisms. This will help differentiate the choice and focus of psychosocial interventions according to the amount of traumatic events experienced by children and adolescents, and will inform the development and testing of new psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Apoio Social
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012417, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living in 'humanitarian settings' in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of physical and psychological stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. A range of psychological and social interventions have been implemented with the aim to prevent the onset of mental disorders and/or lower psychological distress in populations at risk, and it is not known whether interventions are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of psychological and social interventions versus control conditions (wait list, treatment as usual, attention placebo, psychological placebo, or no treatment) aimed at preventing the onset of non-psychotic mental disorders in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), and ProQuest PILOTS database with results incorporated from searches to February 2020. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies. We checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychological and social interventions versus control conditions to prevent the onset of mental disorders in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous data, using a random-effects model. We analysed data at endpoint (zero to four weeks after therapy) and at medium term (one to four months after intervention). No data were available at long term (six months or longer). We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In the present review we included seven RCTs with a total of 2398 participants, coming from both children/adolescents (five RCTs), and adults (two RCTs). Together, the seven RCTs compared six different psychosocial interventions against a control comparator (waiting list in all studies). All the interventions were delivered by paraprofessionals and, with the exception of one study, delivered at a group level. None of the included studies provided data on the efficacy of interventions to prevent the onset of mental disorders (incidence). For the primary outcome of acceptability, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social interventions and control at endpoint for children and adolescents (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 5 studies, 1372 participants; low-quality evidence) or adults (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.50; 2 studies, 767 participants; very low quality evidence). No information on adverse events related to the interventions was available. For children's and adolescents' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social intervention groups and control groups for reducing PTSD symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, by risk of bias in the studies, and by substantial levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, it is possible that random error had a role in distorting results, and that a more thorough picture of the efficacy of prevention interventions will be provided by future studies. For this reason, prevention studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in children and adults, with extended periods of follow-up.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Viés , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
17.
Trials ; 21(1): 454, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rural Ethiopia, 72% of women are exposed to lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV); IPV is most prevalent during pregnancy. As well as adversely affecting women's physical and mental health, IPV also increases the risk of child morbidity and mortality associated with maternal depression, thus making antenatal care an important opportunity for intervention. Adapting generic, task-shared, brief psychological interventions for perinatal depression and anxiety to address the needs and experiences of women affected by IPV may improve acceptability to women and feasibility for health workers. This randomised controlled feasibility trial will compare brief problem solving therapy (PST) specifically adapted for pregnant women experiencing IPV (PST-IPV) with standard PST and enhanced usual care to determine the feasibility of a future fully powered randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Seventy-five pregnant women scoring five or more on the Patient Health Questionnaire, endorsing a tenth question about functional impact and reporting past-year IPV, will be recruited from antenatal care clinics in predominantly rural districts in Ethiopia. Consenting participants will be randomised to either four sessions of PST-IPV, four sessions of standard PST or information about sources of support (enhanced usual care) in a three-arm design. The interventions will be delivered by trained, supervised antenatal care staff using a task-sharing model. Assessments will be made at baseline and after 9 weeks by masked outcome assessors and will include measures of depression symptoms (primary outcome), post-traumatic stress, anxiety symptoms, functional impact, past-month IPV and hypothesised mediators (secondary outcomes). A mixed-method process evaluation will determine the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial, assess the feasibility, acceptability, fidelity and quality of implementation of PST-IPV, generate testable hypotheses about causal mechanisms, and identify potential contextual factors influencing outcomes. DISCUSSION: Despite mental health being a critical concern for women experiencing IPV, there is limited evidence for brief, task-shared psychological interventions adapted for their needs in low- and middle-income countries. Contextually tailored interventions for pregnant women experiencing IPV in low- and middle-income countries require development and process evaluation. This randomised controlled feasibility trial will yield results on the feasibility of conducting a fully powered trial, relevant to researchers, primary and antenatal care clinicians in resource-limited settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African clinical trials registry: PACTR202002513482084. Prospectively registered on 13 December 2019.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Etiópia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resolução de Problemas , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
18.
Inj Prev ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a consistent correlate of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the magnitude of this association differs across studies, which may be due to contextual and methodological factors. This study aims to estimate and explore sources of heterogeneity in the association between alcohol use and IPV in 28 LMICs (n=109 700 couples). METHODS: In nationally representative surveys, partnered women reported on IPV victimisation and male partner's alcohol use. We estimated the relationship between alcohol use and IPV using logistic regression and full propensity score matching to account for confounding. Country-specific ORs were combined using a random-effects model. Country-level indicators of health and development were regressed on ORs to examine sources of variability in these estimates. RESULTS: Partner alcohol use was associated with a 2.55-fold increase in the odds of past-year IPV victimisation (95% CI 2.27 to 2.86) with substantial variability between regions (I2=70.0%). Countries with a low (<50%) prevalence of past-year alcohol use among men displayed larger associations between alcohol use and IPV. Exploratory analyses revealed that colonisation history, religion, female literacy levels and substance use treatment availability may explain some of the remaining heterogeneity observed in the strength of the association between alcohol use and IPV across countries. CONCLUSION: Partner alcohol use is associated with increased odds of IPV victimisation in LMICs, but to varying degrees across countries. Prevalences of male alcohol use and cultural factors were related to heterogeneity in these estimates between countries.

20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e002039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337078

RESUMO

This longitudinal study indicates that exposure to the traumas of mass conflict and subsequent depressive symptoms play an important role in pathways leading to functional impairment in the postconflict period among women of child-rearing age. Our study, conducted in Timor-Leste, involved an analytic sample of 1292 women recruited at antenatal clinics in the capital and its surrounding districts. Women were re-interviewed at home 2 years later (77.3% retention). We applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for conflict-related traumatic events, the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument covering the past year for intimate partner violence and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS V.2.0) to assess functional impairment. A longitudinal path analysis tested direct and indirect relationships involving past conflict-related trauma exposure, depressive symptoms measured over the two time points and functional impairment at follow-up. The prevalence of predefined clinically significant depressive symptoms diminished from 19.3% to 12.8%. Nevertheless, there was a tendency for depressive symptoms to persist over time (ß=0.20; p<0.001). Follow-up depressive symptoms were associated with functional impairment (ß=0.35; p<0.001). Reported conflict-related trauma occurring a minimum of 6 years earlier (ß=0.23; p<0.001) and past-year physical intimate partner violence (ß=0.26; p<0.001) were each associated with depressive symptoms at baseline and at follow-up. A measure of poverty specific to the context and reported health problems in the mother and infant also contributed to depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the association between ongoing trauma-related depressive symptoms and the capacity of women in the childbearing age to function in multiple areas of their lives in a postconflict country. Recognition of these relationships is important in the formulation and implementation of contemporary international recovery and development policies applied to postconflict countries.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia
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