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1.
Braz J Biol ; 74(4): 844-53, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627594

RESUMO

Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Baías , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Estações do Ano
2.
Braz J Biol ; 70(3 Suppl): 729-35, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21085779

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the spectral characteristic of nectar-producing flowers visited by nectarivorous birds in urban areas. This study was carried out in the central area of the city of Taubaté, in the northeast of the State of São Paulo. The sample areas included green areas, such as squares and parks, and the vegetation of streets and avenues. Twelve plant species were recorded with flowers visited by five nectar-feeding birds. The most visited flower species were those that reflected in long wavelengths (>600 nm). The study discussed the birds' detection capability due to the tetrachromatic vision of nectar-feeding birds and the conspicuity of flowers in urban environments. Finally, the study assessed the scarcity of plants attractive to nectar-feeding birds and the need for a management strategy to favour these species and biodiversity in urban areas.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Flores/classificação , Néctar de Plantas/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Cor , População Urbana
3.
Braz J Biol ; 68(2): 419-26, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18660974

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1) the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2) the kinds of food resources; and 3) the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Andorinhas/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(2): 419-426, May 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-486771

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1) the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2) the kinds of food resources; and 3) the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar e descrever o hábito alimentar do Beija-flor Tesourão, Eupetomena macroura. O estudo foi realizado em um parque municipal, situado na cidade de Taubaté, Estado de São Paulo. As observações ocorreram entre dezembro de 2003 e outubro de 2004, período em que foram observadas as seguintes variáveis: 1) as espécies de plantas visitadas para alimentação e defesa territorial; 2) o tipo de recurso alimentar; e 3) a freqüência de vôo para busca e obtenção de alimento. Foram registradas 12 espécies de plantas visitadas pelo E. macroura, visto que Mangifera indica e Malvaviscus arboreus foram as mais utilizadas para defesa territorial e para alimentação, respectivamente. O maior índice de flores visitadas foi observada para Malvaviscus arboreus. Mangifera indica e Hymenaea stilbocarpa foram as espécies que apresentaram maior freqüência de visita em folhas e ramos. Na estação seca, o beija-flor tesourão visitou flores para obtenção de alimento, já na estação úmida a maior parte do alimento foi adquirida entre folhas e ramos. Quando analisados as folhas e ramos visitados pelos indivíduos quanto à presença de artrópodes, os resultados obtidos indicaram que os grupos mais abundantes foram Homoptera e Psocoptera. Finalmente, pela análise do tipo de vôo, observou-se que o vôo que representa captura de alimento foi mais vezes observado do que aquele que é utilizado para procura de alimento. Os resultados sugerem uma flexibilidade trófica do E. macroura, fato que pode auxiliar na permanência da espécie em áreas urbanas.


Assuntos
Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Andorinhas/fisiologia , Brasil , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
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