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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification models for early invasive (T1) colorectal cancer are not able to discriminate accurately between prognostic favourable and unfavourable tumours, resulting in over-treatment of a large (>80%) proportion of T1 colorectal cancer patients. The tumour-stroma ratio (TSR), which is a measure for the relative amount of desmoplastic tumour stroma, is reported to be a strong independent prognostic factor in advanced-stage colorectal cancer, with a high stromal content being associated with worse prognosis and survival. We aimed to investigate whether the TSR predicts clinical outcome in patients with non-pedunculated T1 colorectal cancer. METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tumour tissue slides from a retrospective multicentre case cohort of patients with nonpedunculated surgically treated T1 colorectal cancer were assessed for TSR by two independent observers who were blinded for clinical outcomes. The primary end point was adverse outcome, which was defined as the presence of lymph node metastasis in the resection specimen or colorectal cancer recurrence during follow-up. RESULTS: All 261 patients in the case cohort had H&E slides available for TSR scoring. Of these, 183 were scored as stroma-low, and 78 were scored as stroma-high. There was moderate inter-observer agreement κ = 0.42). In total, 41 patients had lymph node metastasis, 17 patients had recurrent cancer and five had both. Stroma-high tumours were not associated with an increased risk for an adverse outcome (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.37-1.18; p = 0.163). CONCLUSIONS: Our study emphasises that existing prognosticators may not be simply extrapolated to T1 colorectal cancers, even though their prognostic value has been widely validated in more advanced-stage tumours.

2.
Mol Immunol ; 128: 205-218, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor cells express NK cell receptor ligands that modulate their function. This study aimed to investigate the expression of such ligands in CRC in relation to the phenotype of circulating NK- and NKT cells, and clinical outcome. METHODS: Primary tumor tissues were analyzed for protein expression of NK cell ligands using immunohistochemistry with automated image analysis in a cohort of 78 CRC patients. For 24 of the 78 patients, RNA expression of NK cell ligands was analyzed in primary tumor tissue using RNA sequencing. Receptor expression on circulating NK- and NKT cells was previously measured by us in 71 of the 78 patients using flow cytometry. RESULTS: High Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) protein expression in the primary tumor associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) of CRC patients (P = 0.026). A trend was observed towards shorter DFS in CRC patients with above-median galectin-3 protein expression in the primary tumor (P = 0.055). High protein expression of galectin-3, CD1d, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, and high RNA expression of UL16-binding protein (ULBP)-1, -2, and -5, and HLA-E in the tumor tissue correlated with low expression of the corresponding receptors on circulating NK- or NKT cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and PCNA expression in the primary tumor may be prognostic biomarkers in CRC patients. Furthermore, our results suggest that NK cell receptor ligands expressed by tumor cells may modulate the phenotype of circulating NK- and NKT cells, and facilitate immune escape of metastasizing cells.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082203

RESUMO

Women identified with an increased risk of breast cancer due to mutations in cancer susceptibility genes or a familial history of breast cancer undergo tailored screening with the goal of detecting tumors earlier, when potential curative interventions are still possible. Ideally, screening would identify signs of carcinogenesis even before a tumor is detectable by imaging. This could be achieved by timely signaling of altered biomarker levels for precancerous processes in liquid biopsies. Currently, the Nipple Aspirate Fluid (NAF) and the Trial Early Serum Test BREAST cancer (TESTBREAST), both ongoing, prospective, multicenter studies, are investigating biomarkers in liquid biopsies to improve breast cancer screening in high-risk women. The NAF study focuses on changes over time in miRNA expression levels both in blood and NAF samples, whereas the TESTBREAST study analyzes changes in protein levels in blood samples at sequential interval timepoints. These within-subject changes are studied in relation to later occurrence of breast cancer using a nested case-control design. These longitudinal studies face their own challenges in execution, such as hindrances in logistics and in sample processing that were difficult to anticipate. This article offers insight into those challenges and concurrently aims to provide useful strategies for the set-up of similar studies.

4.
Cancer Med ; 9(22): 8519-8529, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND &AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer type with loco-regional spread that makes the tumor surgically unresectable. Novel diagnostic tools are needed to improve detection of PDAC and increase patient survival. In this study we explore serum protein N-glycan profiles from PDAC patients with regard to their applicability to serve as a disease biomarker panel. METHODS: Total serum N-glycome analysis was applied to a discovery set (86 PDAC cases/84 controls) followed by independent validation (26 cases/26 controls) using in-house collected serum specimens. Protein N-glycan profiles were obtained using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and included linkage-specific sialic acid information. N-glycans were relatively quantified and case-control classification performance was evaluated based on glycosylation traits such as branching, fucosylation, and sialylation. RESULTS: In PDAC patients a higher level of branching (OR 6.19, P-value 9.21 × 10-11 ) and (antenna)fucosylation (OR 13.27, P-value 2.31 × 10-9 ) of N-glycans was found. Furthermore, the ratio of α2,6- vs α2,3-linked sialylation was higher in patients compared to healthy controls. A classification model built with three glycosylation traits was used for discovery (AUC 0.88) and independent validation (AUC 0.81), with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.71 for the discovery set and 0.75 and 0.72 for the validation set. CONCLUSION: Serum N-glycome analysis revealed glycosylation differences that allow classification of PDAC patients from healthy controls. It was demonstrated that glycosylation traits rather than single N-glycan structures obtained in this clinical glycomics study can serve as a basis for further development of a blood-based diagnostic test.

5.
Chest ; 158(6): 2675-2687, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and staging are crucial to ensure uniform allocation to the optimal treatment methods for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but may differ among multidisciplinary tumor boards (MDTs). Discordance between clinical and pathologic TNM stage is particularly important for patients with locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA) because it may influence their chance of allocation to curative-intent treatment. We therefore aimed to study agreement on staging and treatment to gain insight into MDT decision-making. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the level of agreement on clinical staging and treatment recommendations among MDTs in stage IIIA NSCLC patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eleven MDTs each evaluated the same 10 pathologic stage IIIA NSCLC patients in their weekly meeting (n = 110). Patients were selected purposively for their challenging nature. All MDTs received exactly the same clinical information and images per patient. We tested agreement in cT stage, cN stage, cM stage (TNM 8th edition), and treatment proposal among MDTs using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa. RESULTS: Considerable variation among the MDTs was seen in T staging (κ, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.75]), N staging (κ, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.35-0.83]), overall TNM staging (κ, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.35-0.72]), and treatment recommendations (κ, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.32-0.56]). Most variation in T stage was seen in patients with suspicion of invasion of surrounding structures, which influenced such treatment recommendations as induction therapy and type. For N stage, distinction between N1 and N2 disease was an important source of discordance among MDTs. Variation occurred between 2 patients even regarding M stage. A wide range of additional diagnostics was proposed by the MDTs. INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrated high variation in staging and treatment of patients with stage IIIA NSCLC among MDTs in different hospitals. Although some variation may be unavoidable in these challenging patients, we should strive for more uniformity.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824692

RESUMO

The macrophage-associated molecule CD163 has been reported as a prognostic biomarker in different cancer types, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. We studied CD163 in the tumor microenvironment and circulation of patients with CRC in relation to clinicopathological parameters. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum sCD163 levels and multiparameter flow cytometry was used to study the peripheral blood monocytes and their CD163 expression in CRC patients (N = 78) and healthy donors (N = 50). The distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) was studied in primary colorectal tumors with multiplex immunofluorescence. We showed that CRC patients with above-median sCD163 level had a shorter overall survival (OS, p = 0.035) as well as disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.005). The above-median sCD163 remained significantly associated with a shorter DFS in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Moreover, a shorter OS was observed in CRC patients with an above-median total monocyte percentage (p = 0.007). The number and phenotype of the stromal and intraepithelial TAMs in colorectal tumors were not associated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, sCD163 and monocytes in the circulation may be potential prognostic biomarkers in CRC patients, whereas TAMs in the tumor showed no association with clinical outcome. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of the innate systemic immune response in CRC disease progression.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1381-1389, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729887

RESUMO

Importance: For women with a 20% or more familial risk of breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 (BRCA1, OMIM 113705; and BRCA2, OMIM 114480) or TP53 (OMIM 151623) variant, screening guidelines vary substantially, and cost-effectiveness analyses are scarce. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening strategies for women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, conducted from February 1, 2019, to May 25, 2020, microsimulation modeling was used to estimate costs and effectiveness on a lifetime horizon from age 25 years until death of MRI screening among a cohort of 10 million Dutch women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. A Dutch screening setting was modeled. Most data were obtained from the randomized Familial MRI Screening (FaMRIsc) trial, which included Dutch women aged 30 to 55 years. A health care payer perspective was applied. Interventions: Several screening protocols with varying ages and intervals including those of the randomized FaMRIsc trial, consisting of the mammography (Mx) protocol (annual mammography and clinical breast examination) and the MRI protocol (annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography). Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and discounted by 3%. A threshold of €22 000 (US $24 795.87) per QALY was applied. Results: This economic evaluation modeling study estimated that, on a lifetime horizon per 1000 women with the Mx protocol of the FaMRIsc trial, 346 breast cancers would be detected, and 49 women were estimated to die from breast cancer, resulting in 22 885 QALYs and total costs of €7 084 767 (US $7 985 134.61). The MRI protocol resulted in 79 additional QALYs and additional €2 657 266 (US $2 994 964.65). Magnetic resonance imaging performed only every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years followed by the national screening program was considered optimal, with an ICER of €21 380 (US $24 097.08) compared with the previous nondominated strategy in the ranking, when applying the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold. Annual screening alternating MRI and mammography between the ages of 35 and 60 years, followed by the national screening program, gave similar outcomes. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. The ICER was most sensitive to the unit cost of MRI and the utility value for ductal carcinoma in situ and localized breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that MRI screening every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years for women with a family history of breast cancer is cost-effective within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold for all densities. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. These outcomes support a change of current screening guidelines for this specific risk group and support MRI screening.

8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 2009-2020, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The subset distribution and immunophenotype of circulating immune cells ("peripheral blood immune cell profile") may reflect tumor development and response to cancer treatment. In order to use the peripheral blood immune cell profile as biomarker to monitor patients over time, it is crucial to know how immune cell subsets respond to therapeutic interventions. In this study, we investigated the effects of tumor resection and adjuvant therapy on the peripheral blood immune cell profile in patients with colon carcinoma (CC). METHODS: The subset distribution and immunophenotype of T cells (CD3+CD56-), CD56dim NK cells (CD3-CD56dim), CD56bright NK cells (CD3-CD56bright) and NKT-like cells (CD3+CD56+) were studied in preoperative and postoperative peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of 24 patients with CC by multiparameter flow cytometry. Changes in immunophenotype of circulating immune cells after tumor resection were studied in patients treated with and without (capecitabine-based) adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: The NKT-like cell (% of total PBMCs) and CD8+ T cell (% of total T cells) populations expanded in the peripheral blood of non-adjuvant-treated CC patients after surgery. NK- and NKT-like cells showed upregulation of activating receptors and downregulation of inhibitory receptors in non-adjuvant-treated CC patients after surgery. These changes were not observed in the peripheral blood of adjuvant-treated CC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest tumor-induced suppression of NK- and NKT-like cells in CC patients, an effect that could not be detected after tumor resection. In contrast, adjuvant therapy maintained tumor-induced immunosuppression of NK- and NKT-like cells in CC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complexo CD3 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(6): 1144-1150, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparing outcomes across hospitals to learn from best performing hospitals can be valuable. However, reliably identifying best performance is challenging. This study assesses the possibility to distinguish best performing hospitals on single outcomes and consistency of performance on different outcomes. METHODS: Data were derived from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit 2013-2015. Outcomes considered were textbook outcome (colon), (circumferential) resection margins, (serious) complications, mortality, and 'failure to rescue'. To include uncertainty in rankings, random effect logistic regression models were used to calculate expected ranks (ERs), for each hospital and outcome. Rankability was calculated for each outcome, as a measure of reliability of ranking. Furthermore, correlation between ERs on different outcomes was assessed. Correlation was considered weak <0.40, moderate between 0.40 - 0.59 and strong >0.60. RESULTS: The study included 32 143 patients; of whom 11 373 were treated in 2015 across 84 hospitals, 8181 colon and 3192 rectal cancer patients. In this one-year period 'Postoperative complications' had the highest rankability for colon (57%) and rectal (41%) surgery. No (group of) hospital(s) had the highest ER(s) on all outcomes. Correlation between ERs of outcomes was moderate in 2 (of 25) and strong in 4 (of 25) combinations. Rankability of colorectal mortality increased from 14% in 2015 to 35% when data over 2013-2015 were used. CONCLUSION: The highest reliability of identifying best performance based on an outcome was 57%. However, the balance between reliability and relevance of outcomes is vulnerable. No (group of) hospital(s) could be identified as best performer on all outcomes. Performance was not consistent on outcomes.

11.
Front Chem ; 8: 138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185163

RESUMO

Changes in the abundance of antennary fucosylated glycans in human total plasma N-glycome (TPNG) have been associated with several diseases ranging from diabetes to various forms of cancer. However, it is challenging to address this important part of the human glycome. Most commonly, time-consuming chromatographic separations are performed to differentially quantify core and antenna fucosylation. Obtaining sufficient resolution for larger, more complex glycans can be challenging. We introduce a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) assay for the relative quantitation of antennary fucosylation in TPNG. N-linked glycans are released from plasma by PNGase F and further treated with a core fucosidase before performing a linkage-informative sialic acid derivatization. The core fucosylated glycans are thus depleted while the remaining antennary fucosylated glycans are quantitated. Simultaneous quantitation of α2,3-linked sialic acids and antennary fucosylation allows an estimation of the sialyl-Lewis x motif. The approach is feasible using either ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry or time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The assay was used to investigate changes of antennary fucosylation as clinically relevant marker in 14 colorectal cancer patients. In accordance with a previous report, we found elevated levels of antennary fucosylation pre-surgery which decreased after tumor resection. The assay has the potential for revealing antennary fucosylation signatures in various conditions including diabetes and different types of cancer.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2296-2304, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901133

RESUMO

The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) was evaluated as a promising parameter for breast cancer prognostication in clinically relevant subgroups of patients. The TSR was assessed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue slides of 1,794 breast cancer patients from the Nottingham City Hospital. An independent second cohort of 737 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Institute to Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was used for evaluation. In the Nottingham Breast Cancer series, the TSR was an independent prognostic parameter for recurrence-free survival (RFS; HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10-1.66, p = 0.004). The interaction term was statistically significant for grade and triple-negative status. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a more pronounced effect of the TSR for RFS in grade III tumors (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.51, p < 0.001) and triple-negative tumors (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.10-3.14, p = 0.020). Comparable hazard ratios and confidence intervals were observed for grade and triple-negative status in the ONCOPOOL study. The prognostic value of TSR was not modified by age, tumor size, histology, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status or lymph node status. In conclusion, patients with a stroma-high tumor had a worse prognosis compared to patients with a stroma-low tumor. The prognostic value of the TSR is most discriminative in grade III tumors and triple-negative tumors. The TSR was not modified by other clinically relevant parameters making it a potential factor to be included for improved risk stratification.


Assuntos
Células Estromais/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(1): 37-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535319

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The tumour microenvironment in older patients is subject to changes. The tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) was evaluated in order to estimate the amount of intra-tumoural stroma and to evaluate the prognostic value of the TSR in older patients with breast cancer (≥ 70 years). METHODS: Two retrospective cohorts, the FOCUS study (N = 619) and the Nottingham Breast Cancer series (N = 1793), were used for assessment of the TSR on haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue slides. RESULTS: The intra-tumoural stroma increases with age in the FOCUS study and the Nottingham Breast Cancer series (B 0.031, 95% CI 0.006-0.057, p = 0.016 and B 0.034, 95% CI 0.015-0.054, p < 0.001, respectively). Fifty-one per cent of the patients from the Nottingham Breast Cancer series < 40 years had a stroma-high tumour compared to 73% of the patients of ≥ 90 years from the FOCUS study. The TSR did not validate as an independent prognostic parameter in patients ≥ 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-tumoural stroma increases with age. This might be the result of an activated tumour microenvironment. The TSR did not validate as an independent prognostic parameter in patients ≥ 70 years in contrast to young women with breast cancer as published previously.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(1): 152-159, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721193

RESUMO

Delayed time to chemotherapy (TTC) is associated with decreased outcomes of breast cancer patients. Recently, studies suggested that the association might be subtype-dependent and that TTC within 30 days should be warranted in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The aim of the current study is to determine if TTC beyond 30 days is associated with reduced 10-year overall survival in TNBC patients. We identified all TNBC patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2014 who received adjuvant chemotherapy in the Netherlands. We distinguished between breast-conserving surgery (BCS) vs. mastectomy given the difference in preoperative characteristics and outcomes. The association was estimated with hazard ratios (HRs) using propensity-score matched Cox proportional hazard analyses. In total, 3,016 patients were included. In matched patients who underwent BCS (n = 904), 10-year overall survival was favorable for patients with TTC within 30 days (84.4% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.001). Patients with TTC beyond 30 days were more likely than those with TTC within 30 days to die within 10 years after surgery (HR 1.69 (95% CI 1.22-2.34), p = 0.002). In matched patients who underwent mastectomy (n = 1,568), there was no difference in 10 years overall survival between those with TTC within or beyond 30 days (74.5% vs. 74.7%, p = 0.716), nor an increased risk of death for those with TTC beyond 30 days (HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.84-1.28), p = 0.716). Initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy beyond 30 days is associated with decreased 10 years overall survival in TNBC patients who underwent BCS. Therefore, timelier initiation of chemotherapy in TNBC patients undergoing BCS seems warranted.

15.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, patients only qualify for bariatric surgery when they have followed a 6-month mandatory weight loss program (MWP), also called the "last resort" criterion. One of the rationales for this is that MWPs result in greater weight loss. OBJECTIVES: To determine weight loss during MWPs and the effect of delayed versus immediate qualification on weight loss 3 years after bariatric surgery. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: This is a nationwide, retrospective study with prospectively collected data. All patients who underwent a primary bariatric procedure in 2016 were included. We compared weight loss between patients who did not qualify according to the last resort criterion at screening (delayed group) with patients that qualified (immediate group). RESULTS: In total 2628 patients were included. Mean age was 44.4 years, 81.3% were female, and baseline BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was the most frequently performed surgery (77.0%), followed by sleeve gastrectomy (15.8%) and banded RYGB (7.3%). The delayed group (n = 831; 32%) compared with immediate group (n = 1797; 68%), showed less percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) during the MWP (1.7% versus 3.9%, P < .001) and time between screening and surgery was longer (42.3 versus 17.5 wk, P < .001). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant difference in %TWL at 18- (P = .291, n = 2077), 24- (P = .580, n = 1993) and 36-month (P = .325, n = 1743) follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows that delayed qualification for bariatric surgery compared with immediate qualification does not have a clinically relevant impact on postoperative weight loss 3 years after bariatric surgery.

16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Talanta ; 205: 120104, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450448

RESUMO

Body fluid N-glycome analysis as well as glyco-proteoform profiling of existing protein biomarkers potentially provides a stratification layer additional to quantitative, diagnostic protein levels. For clinical omics applications, the collection of a dried blood spot (DBS) is increasingly pursued as an alternative to sampling milliliters of peripheral blood. Here we evaluate DBS cards as a blood collection strategy for protein N-glycosylation analysis aiming for high-throughput clinical applications. A protocol for facile N-glycosylation profiling from DBS is developed that includes sialic acid linkage differentiation. This protocol is based on a previously established total plasma N-glycome mass spectrometry (MS) method, with adjustments for the analysis of DBS specimens. After DBS-punching and protein solubilization N-glycans are released, followed by chemical derivatization of sialic acids and MS-measurement of N-glycan profiles. With this method, more than 80 different glycan structures are identified from a DBS, with RSDs below 10% for the ten most abundant glycans. N-glycan profiles of finger-tip blood and venous blood are compared and short-term stability of DBS is demonstrated. This method for fast N-glycosylation profiling of DBS provides a minimally invasive alternative to conventional serum and plasma protein N-glycosylation workflows. With simplified blood sampling this DBS approach has vast potential for clinical glycomics applications.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Glicômica/métodos , Polissacarídeos/sangue , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1136-1147, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of all breast cancers occur in women with a family history of breast cancer, but for whom no causative hereditary gene mutation has been found. Screening guidelines for women with familial risk of breast cancer differ between countries. We did a randomised controlled trial (FaMRIsc) to compare MRI screening with mammography in women with familial risk. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, women were eligible to participate if they were aged 30-55 years and had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of at least 20% because of a familial predisposition, but were BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 wild-type. Participants who were breast-feeding, pregnant, had a previous breast cancer screen, or had a previous a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible, but those with a previously diagnosed invasive carcinoma were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography (MRI group) or annual mammography and clinical breast examination (mammography group). Randomisation was done via a web-based system and stratified by centre. Women who did not provide consent for randomisation could give consent for registration if they followed either the mammography group protocol or the MRI group protocol in a joint decision with their physician. Results from the registration group were only used in the analyses stratified by breast density. Primary outcomes were number, size, and nodal status of detected breast cancers. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NL2661. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2017, 1355 women provided consent for randomisation and 231 for registration. 675 of 1355 women were randomly allocated to the MRI group and 680 to the mammography group. 218 of 231 women opting to be in a registration group were in the mammography registration group and 13 were in the MRI registration group. The mean number of screening rounds per woman was 4·3 (SD 1·76). More breast cancers were detected in the MRI group than in the mammography group (40 vs 15; p=0·0017). Invasive cancers (24 in the MRI group and eight in the mammography group) were smaller in the MRI group than in the mammography group (median size 9 mm [5-14] vs 17 mm [13-22]; p=0·010) and less frequently node positive (four [17%] of 24 vs five [63%] of eight; p=0·023). Tumour stages of the cancers detected at incident rounds were significantly earlier in the MRI group (12 [48%] of 25 in the MRI group vs one [7%] of 15 in the mammography group were stage T1a and T1b cancers; one (4%) of 25 in the MRI group and two (13%) of 15 in the mammography group were stage T2 or higher; p=0·035) and node-positive tumours were less frequent (two [11%] of 18 in the MRI group vs five [63%] of eight in the mammography group; p=0·014). All seven tumours stage T2 or higher were in the two highest breast density categories (breast imaging reporting and data system categories C and D; p=0·0077) One patient died from breast cancer during follow-up (mammography registration group). INTERPRETATION: MRI screening detected cancers at an earlier stage than mammography. The lower number of late-stage cancers identified in incident rounds might reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and decrease breast cancer-related mortality. However, the advantages of the MRI screening approach might be at the cost of more false-positive results, especially at high breast density. FUNDING: Dutch Government ZonMw, Dutch Cancer Society, A Sister's Hope, Pink Ribbon, Stichting Coolsingel, J&T Rijke Stichting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 42(3): 397-403, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847807

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lack of expression of the intestinal transcription factor CDX2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) identifies patients with a poor prognosis. This biomarker has previously been suggested to be prognostic in CRCs with a high stromal content based on mRNA expression data. We investigated the prognostic value of CDX2 expression in microsatellite stable CRC stratified by stromal content using microscopy-based techniques. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included a cohort of 236 patients with stage I-IV CRC. We assessed by microscopy the tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) and the immunohistochemical CDX2 intensity. We found that patients of the stroma-high group had a worse prognosis compared to those of the stroma-low group [disease-free survival in a multivariate analysis (DFSmultivariate) HR 1.52 (95% CI 1.05-2.21)]. In our cohort, low CDX2 expression (14.6%) showed prognostic value for DFSmultivariate [HR 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.23)]. Interestingly, when stratifying the cohort by TSR, no prognostic difference was observed related to CDX2 expression in stroma-low tumours. However, CDX2 expression was found to be prognostic within the stroma-high group [DFSmultivariate HR 3.02 (95% CI 1.49-6.13)]. The p value for interaction between TSR and CDX2 status was borderline significant in DFS (p = 0.071). CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms a poor outcome of patients with stroma-high tumours. Low CDX2 expression in tumours with a high stromal content identified patients with a particularly poor prognosis. The present study did not reveal a clear difference in TSR associated with CDX2 status and survival. This method, solely based on microscopy, identifies patients who have a high risk of relapse and a poor outcome, and who may benefit from targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/biossíntese , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Células Estromais/patologia
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