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1.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and manufacture a pelvis phantom for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate interventions, such as MRGB (MR-guided biopsy) or brachytherapy seed placement. METHODS: The phantom was designed to mimic the human pelvis incorporating bones, bladder, prostate with four lesions, urethra, arteries, veins, and six lymph nodes embedded in ballistic gelatin. A hollow rectum enables transrectal access to the prostate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the phantom for minimal invasive MRI-guided interventions, a targeted inbore MRGB was performed. The needle probe was rectally inserted and guided using an MRI-compatible remote controlled manipulator (RCM). RESULTS: The presented pelvis phantom has realistic imaging properties for MR imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US). In the targeted inbore MRGB, a prostate lesion was successfully hit with an accuracy of 3.5 mm. The experiment demonstrates that the limited size of the rectum represents a realistic impairment for needle placements. CONCLUSION: The phantom provides a valuable platform for evaluating the performance of MRGB systems. Interventionalists can use the phantom to learn how to deal with challenging situations, without risking harm to patients.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a pipeline for automated body composition analysis and skeletal muscle assessment with integrated quality control for large-scale application in opportunistic imaging. METHODS: First, a convolutional neural network for extraction of a single slice at the L3/L4 lumbar level was developed on CT scans of 240 patients applying the nnU-Net framework. Second, a 2D competitive dense fully convolutional U-Net for segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT, SAT), skeletal muscle (SM), and subsequent determination of fatty muscle fraction (FMF) was developed on single CT slices of 1143 patients. For both steps, automated quality control was integrated by a logistic regression model classifying the presence of L3/L4 and a linear regression model predicting the segmentation quality in terms of Dice score. To evaluate the performance of the entire pipeline end-to-end, body composition metrics, and FMF were compared to manual analyses including 364 patients from two centers. RESULTS: Excellent results were observed for slice extraction (z-deviation = 2.46 ± 6.20 mm) and segmentation (Dice score for SM = 0.95 ± 0.04, VAT = 0.98 ± 0.02, SAT = 0.97 ± 0.04) on the dual-center test set excluding cases with artifacts due to metallic implants. No data were excluded for end-to-end performance analyses. With a restrictive setting of the integrated segmentation quality control, 39 of 364 patients were excluded containing 8 cases with metallic implants. This setting ensured a high agreement between manual and fully automated analyses with mean relative area deviations of ΔSM = 3.3 ± 4.1%, ΔVAT = 3.0 ± 4.7%, ΔSAT = 2.7 ± 4.3%, and ΔFMF = 4.3 ± 4.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an end-to-end automated deep learning pipeline for large-scale opportunistic assessment of body composition metrics and sarcopenia biomarkers in clinical routine. KEY POINTS: • Body composition metrics and skeletal muscle quality can be opportunistically determined from routine abdominal CT scans. • A pipeline consisting of two convolutional neural networks allows an end-to-end automated analysis. • Machine-learning-based quality control ensures high agreement between manual and automatic analysis.

3.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 829-838, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251481

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and local staging of primary prostate cancer. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Image-guided biopsy techniques such as MRI-ultrasound fusion not only allow guidance for targeted tissue sampling of index lesions for diagnostic confirmation, but also improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Minimally invasive, focal therapies of localized prostate cancer complement the treatment spectrum, especially for low- and intermediate-risk patients. PERFORMANCE: In patients of low and intermediate risk, MR-guided, minimally invasive therapies could enable local tumor control, improved functional outcomes and possible subsequent therapy escalation. Further study results related to multimodal approaches and the application of artificial intelligence (AI) by machine and deep learning algorithms will help to leverage the full potential of focal therapies for prostate cancer in the upcoming era of precision medicine. ACHIEVEMENTS: Completion of ongoing randomized trials comparing each minimally invasive therapy approach with established whole-gland procedures is needed before minimally invasive therapies can be implemented into existing treatment guidelines. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: This review article highlights minimally invasive therapies of prostate cancer and the key role of mpMRI for planning and conducting these therapies.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
4.
Rofo ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic radiological examinations as well as interventional radiological therapies are performed at a steadily increasing rate amidst increasingly limited resources in healthcare systems. Given their potential to contribute decisively to optimized therapy, in most cases associated short-term direct costs can be well justified from a clinical perspective. However, to realize their clinical benefits, they must also succeed in justifying them to payers and policymakers. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present suitable methods for economic analysis of radiological precedures and to elaborate their relevance for radiology. METHODOLOGY: Methods and metrics of cost-effectiveness analysis are presented and then exemplified using the example cases of MR mammography and interventional treatment of oligometastatic tumor disease of the liver. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness considerations, taking into account long-term gains in lifespan and quality of life, as well as potential savings through improved treatment planning, do often objectively and credibly justify short-term additional costs. CONCLUSIONS: Cost-effectiveness analyses performed with radiological and health economic expertise can support the establishment of new radiological technologies in diagnostics and therapy. KEY POINTS: · When radiological procedures are employed, short-term costs are often offset by significant long-term benefits.. · Radiological examinations and therapies must be justified in the context of limited economic resources.. · Economic methodologies can be used to quantify the quality and cost-effectiveness of radiological methods.. · Such analyses as well as targeted training should be encouraged to provide greater transparency.. CITATION FORMAT: · Froelich MF, Kunz WG, Tollens F et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis in radiology: methods, results and implications. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2021; DOI: 10.1055/a-1502-7830.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803522

RESUMO

Accurate detection of malignant transformation and risk-stratification of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) has remained a diagnostic challenge. Preliminary findings have indicated a promising role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET/CT) in detecting malignant IPMN. Therefore, the aim of this model-based economic evaluation was to analyze whether supplemental FDG-PET/CT could be cost-effective in patients with IPMN. Decision analysis and Markov modeling were applied to simulate patients' health states across a time frame of 15 years. CT/MRI based imaging was compared to a strategy with supplemental 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Cumulative costs in US-$ and outcomes in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed based on input parameters extracted from recent literature. The stability of the model was evaluated by deterministic sensitivity analyses. In the base-case scenario, the CT/MRI-strategy resulted in cumulative discounted costs of USD $106,424 and 8.37 QALYs, while the strategy with supplemental FDG-PET/CT resulted in costs of USD $104,842 and a cumulative effectiveness of 8.48 QALYs and hence was cost-saving. A minimum specificity of FDG-PET/CT of 71.5% was required for the model to yield superior net monetary benefits compared to CT/MRI. This model-based economic evaluation indicates that supplemental 18F-FDG-PET/CT could have a favorable economic value in the management of IPMN and could be cost-saving in the chosen setting. Prospective studies with standardized protocols for FDG-PET/CT could help to better determine the value of FDG-PET/CT.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is among the most prevalent cancer entities worldwide, with every second patient developing liver metastases during their illness. For local treatment of liver metastases, a surgical approach as well as ablative treatment options, such as microwave ablation (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RFA, MWA and surgery in the treatment of liver metastases of oligometastatic colorectal cancer (omCRC) that are amenable for all investigated treatment modalities. METHODS: A decision analysis based on a Markov model assessed lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) related to the treatment strategies RFA, MWA and surgical resection. Input parameters were based on the best available and most recent evidence. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed with Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate model robustness. The percentage of cost-effective iterations was determined for different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. RESULTS: The base-case analysis showed that surgery led to higher long-term costs compared to RFA and MWA (USD 41,848 vs. USD 36,937 vs. USD 35,234), while providing better long-term outcomes than RFA, yet slightly lower than MWA (6.80 vs. 6.30 vs. 6.95 QALYs for surgery, RFA and MWA, respectively). In PSA, MWA was the most cost-effective strategy for all WTP thresholds below USD 80,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: In omCRC patients with liver metastases, MWA and surgery are estimated to provide comparable efficacy. MWA was identified as the most cost-effective strategy in intermediate resource settings and should be considered as an alternative to surgery in high resource settings.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and abbreviated breast MRI (AB-MRI) offer superior diagnostic performance compared to conventional mammography in screening women with intermediate risk of breast cancer due to dense breast tissue. The aim of this model-based economic evaluation was to analyze whether AB-MRI is cost-effective in this cohort compared to DBT. METHODS: Decision analysis and Markov simulations were used to model the cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over a time horizon of 30 years. Model input parameters were adopted from recent literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to test the stability of the model. RESULTS: In the base-case scenario, the costs of an AB-MRI examination were defined to equal the costs of a full protocol acquisition. Two-yearly screening of women with dense breasts resulted in cumulative discounted costs of $8798 and $9505 for DBT and AB-MRI, and cumulative discounted effects of 19.23 and 19.27 QALYs, respectively, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $20,807 per QALY gained in the base-case scenario. By reducing the cost of an AB-MRI examination below a threshold of $241 in sensitivity analyses, AB-MRI would become cost-saving compared to DBT. CONCLUSION: In comparison to DBT, AB-MRI can be considered cost-effective up to a price per examination of $593 in screening patients at intermediate risk of breast cancer.

8.
Eur J Radiol ; 137: 109576, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to analyze the comparative cost-effectiveness of MR-mammography vs conventional imaging in a screening setting for women with high risk of breast cancer, with particular focus on the impact of specificity of MRM. METHOD: Decision analytic modelling and Markov Modelling were applied to evaluate cumulative costs of each screening modality and their subsequent treatments as well as cumulative outcomes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs). For the selected time horizon of 30 years, false positive and false negative results were included. Model input parameters for women with high risk of breast cancer were estimated based on published data from a US healthcare system perspective. Major influence factors were identified and evaluated in a deterministic sensitivity analysis. Based on current recommendations for economic evaluations, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the model stability. RESULTS: In a base-case analysis, screening with XM vs. MRM and treatment resulted in overall costs of $36,201.57 vs. $39,050.97 and a cumulative effectiveness of 19.53 QALYs vs. 19.59 QALYs. This led to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $ 45,373.94 per QALY for MRM. US and XM + US resulted in ICER values higher than the willingness to pay (WTP). In the sensitivity analyses, MRM remained a cost-effective strategy for screening high-risk patients as long as the specificity of MRM did not drop below 86.7 %. CONCLUSION: In high-risk breast cancer patients, MRM can be regarded as a cost-effective alternative to XM in a yearly screening setting. Specificity may be an important cost driver in settings with yearly screening intervals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento
9.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(2): 116-128, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the domain-general risk factor of early-life social stress in mental illness, rearing rodents in persistent postweaning social isolation has been established as a widely used animal model with translational relevance for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Although changes in resting-state brain connectivity are a transdiagnostic key finding in neurodevelopmental diseases, a characterization of imaging correlates elicited by early-life social stress is lacking. METHODS: We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of postweaning social isolation rats (N = 23) 9 weeks after isolation. Addressing well-established transdiagnostic connectivity changes of psychiatric disorders, we focused on altered frontal and posterior connectivity using a seed-based approach. Then, we examined changes in regional network architecture and global topology using graph theoretical analysis. RESULTS: Seed-based analyses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in frontal brain regions and increased functional connectivity in posterior brain regions of postweaning social isolation rats. Graph analyses revealed a shift of the regional architecture, characterized by loss of dominance of frontal regions and emergence of nonfrontal regions, correlating to our behavioral results, and a reduced modularity in isolation-reared rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our result of functional connectivity alterations in the frontal brain supports previous investigations postulating social neural circuits, including prefrontal brain regions, as key pathways for risk for mental disorders arising through social stressors. We extend this knowledge by demonstrating more widespread changes of brain network organization elicited by early-life social stress, namely a shift of hubness and dysmodularity. Our results highly resemble core alterations in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Psicológico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Isolamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Risco , Desmame
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