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1.
Pain ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769369

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Compared to racism and sexism, classism in pain assessment and management practices (PAMP) has been less investigated and its mediating mechanisms are still unknown. Drawing upon a social psychological model of dehumanization, this research aimed to test: (1) the effect of patient socioeconomic status (SES; a proxy of social class) on PAMP and (2) whether patient dehumanization and perceived life hardship mediated these effects. Two online experimental studies were conducted, in which patient SES was manipulated (Low vs. High) within-subjects. One-hundred sixty-two female medical students (study 1) and 105 female nurses (study 2) were presented with vignettes/pictures depicting two cases of women with chronic low-back pain, followed by videos of them performing a pain-inducing movement. Participants reported on patient dehumanization, perceived life hardship and PAMP. The Low SES patient was perceived as less pain sensitive (medical students only) but more disabled, credible and her pain more attributed to psychological causes (by nurses only). Medical students recommended less non-pharmacological treatments but prescribed slightly stronger medication. Medical students were less willing to provide individualized care to the Low SES patient, whereas nurses showed the opposite pattern. Patient mechanistic dehumanization mediated SES effects on pain disability (medical students only). Perceived life hardship mediated SES effects on pain disability, credibility (nurses only) and intentions of providing individualized care (nurses only). These finding bear novel contributions to the fields of pain, health service research and social psychology, and have important implications to the development of more effective future interventions to reduce classism in PAMP.

2.
Pain Med ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The role of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) in function has been evaluated in a wide range of populations. However, research on the role of the BIS and BAS in pain is in its early stages. This study sought to evaluate the utility of a BIS-BAS model of chronic pain. METHODS: Participants were 164 individuals with chronic pain who responded to an online survey. Participants provided information about pain location, intensity, and frequency and completed questionnaires assessing behavioral inhibition and activation sensitivity, pain catastrophizing, pain interference, activity engagement, pain willingness, hope, and pain self-efficacy. Seven hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test hypothesized associations between BIS and BAS sensitivity and measures of participant function. RESULTS: BIS scores were significantly and positively associated with pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, and pain interference and were negatively associated with activity engagement, hope, and pain self-efficacy (P<0.01). BAS scores showed significant and positive associations with activity engagement and hope and showed significant negative associations with pain catastrophizing and anxiety (P<0.05). Furthermore, BIS sensitivity evidenced stronger associations with all the other study measures than did BAS sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide important new information regarding the utility of the BIS-BAS model of chronic pain. Our results support the idea that BIS activation is more important than BAS activation in explaining a variety of pain-related outcomes, including positive and negative responses to pain, and suggest that modification of the model may be indicated. These results have several theoretical and clinical implications.

3.
J Psychosom Res ; 135: 110167, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We designed a collaborative care program for the integrated management of chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression, which frequently coexist in primary care patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program compared with care as usual. METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomized clinical trial. Results were monitored over a 12-month period. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). We performed cost-effectiveness analyses from the perspectives of the healthcare system and society using an intention-to-treat approach with imputation of missing values. RESULTS: We evaluated 328 patients (167 in the intervention group and 161 in the control group) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and major depression at baseline. From the healthcare system perspective, the mean incremental cost was €234 (p = .17) and the mean incremental effectiveness was 0.009 QALYs (p = .66), resulting in an ICER of €23,989/QALY. Costs from the societal perspective were €235 (p = .16), yielding an ICER of €24,102/QALY. These estimates were associated with a high degree of uncertainty illustrated on the cost-effectiveness plane. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our expectations, the collaborative care program had no significant effects on health status, and although the additional costs of implementing the program compared with care as usual were not high, we were unable to demonstrate a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio, largely due to the high degree of uncertainty surrounding the estimates.

4.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 121-127, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193878

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: En el marco de una estrategia para implementar un nuevo programa clínico para la depresión en atención primaria, desarrollamos un curso online con clases videograbadas dirigido a los médicos y enfermeras que van a introducir el programa en su práctica clínica. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: La evaluación del curso se realizó mediante un cuestionario estandarizado a los alumnos y un análisis temático de los contenidos de un foro de discusión. RESULTADOS: En la encuesta, los alumnos mostraron satisfacción respecto a sus expectativas, valorando positivamente el formato y el diseño general, los contenidos y su utilidad práctica, sin diferencias significativas según el perfil profesional. En el análisis cualitativo del foro se detectaron potencialidades del programa y del curso, destacando la percepción de que se abordaba una necesidad asistencial relevante. También se señalaron insuficiencias del curso y del programa, y obstáculos externos que pueden dificultar o impedir la implementación: falta de tiempo, inestabilidad en los equipos o exceso de trabajo y requerimientos en el día a día. CONCLUSIONES: Hemos ensayado un eficaz formato online para la formación de profesionales. La evaluación del curso ha sido satisfactoria. El feedback de los alumnos permitirá modelar y perfeccionar futuras ediciones del curso y el propio programa


INTRODUCTION: Within the framework of a strategy to implement a new clinical program for depression in primary care, we developed an online course with videotaped lectures targeted at doctors and nurses who will introduce the program into their clinical practice. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The evaluation of the course was carried out by a standardized questionnaire for students and a thematic analysis of the contents of a discussion forum. RESULTS: In the survey, the students showed satisfaction regarding their expectations, positively valuing the format and the general design, the contents and their practical utility, without significant differences according to professional profile. In the qualitative analysis of the forum potentialities of the program and the course were detected, highlighting the perception that a relevant care need was addressed. There were also shortcomings of the course and the program, and external obstacles that may hinder or impede implementation: lack of time, instability in the staff, or excessive work and requirements on a day-to-day basis. CONCLUSIONS: We have tested an effective online format for the training of professionals. The evaluation of the course has been satisfactory. The feedback of the students will allow us to model and improve future editions of the course and the program itself


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia , Educação Médica/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Educação em Enfermagem
5.
Pain Med ; 21(10): 2200-2211, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to better understand the associations between pain-related cognitions and pain severity, and psychological and physical function, and 2) to determine the extent to which these cognitions function as mediators in the association between pain severity and depression in a sample of primary care adult patients with chronic pain and depression. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight patients with both depression and chronic pain from primary care centers responded to measures of pain severity, pain interference, depression severity, and pain-related cognitions (including measures of catastrophizing and other pain-related beliefs). We performed three hierarchical regression analyses and two multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: The helplessness domain of pain catastrophizing was positively associated with pain severity, depression severity, and pain interference and mediated the relationship between depression and pain severity and vice versa. Beliefs about disability showed a positive association with pain severity, pain interference, and depression severity, and also mediated the relationship between pain severity and depression. Believing in a medical cure was positively associated with pain interference and negatively associated with depression; emotion beliefs were positively associated with pain severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important new information about the associations between several pain-related cognitions and pain severity, depression, and pain interference and the potential mediating roles that these cognitions play in the associations between pain severity and depression in patients with both chronic pain and depression in the primary care setting.

6.
Clin J Pain ; 36(5): 371-378, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to better understand the role that social factors (ie, social support, satisfaction in participation with social roles, social isolation, and self-perceived ability to perform social roles and activities) play in pain-related interference and depressive symptoms in adults with chronic pain. Moreover, this study also examined if sex exerts a moderating role in these associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 364 adults with chronic pain participated: 133 were university students and 231 were individuals from the community. University students completed a paper-and-pencil survey and individuals from the community responded to a web-based survey. Both surveys included the same questions assessing sociodemographic, pain characteristics, pain-related interference, depressive symptoms, and social factors. RESULTS: Only satisfaction in participation in usual social roles and self-perceived ability for participating in such social roles contributed independently, significantly, and negatively to the prediction of pain interference, whereas all 4 social factors made independent and significant contributions to the prediction of depressive symptoms. Satisfaction with participation in usual social roles, self-perceived social ability, and social support were negatively related to depressive symptoms, whereas social isolation was positively related. The results also indicated that sex moderated the associations between social factors and depressive symptoms, but not between social factors and pain interference. DISCUSSION: The study provides important new findings regarding the associations between social factors and physical and psychological functioning of individuals with chronic pain, supporting biopsychosocial models.

7.
Pain Pract ; 20(1): 62-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if there are sex differences in a sample of patients participating in a 4-week interdisciplinary pain treatment program in (1) pretreatment pain intensity, physical function, psychological function, pain beliefs, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, and activity management patterns; and (2) treatment response. METHODS: Seventy-two men and 130 women with chronic pain completed study measures. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed to compare men and women on pretreatment measures. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs were used to compare both sexes on 3 treatment outcomes (pain intensity, physical function, and depressive symptoms). RESULTS: Before treatment, compared to women, men reported higher levels of kinesiophobia, were more likely to view their pain as being harmful, and used more activity pacing when doing daily activities. Women were more likely to use an overdoing activity pattern than men. No sex differences emerged for pretreatment pain intensity, physical function, psychological function, catastrophizing, activity avoidance, or measures of other pain-related beliefs. At posttreatment, women reported more improvements in pain intensity and physical function compared to men, while both sexes reported similar reductions in depressive symptoms. All effect sizes for statistically significant findings were of small to moderate magnitude. DISCUSSION: The results of this study suggest that men and women have a comparable profile with respect to the overall burden of chronic pain. Nevertheless, sex differences were found for certain pain beliefs and coping styles. Women appear to reap more benefits from the interdisciplinary pain management program than men. These findings indicate that further research to develop sex-specific assessment procedures and tailored pain treatments may be warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Catastrofização/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 221-229, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and chronic musculoskeletal pain commonly occur as comorbid conditions, which increases their negative effects on health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the DROP (DepRessiOn and Pain) programme designed for the management of major depression and chronic musculoskeletal pain in primary care. METHODS: A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out between June 2015 and December 2017 with 328 patients with major depression and chronic musculoskeletal pain, randomly allocated to either intervention arm or usual care arm. The intervention included care management, optimised management of depression, and a psychoeducational programme. Outcomes were monitored using blinded interviews over a 12-month period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02605278 (ClinicalTrials.gov). RESULTS: After 12 months, 274 patients were evaluated (83.5% participation). The severity of depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist score) was 0.23 points lower in the intervention arm [1.11 vs. 1.34; CI95% = -0.42 to -0.04]. Intervention arm's response rate to antidepressant treatment was 18.9% higher [39.6% vs. 20.7%; OR = 2.74; CI95% = 1.12-6.67] and its remission rate for depression was 9.0% higher [20.1% vs. 11.1%; OR = 2.13; CI95% = 0.94-4.85] compared to the usual care arm. There were no significant differences between the two arms in terms of pain severity (Brief Pain Inventory severity score) [6.23 vs. 6.66; difference = -0.39; CI95% = -1.13-0.35] or pain response rate [18.7% vs. 18.5%; OR = 1.02; CI95% = 0.46-2.26]. LIMITATIONS: This is a pragmatic study, and poor adherence to the programme by patients and physicians was a main limitation. CONCLUSION: The programme improves clinical outcomes for depression, although no clinical benefits were seen for pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Scand J Pain ; 19(3): 513-521, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893059

RESUMO

Background and aims To better understand the associations between pain beliefs and pain coping strategies in a sample of community adolescents. Methods Four hundred and thirty-four adolescents were asked to complete measures of physical function, pain-related beliefs and use of pain coping strategies. A series of three hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Approach coping strategies demonstrated significant and positive associations with beliefs about the importance of solicitousness responding and control over pain. Problem-focused avoidance coping strategies evidenced a negative association with the belief of being disabled by pain, and a positive association with the importance of exercise. Emotion-focused avoidance coping strategies showed significant and positive associations with beliefs about being disabled by pain and that emotions affect pain, and negative associations with beliefs about control over pain and the appropriateness of pain medications. Conclusions The findings provide important new information regarding the potential role that beliefs could play as predictors of pain coping in adolescents living in the community. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the possible causal role that beliefs play in decisions to use what pain coping strategy and under what circumstances. Implications The role that pain beliefs and coping strategies play in the adjustment to pain in adolescents in the community has both similarities to and differences with the role that these factors play in adolescent clinical populations. This information can guide the development of community-based treatment programs for adolescents with pain.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Pain Med ; 20(12): 2411-2420, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pain intensity is the most commonly assessed domain in pain research and clinical settings. To facilitate cross-cultural research, knowledge regarding the psychometric properties of pain intensity measures in individuals from different countries is needed. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in English-speaking countries. DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: University. SUBJECTS: Four hundred nineteen college students. METHODS: Participants were asked to complete four measures assessing average pain intensity: 1) the 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS-11), 2) the 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), 3) the four-point verbal rating scale (VRS-4), and 4) the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). RESULTS: The rates of incorrect completion of the four scales were uniformly low (range = 1-2%). The NRS-11 had the highest preference rate (31%), although a substantial number of participants also preferred each of the other three scales (range = 22-24%). The findings support the utility and construct validity of all four pain intensity scales in this Spanish-speaking sample. CONCLUSIONS: When considered in light of research from other non-English-speaking samples indicating significant psychometric weaknesses for the NRS-11 and VAS and relative strengths of the FPS-R in some groups, the findings suggest that the FPS-R might be the most appropriate pain intensity scale to use when comparisons across populations from different countries is a goal. More research is needed to determine the extent to which demographic (i.e., age, education levels, socioeconomic status) vs cultural factors (i.e., country of origin) influence the reliability, validity, and utility of different pain measures.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor , Dor/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Universidades , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin J Pain ; 34(2): 122-129, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the importance of avoidance, pacing, and overdoing pain-related activity management patterns as predictors of adjustment in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. METHODS: A total of 119 tertiary care patients with fibromyalgia syndrome who agreed to be part of an activity management pain program completed a survey, which requested information about demographics, pain intensity and pain interference, psychological and physical function, and pain-related activity management patterns. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to identify the unique contributions of the 3 different pain-related activity management patterns (avoidance, pacing, and overdoing) to the prediction of pain interference, psychological function, and physical function. RESULTS: The avoidance pattern was a significant and unique predictor of worse psychological and physical function as well as greater pain interference. Pacing was significantly associated with less pain interference and better psychological function, whereas overdoing was not found to predict patient functioning. DISCUSSION: The findings confirm the importance of pain-related activity management patterns as predictors of patient function, and support the necessity of addressing these factors in chronic pain treatment. In addition, the results suggest that targeting increases in activity pacing and decreases in pain avoidance, specifically, might yield the best patient outcomes. However, further research to evaluate this possibility is necessary.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/reabilitação , Atividade Motora , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Feminino , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 821, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care is the principal clinical setting for the management of depression. However, significant shortcomings have been detected in its diagnosis and clinical management, as well as in patient outcomes. We developed the INDI collaborative care model to improve the management of depression in primary care. This intervention has been favorably evaluated in terms of clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness in a clinical trial. Our aim is to bring this intervention from the scientific context into clinical practice. METHODS: Objective: To test for the feasibility and impact of a strategy for implementing the INDI model for depression in primary care. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment conducted in primary care. Several areas will be established to implement the new program and other, comparable areas will serve as control group. The study constitutes the preliminary phase preceding generalization of the model in the Catalan public healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: The target population of the intervention are patients with major depression. The implementation strategy will also involve healthcare professionals, primary care centers, as well as management departments and the healthcare organization itself in the geographical areas where the study will be conducted: Camp de Tarragona and Vallès Occidental (Catalonia). INTERVENTION: The INDI model is a program for improving the management of depression involving clinical, instructional, and organizational interventions including the participation of nurses as care managers, the efficacy and efficiency of which has been proven in a clinical trial. We will design an active implementation strategy for this model based on the PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) framework. MEASURES: Qualitative and quantitative measures will be used to evaluate variables related to the successful implementation of the model: acceptability, utility, penetration, sustainability, and clinical impact. DISCUSSION: This project tests the transferability of a healthcare intervention supported by scientific research to clinical practice. If implementation is successful in this experimental phase, we will use the information and experience obtained to propose and plan the generalization of the INDI model for depression in the Catalan healthcare system. We expect the program to benefit patients, the healthcare system, and society. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03285659 ; Registered 12th September, 2017.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Depressão/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pain Med ; 18(2): 283-293, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204732

RESUMO

Objectives: This study's aim was to identify the most important general and pain-related risk factors of suicidal ideation in a large sample of patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Methods: A total of 728 patients with chronic non-cancer pain were recruited from the waitlists of eight multidisciplinary pain clinics across Canada. Patients were assessed using self-administered questionnaires to measure demographic, pain-related (intensity, duration, interference, sleep problems), psychological (anxiety, anger, depressive symptoms including suicidal ideation), cognitive (catastrophizing, attitudes/beliefs), and health-related quality of life variables. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors that were associated with presence/absence of suicidal ideation while controlling for depressive symptoms. Results: The results showed that being a male, longer pain duration, higher anger levels, feelings of helplessness, greater pain magnification, and being more depressed were significant independent predictor factors of suicidal ideation, while better perceived mental health was related with a lesser likelihood of suicidal ideation. Moreover, being in a relationship and believing in a medical cure for pain might be protective of suicidal ideation while being anxious may be more associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusions: These results indicate that development of suicidal ideation is more closely related to pain chronicity and certain psychosocial factors than how severe or physically incapacitating the pain is. Many of these factors could potentially be modified by early identification of suicidal ideation and developing targeted cognitive interventions for suicidal at-risk patients. Research to examine the efficacy of these interventions for reducing suicidal ideation is warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Pain Res ; 10: 113-120, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the role that spatial qualities of pain (location and extent) play in functioning, among youths with disabilities and chronic pain. METHODS: One-hundred and fifteen youths (mean age 14.4 years; SD ±3.3 years) with physical disabilities and chronic pain were interviewed and were asked to provide information about pain locations and their average pain intensity in the past week, and to complete measures of pain interference, psychological function and disability. Most of the participants in this sample were males (56%), Caucasian (68%), and had a cerebral palsy (34%) or muscular dystrophy (25%) problem. Most participants did not report high levels of disability ( [Formula: see text], SD ±9.5, range 0-60) or global pain intensity ( [Formula: see text], SD ±2.4, range 0-10). RESULTS: Pain at more than one body site was experienced by 91% of participants. There were positive associations between pain extent with pain interference (r = 0.30) and disability (r = 0.30), and a negative association with psychological function (r = -0.38), over and above average pain intensity. Additionally, pain intensity in the back (as opposed to other locations) was associated with more pain interference (r = 0.29), whereas pain intensity in the shoulders was associated with less psychological function (r = -0.18), and pain intensity in the bottom or hips was associated with more disability (r = 0.29). CONCLUSION: The findings support the need to take into account pain extent in the assessment and treatment of youths with physical disabilities and chronic pain, call our attention about the need to identify potential risk factors of pain extent, and develop and evaluate the benefits of treatments that could reduce pain extent and target pain at specific sites.

15.
Clin J Pain ; 33(5): 414-421, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584819

RESUMO

Reliable and valid measures of pain intensity are needed to accurately evaluate the efficacy of pain treatments. Perhaps with the exception of faces pain intensity scales, which are thought to reflect both pain intensity and pain affect, the other most commonly used pain intensity scales-Numerical Rating Scales (NRSs), Visual Analog Scales, and Verbal Rating Scales (VRSs)-are all thought to reflect primarily pain intensity or the magnitude of felt pain. However, to our knowledge, this assumption has not been directly tested for VRSs. METHODS: We evaluated whether VRS pain severity ratings are influenced by pain beliefs, catastrophizing, or pain interference over and above any effects of pain intensity, as measured by a NRS, in 4 samples of individuals with physical disabilities and chronic pain. RESULTS: As hypothesized, and while controlling for pain intensity as measured by a NRS, higher scores on factors representing pain interference with function, pain catastrophizing, and a number of pain-related beliefs were all associated with a tendency for the study participants to rate their pain as more severe on a VRS. DISCUSSION: These findings indicate VRSs of pain severity cannot necessarily be assumed to measure only pain intensity; they may also reflect patient perceptions about pain interference and beliefs about their pain. Clinicians and researchers should take these findings into account when selecting measures and when interpreting the results of studies using VRSs as outcome measures.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Medição da Dor/psicologia , Percepção da Dor , Catastrofização , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Children (Basel) ; 3(4)2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929419

RESUMO

The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments-neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis-when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.

17.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 64(4): 483-98, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27585730

RESUMO

Hypnosis is known to be effective in the treatment of pediatric pain. To better understand which strategies might be most useful, more knowledge is needed regarding the strategies that are actually used by experienced clinicians and the factors that influence their use. To address this knowledge gap, 35 health care professionals completed an online survey on the use of hypnosis in the management of pediatric chronic pain. The findings indicate that clinicians vary their use of hypnotic strategies primarily as a function of a patient's age but not as a function of theoretical orientation or amount of experience. The findings may be useful for guiding clinicians in their selection of strategies and suggestions when working with children with pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Hipnose/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnose/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Pain Med ; 17(11): 1971-1977, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pain has been shown to be associated with poor sleep quality. The aim of this study was to better understand the role that pain intensity and pain extent (number of painful areas) may play in the sleep quality of young people with acute and chronic pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PATIENTS: A convenience sample of adolescents and young adults with acute or chronic pain; 414 individuals ages 12 to 24 (44% with chronic pain). METHODS: We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with sleep as the dependent variable and pain intensity, extent, age and pain chronicity as predictors. RESULTS: Pain extent and pain intensity made significant and independent contributions to the prediction of sleep quality (ßs = 0.23 [P < 0.001] and 0.14 [P < 0.01]). Young adults reported poorer sleep than adolescents (ß = 0.13, P < 0.01). Two significant interactions emerged: age × intensity (ß = 0.39, P < 0.05) and chronicity × intensity (ß = 0.88, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality in young people could be improved by teaching them strategies to better manage pain intensity and pain extent. Clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of (and best timing for) pain interventions to improve sleep quality are warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Sono/fisiologia , Dor Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 16: 69, 2016 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27236335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression are very common in primary care patients. Furthermore, they often appear as comorbid conditions, resulting in additive effect on adverse health outcomes. On the basis of previous studies, we hypothesise that depression and chronic musculoskeletal pain may benefit from an integrated management programme at primary care level. We expect positive effects on both physical and psychological distress of patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a new programme for an integrated approach to chronic musculoskeletal pain and depression leads to better outcomes than usual care. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial involving two arms: a) control arm (usual care); and b) intervention arm, where patients participate in a programme for an integrated approach to the pain-depression dyad. SETTINGS: Primary care centres in the province of Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain, Participants: We will recruit 330 patients aged 18-80 with moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain (Brief Pain Inventory, average pain subscale ≥5) for at least 3 months, and with criteria for major depression (DSM-IV). INTERVENTION: A multicomponent programme according to the chronic care model. The main components are care management, optimised antidepressant treatment, and a psychoeducational group action. Blind measurements: The patients will be monitored through blind telephone interviews held at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. OUTCOMES: Severity of pain and depressive symptoms, pain and depression treatment response rates, and depression remission rates. ANALYSIS: The outcomes will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis and the analysis units will be the individual patients. This analysis will consider the effect of the study design on any potential lack of independence between observations made within the same cluster. ETHICS: The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Jordi Gol Primary Care Research Institute (IDIAP), Barcelona, (P14/142). DISCUSSION: This project strengthens and improves treatment approaches for a major comorbidity in primary care. The design of the intervention takes into account its applicability under typical primary care conditions, so that if the programme is found to be effective it will be feasible to apply it in a generalised manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02605278 ; Registered 28 September, 2015.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin J Pain ; 32(12): 1094-1099, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26889622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emotional responses to pain are known to play an important role in the development and maintenance of pain. To better understand the role that pain anxiety plays in chronic pain, as well as to evaluate treatments that might treat it effectively, reliable and valid measures of pain anxiety are needed. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide additional evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the Child Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (CPASS) in a sample of adolescents. METHODS: A total of 357 adolescents ages 12 to 19 years completed measures of pain anxiety (CPASS), pain-related catastrophizing (PCS-C), anxiety sensitivity (CASI), and sleep quality (NRS-Sleep). We used confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the factor structure of CPASS items. We also tested the reliability and the validity of CPASS scores. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 4-factor structure with a single higher-order factor (CFI=0.91, TLI=0.95, RMSEA=0.078). The total score of CPASS showed good internal consistency (α=0.87) and adequate validity as evidenced by (1) moderate to high correlations between CPASS-PCS-C (r=0.74, P<0.001) and CPASS-CASI (r=0.48, P<0.001) and (2) the magnitude of the correlations between CPASS-PCS-C and CPASS-CASI being significantly greater than that between CPASS and NRS-Sleep (z=14.70 and 8.96, respectively; P<0.001). DISCUSSION: The findings support the reliability and the validity of CPASS as a measure of pain-related anxiety in adolescents.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adolescente , Catastrofização , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Sono , Adulto Jovem
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