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Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565349


BACKGROUND: Baseline high circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fraction in plasma and androgen receptor (AR) copy number (CN) gain identify mCRPC patients with worse outcomes. This study aimed to assess if ctDNA associates with PSA kinetics. METHODS: In this prospective biomarker study, we evaluate ctDNA fraction and AR CN from plasma samples. We divided patients into high and low ctDNA level and in AR gain and AR normal. RESULTS: 220 baseline samples were collected from mCRPC treated with abiraterone (n = 140) or enzalutamide (n = 80). A lower rate of PSA decline ≥ 50% was observed in patients with high ctDNA (p = 0.017) and AR gain (p = 0.0003). Combining ctDNA fraction and AR CN, we found a different median PSA progression-free survival (PFS) among four groups: (1) low ctDNA/AR normal, (2) high ctDNA/AR normal, (3) low ctDNA/AR gain, and (4) high ctDNA/AR gain (11.4 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 vs. 3.7 months, p < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis, high ctDNA, AR gain, PSA DT, PSA DT velocity remained independent predictors of PSA PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ctDNA levels and AR gain are negatively and independently correlated with PSA kinetics in mCRPC men treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103627, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202817


HIGHLIGHTS: Although no definitive data exist in literature, adjuvant chemotherapy is usually recommended in patients with radically resected stage III rectal cancer treated with neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. We performed a systematic review of literature with direct and indirect comparisons to assess the role of adjuvant mono- or poli-chemotherapy in radically resected rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Neither chemotherapy (mono-or poli-chemotherapy) nor polichemotherapy with oxaliplatin-containing regimens seems to improve Overall Survival and Disease-Free Survival in patients with radically resected rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemo-adiotherapy. Neither the entire population of patients radically resected after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nor high risk patients seem to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Our data seem to suggest the need of review the actual international guidelines that suggest the need of adjuvant chemotherapy at least in high risk rectal cancer treated with surgery and neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy.

Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671294


Gynecological tumors are malignancies with both high morbidity and mortality. To date, only a few chemotherapeutic agents have shown efficacy against these cancer types (only ovarian cancer responds to several agents, especially platinum-based combinations). Within this context, the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to numerous clinical studies being carried out that have also demonstrated their activity in these cancer types. More recently, following the development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies, this strategy was also tested in solid tumors, including gynecological cancers. In this article, we focus on the molecular basis of gynecological tumors that makes them potential candidates for immunotherapy. We also provide an overview of the main immunotherapy studies divided by tumor type and report on CAR technology and the studies currently underway in the area of gynecological malignancies.

J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580478


Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone of treatment for prostate cancer and, in recent years, androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide) have both been used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In our study, we sought to investigate the association between ADT and immune disorders, considering a potential role of androgens in the immune modulation. We retrospectively evaluated CRPC patients treated with abiraterone/enzalutamide between July 2011 and December 2018. We assessed the risk of developing immune alterations and their impact on outcome. We included 844 CRPC patients receiving AR-directed therapies, of whom 36 (4.3%) had autoimmune diseases and 47 (5.6%) second tumors as comorbidities. Median age was 70 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 63-75)]. We showed higher significant incidence of autoimmune diseases during their hormone sensitive status (p = 0.021) and the presence of autoimmune comorbidities before starting treatment with abiraterone/enzalutamide was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (10.1 vs. 13.7 months, HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.27, p = 0.038). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of autoimmune disorders was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.60, p = 0.031). In conclusion, CRPC patients with autoimmune alterations before starting AR-directed therapies may have worse prognosis. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess the role of immune modulation in the management of prostate cancer patients.