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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457503

RESUMO

Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to farming-related air pollutants might predispose to an increased risk of COVID-19-related death. To test this hypothesis, we performed an ecological study of five Italian Regions (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Sicily), linking all-cause mortality by province (administrative entities within regions) to data on atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and ammonia (NH3), which are mainly produced by agricultural activities. The study outcome was change in all-cause mortality during March-April 2020 compared with March-April 2015-2019 (period). We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by multivariate negative binomial regression models adjusting for air temperature, humidity, international import-export, gross domestic product and population density. We documented a 6.9% excess in MRR (proxy for COVID-19 mortality) for each tonne/km2 increase in NH3 emissions, explained by the interaction of the period variable with NH3 exposure, considering all pollutants together. Despite the limitations of the ecological design of the study, following the precautionary principle, we recommend the implementation of public health measures to limit environmental NH3 exposure, particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Future studies are needed to investigate any causal link between COVID-19 and farming-related pollution.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Material Particulado , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicília/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831702

RESUMO

Nowadays only a few studies on biological and environmental risk among healthcare workers are available in literature. The present study aims to assess the health operator's risk of contact with microorganisms during necropsy activities, to evaluate the efficiency of current protections, to identify possible new sources of contact, and to point out possible preventive measures. In addition, considering the current pandemic scenario, the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the dissection room is assessed. The objectives were pursued through two distinct monitoring campaigns carried out in different periods through sampling performed both on the corpses and at the environmental level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autopsia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444019

RESUMO

Physical risk assessments allow us to understand work-related critical issues, thus representing a useful tool in risk management strategies. In particular, our study focuses on the identification of already known and emerging physical risks related to necropsy and morgue activities, as well as crime scene investigations. The aim of our study is, therefore, to identify objective elements in order to quantify exposure to such risk factors among healthcare professionals and working personnel. For the research of potentially at-risk activities, data from the Morgue of Policlinico Umberto I Hospital in Rome were used. The scientific literature has been reviewed in order to assess the risks associated with morgue activity. Measurements were performed on previously scheduled days, in collaboration with the activities of different research units. The identified areas of risk were: microclimate; exposure to noise and vibrations; postural and biomechanical aspects of necropsy activities. The obtained results make it possible to detect interindividual variability in exposure to many of the aforementioned risk factors. In particular, the assessment of microclimate did not show significant results. On the contrary, exposure to vibrations and biomechanical aspects of load handling have shown potential risk profiles. For this reason, both profiles have been identified as possible action targets for risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Autopsia , Humanos , Necrotério , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108817, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777624

RESUMO

Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus along the dairy production chain is an emerging public health problem with human, veterinary, and food safety issues. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has steadily increased in several European countries. In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in raw cow milk and farm workers was investigated, and the trajectories of MRSA transmission at the primary stage of the dairy chain were assessed. To this purpose, a longitudinal survey was conducted in 618 dairy farms in two contiguous regions with high livestock density in North-eastern Italy. S. aureus contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) was observed in more than 80% of farms, while MRSA prevalence was 3.6% and 15.9% in BTM and farm workers, respectively. The majority of MRSA isolates from both BTM and farm workers were assigned to ST398, and showed a worrisome multidrug-resistant phenotype. Enterotoxin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes were detected in 11.5% and 4.9% of MRSA isolates from both sources. Nearly all MRSA isolates from workers belonged to the same epidemiological type as BTM isolates from the corresponding farm, denoting a bidirectional MRSA transmission pattern. A focus on the ST398 spa type t899 MRSA lineage in the Italian livestock system highlighted the presence of two major clusters whose dissemination was likely facilitated by the selective pressure imposed by antimicrobial use in animal farming. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of MRSA along the dairy production chain, not only to avoid transmission between animals and exposed workers, but also to contain the risk of raw milk and dairy product contamination by multidrug resistant and toxigenic strain.


Assuntos
Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
5.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131557

RESUMO

The analysis of antimicrobial use (AMU) data in livestock allows for the identification of risk factors for AMU, thereby favoring the application of responsible AMU policies on-farm. Herewith, AMU in 36 finishing pig farms in northern Italy from 2015-2017 was expressed as defined daily doses for Italian pigs (DDDita) per population correction unit (DDDita/100kg). A retrospective analysis was then conducted to determine the effects of several husbandry practices on AMU. Overall, AMU ranged between 12 DDDita/100kg in 2015 and 8 DDDita/100kg in 2017, showing no significant trends, due to the large variability in AMU between farms. However, a 66% AMU reduction was observed in 19 farms during 2015-2017. Farm size, number of farm workers, air quality, average pig mortality, and presence of undocked pigs on the farm had no significant effects on AMU. Rather, welfare-friendly farms had 38% lower AMU levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, animal welfare management seems to be relatively more important than farm structure and other managerial characteristics as drivers of AMU in finishing pig farms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906550

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major infectious hazards for health-care workers (HCWs) because of the frequency of percutaneous exposures to blood or body fluids. For this reason, all HCWs should be vaccinated, including students in medicine and health professional degree programs. The aim of this study was to assess the immune coverage to anti-HBV vaccine and long-lasting protective titres of anti-HBs antibodies in female and male students to evaluate gender-related differences in response to HBV vaccination. Data relative to anti-HBs antibody titre, sex, age, and age at vaccination were collected and analyzed from 5291 Italian students (1812 males and 3479 females) of the graduate courses at the School of Medicine, who underwent the mandatory health surveillance of workers exposed to biological risk. The results indicated that gender affects the immune response to HBV vaccine, particularly evident in the case of females vaccinated after one year of age who exhibited a statistically significant (p = 0.0023) 1.21-fold increase in median antibody titre with respect to males. Our findings could contribute to the optimization of HBV vaccination schedules in health surveillance of HCWs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pathog Dis ; 77(2)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916772

RESUMO

Emerging viral infections represent a public health risk pointed out by the spreading of pathogens with potential zoonotic risk. Moreover, the risk of zoonosis has probably been underestimated in occupational settings. A literature review between 2007 and 2018 was performed to identify evidences concerning the epidemiological associations between some emerging viruses and occupational diseases. Observational studies and case-reports were selected and analyzed. West Nile Virus (WNV) disease, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) disease and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection were included in the review for their potential zoonotic transmission. The most important risk factor for acquiring WNV infection and CCHF infection is the exposure to infected mosquitoes and ticks, respectively; therefore, outdoor workers are at risk of infection. HEV is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, that can become infected through waterborne, foodborne and zoonotic transmission routes. A total of 10, 34 and 45 eligible studies for WNV, CCHF virus (CCFHV) and HEV, respectively, were analyzed by year, country, study design, risk group and outcomes. The occupational risk groups mainly included farm and agricultural workers, veterinarians, slaughterers, animal handlers, healthcare workers and soldiers. These findings support the need to develop effective interventions to prevent transmission of emerging viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/etiologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Viés de Publicação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Zoonoses/etiologia
8.
Vet Sci ; 6(1)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717204

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the identification of farming practices in the production of turkeys for human consumption, and their ranking in terms of the occupational probability of exposure to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, for farm workers. We gathered evidence and data from scientific literature, on risk factors for AMR in farmers, and on the prevalence of those hazards across farming phases. We administered semi-structured interviews to public and private veterinarians in Northern Italy, to obtain detailed information on turkey farming phases, and on working practices. Data were then integrated into a semi-quantitative Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Those working practices, which are characterized by direct contact with numerous animals, and which are carried out frequently, with rare use of personal protection devices resulted as associated with the greatest probability of exposure to AMR. For methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), these included vaccination and administration of any individual therapy, and removal and milling of litter, given the exposure of farmers to high dust level. Indeed, levels of occupational exposure to MRSA are enhanced by its transmission routes, which include direct contact with animal, as well as airborne transmission. Level of exposure to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) is more strictly associated with direct contact and the oral-fecal route. Consequently, exposure to ESBL resulted and associated with the routinely tipping over of poults turned on their back, and with the individual administration of therapies.

9.
Med Lav ; 109(2): 125-131, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (Arbovirus) play an important role among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and in the spreading of infections in new geographic areas. Although some arboviral infections may be asymptomatic or mild flu-like illnesses, many occur as severe forms of meningitis and meningoencephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether arboviral infections may be associated with occupational risk, in a population of agricultural and forestry workers potentially at high risk for arthropods bite and sting. METHODS: A seroprevalence survey for arboviruses belonging to the genera Flaviviruses (West Nile, Tick-borne encephalitis and Usutu viruses) and Phlebovirus (Toscana virus) was carried out in Grosseto province (Tuscany, Italy). One hundred and one serum samples of occupationally exposed workers and 100 serum samples of not exposed workers were analyzed using commercial and home-made serological assays. Serological data were obtained in 2012 and analyzed according to demographic characteristics, recollection of insect-bites, and time spent in outdoor activities. RESULTS: A total seropositivity of 10% (21/201) was observed for Toscana virus. No difference in seroprevalence for Toscana virus was observed among the exposed (10/101) versus the not exposed (11/100) workers. No seropositivity for West Nile, Usutu and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Although circulation of Toscana virus is recognized in the study area, our results did not reveal a higher risk for workers exposed to arthropods bite and sting. Health surveillance programs remain useful to monitor the potential emergence of arboviruses.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovírus/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carrapatos
10.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 39(3): 203-210, 2017 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A literature review was performed to highlight which work-related diseases express sex/gender differences in health outcomes and focus the main limits of studies in this field. METHODS: The research, carried out on PubMed by specific search string, identified 4828 articles (1997-2017 period) of which 381 are eligible for review (4-22%, depending on the disease). RESULTS: Among them, 68% reported sex/gender differences in health outcomes, which in most cases appear to be due to different exposure and/or work segregation rather than to biological differences. However, few studies place this assessment among the research goals and results are almost never discussed and hypothesis are seldom formulated about any observed differences. CONCLUSIONS: It seems necessary to use research methodologies and study design that can detect and explain the described complexity and useful in defining appropriate preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Sexuais
11.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 39(3): 214-217, 2017 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A thorough and fully application of the principles of gender mainstreaming, in accordance with the European Community guidelines, to the health and safety at work, implies the systematic review of the whole prevention from the gendered point of view. This means that both biology- and gender-based differences between male and female workers should be conceived not only as determinants of health but also as factors affecting either positively or negatively the health and safety risk prevention. In this evolutionary cultural step the role of the occupational physician is particularly important. METHODS: In this paper we propose some operative tools that can concretely implement gender perspective in all the various areas of prevention, where the occupational physician has a leading, if not even exclusive, role such as risk assessment, training and health medical surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Médicos do Trabalho/organização & administração , Medição de Risco/métodos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Papel do Médico , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Environ Res ; 152: 485-495, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717486

RESUMO

Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first review to provide an analysis of cases of occupational legionellosis. A literature search in the PubMed website was started on January 31, 2015 and ended on June 30, 2016. Cases of occupational legionellosis documented in the scientific literature were retrieved from PubMed upon interrogation with the following keywords: "Legionella pneumophila", "Legionnaires' disease", "Pontiac fever", and "legionellosis", in combination with "employees", "workers", and "occupational". Abstracts were reviewed, and applicable articles were obtained. Only articles that met the inclusion criteria were considered. Forty-seven articles were selected, reporting confirmed cases of legionellosis which occurred over 66 years (1949-2015), and involved 805 workers (221, LD; 584, PF). Fatalities were all associated with LD, resulting in 4.1% mortality. The most common etiologic agents were Legionella pneumophila (58.5%) and Legionella feeleii (39.4%), the latter being responsible for only one large outbreak of PF. Workplaces more frequently associated with occupational legionellosis were industrial settings (62.0%), office buildings (27.3%) and healthcare facilities (6.3%), though cases were also reported from a variety of workplaces, e.g. artesian excavation and horticultural sites, lorry parks, ships, water and sewage plants. With few exceptions, cases occurred in industrialized countries of the northern hemisphere. Overall, our review highlights an extended spectrum of occupational categories at risk for legionellosis. For all categories, infection originated from exposure to work-generated aerosols contaminated with Legionella spp., and industrial facilities equipped with cooling towers or coolant systems were the most common occupational settings. These observations should raise awareness of the risk of acquiring legionellosis at work, and help to improve prevention and control measures for this infrequent but still problematic disease.


Assuntos
Legionella/isolamento & purificação , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Incidência , Legionelose/microbiologia , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Medição de Risco
13.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 52(3): 397-405, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risks associated with climate change are increasing worldwide and the global effects include altered weather and precipitation patterns, rising temperatures and others; human health can be affected directly and indirectly. This paper is an overview of literature regarding climate changes, their interaction with vector-borne diseases and impact on working population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles regarding climate changes as drivers of vector-borne diseases and evidences of occupational cases have been picked up by public databank. Technical documents were also included in the study. RESULTS: Evidences regarding the impact of climate changes on vector-borne diseases in Europe, provided by the analysis of the literature, are presented. DISCUSSION: Climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate modifications, with impacts on public and occupational health. However, other environmental and anthropogenic drivers such as increasing travelling and trade, deforestation and reforestation, altered land use and urbanization can influence their spread. Further studies are necessary to better understand the phenomenon and implementation of adaptation strategies to protect human health should be accelerated and strengthened.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Vetores de Doenças , Animais , Encefalite por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e57576, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23469029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigs play a key epidemiologic role in the ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) emerging from animal hosts and transmitted to humans. Between 2008 and 2010, we investigated the health risk of occupational exposure to swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in Italy, during the emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from 123 swine workers (SWs) and 379 control subjects (Cs), not exposed to pig herds, were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay against selected SIVs belonging to H1N1 (swH1N1), H1N2 (swH1N2) and H3N2 (swH3N2) subtypes circulating in the study area. Potential cross-reactivity between swine and human IAVs was evaluated by testing sera against recent, pandemic and seasonal, human influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 antigenic subtypes). Samples tested against swH1N1 and H1N1pdm viruses were categorized into sera collected before (n. 84 SWs; n. 234 Cs) and after (n. 39 SWs; n. 145 Cs) the pandemic peak. HI-antibody titers ≥10 were considered positive. In both pre-pandemic and post-pandemic peak subperiods, SWs showed significantly higher swH1N1 seroprevalences when compared with Cs (52.4% vs. 4.7% and 59% vs. 9.7%, respectively). Comparable HI results were obtained against H1N1pdm antigen (58.3% vs. 7.7% and 59% vs. 31.7%, respectively). No differences were found between HI seroreactivity detected in SWs and Cs against swH1N2 (33.3% vs. 40.4%) and swH3N2 (51.2 vs. 55.4%) viruses. These findings indicate the occurrence of swH1N1 transmission from pigs to Italian SWs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A significant increase of H1N1pdm seroprevalences occurred in the post-pandemic peak subperiod in the Cs (p<0.001) whereas SWs showed no differences between the two subperiods, suggesting a possible occurrence of cross-protective immunity related to previous swH1N1 infections. These data underline the importance of risk assessment and occupational health surveillance activities aimed at early detection and control of SIVs with pandemic potential in humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Suínos/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pathog Glob Health ; 106(7): 391-6, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23265610

RESUMO

Midichloria mitochondrii is an intracellular bacterium found in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. In this arthropod, M. mitochondrii is observed in the oocytes and in other cells of the ovary, where the symbiont is present in the cell cytoplasm and inside the mitochondria. No studies have so far investigated whether M. mitochondrii is present in the salivary glands of the tick and whether it is transmitted to vertebrates during the tick blood meal. To address the above issues, we developed a recombinant antigen of M. mitochondrii (to screen human sera) and antibodies against this antigen (for the staining of the symbiont). Using these reagents we show that (i) M. mitochondrii is present in the salivary glands of I. ricinus and that (ii) seropositivity against M. mitochondrii is highly prevalent in humans parasitized by I. ricinus (58%), while it is very low in healthy individuals (1·2%). These results provide evidence that M. mitochondrii is released with the tick saliva and raise the possibility that M. mitochondrii is infectious to vertebrates. Besides this, our study indicates that M. mitochondrii should be regarded as a package of antigens inoculated into the human host during the tick bite. This implies that the immunology of the response toward the saliva of I. ricinus is to be reconsidered on the basis of potential effects of M. mitochondrii and poses the basis for the development of novel markers for investigating the exposure of humans and animals to this tick species.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Ixodes/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Alphaproteobacteria/imunologia , Alphaproteobacteria/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Glândulas Salivares/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 40(5): 459-61, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958841

RESUMO

The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among homeless shelter staff was assessed using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the Quantiferon TB-Gold in tube interferon-γ release assay (QFT-TB). Investigation of 51 participants for whom both QFT-TB and TST results were available showed 47.1% and 43.1% positivity, respectively, with excellent (92%) concordance between the 2 tests. The high risk for acquiring occupational TB necessitates the development of TB surveillance protocols for homeless shelter staff in Italy.


Assuntos
Abrigo de Emergência , Exposição Ocupacional , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico , Recursos Humanos
17.
Ind Health ; 48(3): 365-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20562513

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyze the information on workers and exposures to biological agents in Italy, collected by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention in the period 1994-2008 on the basis of a regulation. Employers are asked to identify the biological agents and to report data on employees exposed to biological hazards. Biological agents included in the system belong to risk group 3 and 4 of the European Union classification, and are grouped by family and transmission type. Data analyzed in this study regard 90 firms (28% in "Laboratory analysis clinics" economic activity) and 2,194 workers exposed to biological agents in the period 1994-2008. The most frequent biological agent reported is Salmonella typhi, while the one which counted more exposures is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nonetheless the incompleteness of Italian legislative framework about "exposure registers" to biological agents in the workplace, the identification of large groups of workers "at risk" can contribute to undertake epidemiological studies aimed at the prevention of occupational infection diseases.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/classificação , Substâncias Perigosas/classificação , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Itália , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Salmonella typhi
18.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 58(8): 540-4, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18832346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sandfly fever virus serotype Toscana is endemic in Mediterranean countries and is a widespread public health problem as it may be associated with acute neurological diseases such as aseptic meningitis. AIM: To assess whether Toscana virus infection is associated with occupational exposure. METHODS: During the summer of 2001, a total of 678 blood samples were taken from healthy subjects residing in Tuscany (349 agricultural and forestry workers and 329 control subjects living in the same areas). Information on age, type of job and lifestyle was collected in a questionnaire, and sera were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Toscana virus-specific antibodies. RESULTS: Seropositivity to antibodies to Toscana virus was 30% in the control group and 23% in the agricultural and forestry workers (P<0.05). Questionnaire responses suggested that, although the agricultural and forestry workers had a potentially greater continuous exposure to sandfly fever virus (outdoor activities, rural residence and at-risk lifestyle), these risk factors did not add significant information about greater susceptibility to disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a need for better understanding of the best preventive measures to avoid the risk related to sandfly bites, especially for people who live or work in areas at risk.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Febre por Flebótomos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/epidemiologia , Meningite Viral/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Febre por Flebótomos/diagnóstico , Febre por Flebótomos/virologia , Roupa de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol ; 15(2-3): 199-211, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18685272

RESUMO

Cyanide is a dreaded chemical because of its toxic properties. Although cyanide acts as a general metabolic inhibitor, it is synthesized, excreted and metabolized by hundreds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and insects, as a mean to avoid predation or competition. Several cyanide compounds are also produced by industrial activities, resulting in serious environmental pollution. Bioremediation has been exploited as a possible alternative to chemical detoxification of cyanide compounds, and various microbial systems allowing cyanide degradation have been described. Enzymatic pathways involving hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitution/transfer reactions are implicated in detoxification of cyanide by bacteria and fungi. Amongst enzymes involved in transfer reactions, rhodanese catalyzes sulfane sulfur transfer from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of the less toxic thiocyanate. Mitochondrial rhodanese has been associated with protection of aerobic respiration from cyanide poisoning. Here, the biochemical and physiological properties of microbial sulfurtransferases are reviewed in the light of the importance of rhodanese in cyanide detoxification by the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Critical issues limiting the application of a rhodanese-based cellular system to cyanide bioremediation are also discussed.


Assuntos
Cianetos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Sulfurtransferases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianetos/toxicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Metabólica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo , Tiossulfato Sulfurtransferase/genética , Tiossulfato Sulfurtransferase/metabolismo
20.
Mutat Res ; 516(1-2): 148-52, 2002 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11943620

RESUMO

There have been some suggestions that air-crew are at a higher-than-normal risk of developing cancer, since they are exposed to potential genotoxic factors. These include cosmic radiations, airborne pollutants such as the combustion products of jet propulsion, ozone, and electromagnetic fields. We used the Comet assay to investigate DNA damage in flight personnel with the aim of assessing potential health hazards in this occupational category. We studied 40 civil air-crew members who had been flying long-haul routes for at least 5 years, and compared them with a homogeneous control group of 40 healthy male ground staff. The Comet assay, or single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), detects DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DSBs) and alkali-labile lesions in individual cells, and is a powerful and sensitive technique for detecting genetic damage induced by different genotoxic agents. Taking into consideration occupational risk and possible confounding factors, this assay showed a small increase, that did not reach statistical significance, of DNA damage in long-haul crew members compared to controls, indicating a lack of evident genotoxic effects. An association, although again not statistically significant, was found between reduced DNA damage and use of protective drugs (antioxidants).


Assuntos
Aviação , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Nêutrons/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Aeronaves , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Ensaio Cometa , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Recursos Humanos
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