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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate the compliance rate to secondary prophylaxis and the presence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a cohort of Italian patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups by the presence or absence at last follow-up of RHD. Clinical features, ARF recurrences and the rate of compliance to secondary prophylaxis were evaluated. RESULTS: Two-hundred and ninety patients were enrolled (137 females; 153 males). Carditis at onset was present in 244 patients (84.7%). At the end of follow-up, 173 patients manifested RHD. Adherence to secondary prophylaxis was low in 26% of patients. The presence of RHD at follow-up was associated with the presence of carditis and its severity at onset (p=0.001), but it was not related to secondary prophylaxis adherence (p=NS). No association between prophylaxis adherence and ARF recurrence was found (p=NS) nor between ARF recurrence and RHD at the end of follow-up (p=NS). CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to secondary prophylaxis does not seem to be associated with increased risk of RHD in developed countries. Further studies are needed to confirm our data in a larger population.

2.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 44(1): 66-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (GCH-AHA) is a rare and severe immune-mediated disorder. Despite aggressive immunosuppressive treatments, the mortality is high. Prednisone has been effectively employed to achieve remission, but with a risk of relapse, if discontinued, and with severe side effects. A possible causative role of humoral immune response has paved the way to anti CD-20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab; RTX). Nevertheless, data about timing of remission and long-term side effects are sparse. METHODS AND MATHERIALS: We have retrospectively evaluated 3 refractory GCH-AHA patients in whom a prolonged remission has been achieved with RTX. In all patients, response to first and second line therapy was incomplete or transitory and severe steroid side effects occurred. RESULTS: A stable and sustained remission was achieved after multiple doses of RTX allowing withdrawing all the other treatments. No life-threatening infections have been recorded, however two patients developed persistent, paucisymptomatic hypogammaglobulinaemia. The only patient who did not develop hypogammaglobulinemia received IgG replacement during RTX. CONCLUSION: RTX induced complete and long-lasting remission allowing discontinuing all the other immunosuppressive drugs. A persistent, paucisymptomatic hypogammaglobulinaemia has been the unique side effect. Although further studies need to replicate our data, RTX can be considered as an effective and safe therapy for sustained remission in patients with severe refractory GCH-AHA.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487897

RESUMO

Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a set of genes whose transcription is induced by interferon (IFN). The measure of the expression of ISGs enables calculating an IFN score, which gives an indirect estimate of the exposition of cells to IFN-mediated inflammation. The measure of the IFN score is proposed for the screening of monogenic interferonopathies, like the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, or to stratify subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus to receive IFN-targeted treatments. Apart from these scenarios, there is no agreement on the diagnostic value of the score in distinguishing IFN-related disorders from diseases dominated by other types of cytokines. Since the IFN score is currently measured in several research hospitals, merging experiences could help define the potential of scoring IFN inflammation in clinical practice. However, the IFN score calculated at different laboratories may be hardly comparable due to the distinct sets of IFN-stimulated genes assessed and to different controls used for data normalization. We developed a reliable approach to minimize the inter-laboratory variability, thereby providing shared strategies for the IFN signature analysis and allowing different centers to compare data and merge their experiences.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

6.
Inflamm Res ; 68(11): 901-904, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468084

RESUMO

Most of primary immunodeficiencies with hypogammaglobulinemia are associated with reduced memory B cells. T cell development may be interesting as well, but increased recent thymic emigrants are rarely reported in these patients. We report the case of a family (mother and her two sons) diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency 10 due to a mutation in the NFKB2 gene. Laboratory findings showed that all three patients presented hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced memory B cells and elevated naïve T lymphocytes and recent thymic emigrants. This feature, in the absence of glucocorticoid deficiency, may suggest a primary thymic dysfunction. Interestingly, the mother presented the worst immune phenotype, as regards both antibody production and NK function, indicating that immune function may deteriorate in the course of time. We conclude that close monitoring of immune functions may widen the knowledge on the CVID10 and improve the patients' care.

7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT. CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.

8.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(3): 185-193, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been 15 years since sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, received Food and Drug Administration approval to prevent acute rejection in kidney transplantation, and 8 years since its analog everolimus acquired the same status. Since then, these drugs have become more and more utilized and their immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties have been tested in a great variety of clinical conditions, often achieving excellent results. Despite such positive evidence, the on-label indications for these rapalogs are still very restrictive, especially in children. AIMS: The aims of this study were to describe our center's experience with sirolimus and everolimus in managing rare pediatric conditions for which mTOR inhibitors have been reported as a therapeutic option, although without conclusive approval from regulatory agencies, and to evaluate safety and tolerability of the treatment at the prescribed doses. METHODS: All the subjects who received off-label sirolimus or everolimus at the Pediatric Department of the IRCCS Burlo Garofolo in the last 13 years were included. For each disease found in our case series, we reviewed the current scientific literature. RESULTS: Off-label treatment with rapalogs was prescribed in 16 children (11 males, 5 females, median age of 9.5 years, range 1-16 years). Seven had immunologic disorders: four autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), one multicentric Castleman disease (mCD), one activated PI3K delta kinase syndrome (APDS), and one immunodysregulation with polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked (IPEX). Eight had proliferative disorders or vascular anomalies: one cystic lymphangioma, two Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), one blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS), two tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and one low-flow mixed arterial and venous malformation. One case had congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). The average dosage administered was 1 mg/m2 for sirolimus and 7 mg/m2 for everolimus. We experienced a good measurable clinical improvement in 14 patients. Nobody experienced serious adverse events (SAEs). The therapy was interrupted in two cases, for lack of efficacy and poor tolerance in one case and for occurrence of bacterial pneumonia in the other one. A review of the literature identified 101 published reports that met our inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Although use of mTOR inhibitors has been considered to be complicated, our experience shows that, using low dosages, it is possible to obtain relevant clinical improvements, with a good profile of safety and tolerability.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Uso Off-Label/normas , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sirolimo/farmacologia
9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): E13-E15, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938918

RESUMO

We report the first case of Hughes Stovin Syndrome successfully treated with long-lasting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) blocker (infliximab) treatment. Because of the failure of the standard therapeutic regimen with steroids and cyclophosphamide, infliximab was started achieving a stable disease remission and a complete resolution of pulmonary aneurysms. Hughes Stovin Syndrome, although rare, is a life-threatening condition that needs to be timely identified and treated aggressively. Our report underlines the importance of TNF-α blocker treatment in Hughes Stovin Syndrome, suggesting its use as long-term safe and useful.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807392

RESUMO

Patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia due to germline CBL mutation (10% to 15%) may have a subacute course occasionally associated with autoimmune disorders, which may resemble RAS-associated autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder. In both conditions, prognosis and standard treatment for autoimmune phenomena remain poorly understood. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia with severe steroid-dependent uveitis, who did not respond to several therapeutic attempts with immunosuppressant agents, including sirolimus, and was finally successfully treated with adalimumab. This case offers further insight into the management of autoimmune disorders in the context of predisposing genetic conditions.

11.
Cancer Med ; 8(3): 890-901, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690926

RESUMO

Myeloablative conditioning is a well-established procedure that precedes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in pediatric patients. In the period directly following transplantation, several factors may contribute to complications that lead to the activation or damage of endothelial cells, involved in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial syndromes (VES). However, to date, sufficiently specific and sensitive diagnostic markers for the various forms of VES have not been identified. This was a retrospective single-center study of patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. For this cohort of patients, parameters including type of engraftment, donor characteristics, and cytokine production were measured and correlated with a high prevalence of short-term complications after HSCT. The aim of this study was to identify specific parameters useful for improving diagnostics and predicting adverse effects in VES. We confirmed that monocyte-predominant engraftment was related to a higher risk for an early transplant-related complication termed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The increased production of specific cytokines, in particular RANTES, represents a marker associated with prevalent engraftment. In addition, patients undergoing prophylaxis with defibrotide had "classical" engraftment, a common cytokine profile and a lower incidence of life-threatening transplant-related complications. The beneficial effect of defibrotide might be a starting point for developing selective prophylaxis for patients with monocyte engraftment to prevent severe early transplant-related complications.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(4): 582-587, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632494

RESUMO

The balance of autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis is crucial to determine the outcome of the cellular response to cholesterol dysregulation. Cholesterol plays a major role in regulating the properties of cell membranes, especially as regards their fluidity, and the regulation of its biosynthesis influences the shape and functions of these membranes. Whilst dietary cholesterol can easily be distributed to most organs, the central nervous system, whose membranes are particularly rich in cholesterol, mainly relies on de novo synthesis. For this reason, defects in the biosynthesis of cholesterol can variably affect the development of central nervous system. Moreover, defective synthesis of cholesterol and its intermediates may reflect both on structural cell anomalies and on the response to inflammatory stimuli. Examples of such disorders include mevalonate kinase deficiency, and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, due to deficiency in biosynthetic enzymes, and type C Niemann-Pick syndrome, due to altered cholesterol trafficking across cell compartments. Autophagy, as a crucial pathway dedicated to the degradation of cytosolic proteins and organelles, plays an essential role in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the turnover of the cytoplasmic material especially in the presence of imbalances such as those resulting from alteration of cholesterol metabolism. Manipulating the process of autophagy can offer possible strategies for improving neuronal cell viability and function in these genetic disorders.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(4): 3170-3179, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362540

RESUMO

Recent data indicate that the Simian virus 40 (SV40) infection appears to be transmitted in humans independently from early SV40-contaminated antipolio vaccines. Serum antibodies against SV40 large T antigen (Tag) were analyzed in children/adolescents and young adults. To investigate antibodies reacting to SV40 Tag antigens, serum samples ( n = 812) from children and young adults were analyzed by indirect ELISAs using specific SV40 Tag mimotopes. Mimotopes were synthetic peptides corresponding to SV40 Tag epitopes. In sera ( n = 412) from healthy children up to 17 years old, IgG antibodies against SV40 Tag mimotopes reached an overall prevalence of 15%. IgM antibodies against SV40 Tag were detected in sera of children 6-8 months old confirming and extending the knowledge that SV40 seroconversion occurs early in life. In children/adolescents affected by different diseases ( n = 180) SV40 Tag had a prevalence of 18%, being the difference no significant compared to healthy subjects ( n = 220; 16%) of the same age. Our immunological data indicate that SV40 circulates in children and young adults, both in healthy conditions and affected by distinct diseases. The IgM detection in sera from healthy children suggests that the SV40 infection/seroconversion occurs early in life (>6 months). Our immunological data support the hypothesis that SV40, or a closely related still unknown polyomavirus, infects humans. The SV40 seroprevalence is lower than common polyomaviruses, such as BKPyV and JCPyV, and other new human polyomaviruses. In addition, our immunological surveillance indicates a lack of association between different diseases, considered herein, and SV40.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558209

RESUMO

Lipids and inflammation regulate each other. Early studies on this topic focused on the systemic effects that the acute inflammatory response-and interleukins-had on lipid metabolism. Today, in the era of the obesity epidemic, whose primary complications are cardio-metabolic diseases, attention has moved to the effects that the nutritional environment and lipid derangements have on peripheral tissues, where lipotoxicity leads to organ damage through an imbalance of chronic inflammatory responses. After an overview of the effects that acute inflammation has on the systemic lipid metabolism, this review will describe the lipid-induced immune responses that take place in peripheral tissues and lead to chronic cardio-metabolic diseases. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of lipid lowering drugs, as well as the possibility of using anti-inflammatory agents against cardio-metabolic diseases, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia
15.
World J Clin Pediatr ; 7(3): 75-82, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191136

RESUMO

With the development of precision medicines based on small molecules, antibodies, RNAs and gene therapy, technological innovation is providing some exciting possibilities to treat the most severe genetic diseases. However, these treatments do not always lead to a cure for the disease, and there are several factors that may hinder their overall success. Patients living during a period of great medical change and innovation may benefit from these technological advances but may also just face failures, both in terms of frustrated hopes as well as suffering. In this article, we are telling the stories of three children with rare and severe disorders, who live in an age of significant medical changes, bearing the burden of difficult scientific and ethical choices. The first two cases that are suffering respectively from severe immunodeficiency and beta thalassemia have already been described in scientific journals, as well as in popular magazines. Although similar when considering the medical challenges, the two cases had opposite outcomes, which resulted in distinct ethical implications. The third case is a baby with spinal muscular atrophy, living at a time of continued innovation in the treatment of the disease. With these cases, we discuss the challenges of providing correct information and proper counseling to families and patients that are making the bumpy journey on the road of medical innovation.

16.
J Rheumatol ; 45(10): 1418-1421, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test fecal calprotectin (FC) as a screening tool to identify inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: FC level < 100 g/kg was considered normal. Patients with 2 consecutive FC dosage ≥ 100 g/kg underwent endoscopic evaluation. RESULTS: There were 113 patients with JIA enrolled. FC was raised in 7 patients out of 113. All patients had IBD. In 3/7 patients, high FC levels were the only sign consistent with IBD. CONCLUSION: FC is a useful, economical, and noninvasive diagnostic tool to identify JIA patients with underlying IBD.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Fezes/química , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(5)2018 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783748

RESUMO

Cholesterol metabolism is crucial for cells and, in particular, its biosynthesis in the central nervous system occurs in situ, and its deregulation involves morphological changes that cause functional variations and trigger programmed cell death. The pathogenesis of rare diseases, such as Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency or Smith⁻Lemli⁻Opitz Syndrome, arises due to enzymatic defects in the cholesterol metabolic pathways, resulting in a shortage of downstream products. The most severe clinical manifestations of these diseases appear as neurological defects. Expanding the knowledge of this biological mechanism will be useful for identifying potential targets and preventing neuronal damage. Several studies have demonstrated that deregulation of the cholesterol pathway induces mitochondrial dysfunction as the result of respiratory chain damage. We set out to determine whether mitochondrial damage may be prevented by using protective mitochondria-targeted compounds, such as MitoQ, in a neuronal cell line treated with a statin to induce a biochemical block of the cholesterol pathway. Evidence from the literature suggests that mitochondria play a crucial role in the apoptotic mechanism secondary to blocking the cholesterol pathway. Our study shows that MitoQ, administered as a preventive agent, could counteract the cell damage induced by statins in the early stages, but its protective role fades over time.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transporte de Elétrons , Humanos , Lovastatina/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
18.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(6): 1204-1212, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697845

RESUMO

Background: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is a key intracellular protein of the innate immune system. NOD2 variants are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory phenotypes. We described the case of a baby with a very early-onset IBD who is characterized by a rare homozygous variant in NOD2, found through whole-exome sequencing, Its pathogenic effect was investigated through bioinformatics and functional studies. Methods: The microbicide activity of the patient's phagocytes was analyzed using Escherichia coli. HEK293 and Caco2 cell lines were transfected with wild-type and mutated NOD2 cDNA to evaluate the NF-kB activity and the protein distribution. The functionality of the NOD2 pathway was assessed through analysis of the expression of tumor nectrosis factor alpha (TNFα) on monocytes. The levels of various cytokines were quantified in the patient plasma by a multiplex suspension array. Results: A missense NOD2 mutation, c.G1277A; p.R426H in homozygosis, was found. The patient's microbicide activity was comparable to that observed in controls. HEK293 cells transfected with the mutated cDNA showed a 20-fold increase of NF-kB activation in basal condition. Moreover, Caco2 immunostaining revealed a different cytoplasmic distribution of the mutated protein compared with wild-type. A higher production of TNFα by monocytes and elevated levels of plasmatic cytokines and chemokines were evidenced in the patient. Conclusions: This homozygous mutation is functionally relevant and shows a different NOD2 involvement in the IBD phenotype. In our patient, this mutation caused a gain of function typical of the Blau syndrome phenotype, manifesting, however, an IBD-like phenotype.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Intestinos/patologia , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Sinovite/genética , Uveíte/genética , Idade de Início , Células CACO-2 , Citocinas/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
20.
Clin Immunol ; 191: 75-80, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548898

RESUMO

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in the gene encoding for the common ß-chain of the ß2 integrin family (CD18). Herein, we describe clinical manifestations and long-term complications of eight LAD-1 patients. Four LAD-1 patients were treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), while the remaining four, including two with moderate LAD-1 deficiency, received continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Untreated patients presented numerous infections and autoimmune manifestations. In particular, two of them developed renal and intestinal autoimmune diseases, despite the expression of Beta-2 integrin was partially conserved. Other two LAD-1 patients developed type 1 diabetes and autoimmune cytopenia after HSCT, suggesting that HSCT is effective for preventing infections in LAD-1, but does not prevent the risk of the autoimmune complications.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/complicações , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Antígenos CD18/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lactente , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/terapia , Masculino
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