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1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, which include brain and eye abnormalities. The clinical importance of detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of Zika virus RNA testing of amniotic fluid relative to other clinical specimens and to examine the association between Zika virus detection in amniotic fluid and Zika-associated birth defects. Our null hypothesis was that Zika virus detection in amniotic fluid was not associated with Zika-associated birth defects. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women with amniotic fluid specimens submitted to Colombia's National Institute of Health as part of national Zika virus surveillance from January 2016 to January 2017. Specimens (maternal serum, amniotic fluid, cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and placental tissue) were tested for the presence of Zika virus RNA with the use of a singleplex or multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Birth defect information was abstracted from maternal prenatal and infant birth records and reviewed by expert clinicians. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency of Zika-associated birth defects (defined as brain abnormalities [with or without microcephaly, but excluding neural tube defects and their associated findings] or eye abnormalities) by frequency of detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid. RESULTS: Our analysis included 128 women with amniotic fluid specimens. Seventy-five women (58%) had prenatally collected amniotic fluid; 42 women (33%) had amniotic fluid collected at delivery, and 11 women (9%) had missing collection dates. Ninety-one women had both amniotic fluid and other clinical specimens submitted for testing, which allowed for comparison across specimen types. Of those 91 women, 68 had evidence of Zika virus infection based on detection of Zika virus RNA in ≥1 specimen. Testing of amniotic fluid that was collected prenatally or at delivery identified 39 of these Zika virus infections (57%; 15 [22%] infections were identified only in amniotic fluid), and 29 infections (43%) were identified in other specimen types and not amniotic fluid. Among women who were included in the analysis, 89 had pregnancy outcome information available, which allowed for the assessment of the presence of Zika-associated birth defects. Zika-associated birth defects were significantly (P<.05) more common among pregnancies with Zika virus RNA detected in amniotic fluid specimens collected prenatally (19/32 specimens; 59%) than for those with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection in any specimen (6/23 specimens; 26%), but the proportion was similar in pregnancies with only Zika virus RNA detected in specimens other than amniotic fluid (10/23 specimens; 43%). Although Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with any Zika virus RNA detected in amniotic fluid specimens (ie, collected prenatally or at delivery; 21/43 specimens; 49%) than those with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection (6/23 specimens; 26%), this comparison did not reach statistical significance (P=.07). CONCLUSION: Testing of amniotic fluid provided additional evidence for maternal diagnosis of Zika virus infection. Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with Zika virus RNA that was detected in prenatal amniotic fluid specimens than women with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, but similar to women with Zika virus RNA detected in other, nonamniotic fluid specimen types.

2.
J Perinatol ; 40(3): 422-432, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and attitudes related to substance use screening in pregnant patients. STUDY DESIGN: A 2017 cross-sectional survey assessed US obstetrician-gynecologists' (n = 462; response rate = 34%) practices (substance use screening frequency and methods) and attitudes (practice priority of screening, confidence in treating, and responsibility statements). Chi-squared tests and adjusted modified Poisson regression were used to estimate associations between practices and attitudes. RESULTS: Of 353 respondents with screening information, 79% frequently screen for substance use and 11% used a validated instrument. Confidence was the highest for treating pregnant patients using tobacco (81%). Respondents whose practices make it a high priority to screen for all substances were 1.2 times as likely to frequently screen as their counterparts (95% CI: 1.1-1.3). CONCLUSIONS: Four out of five obstetricians-gynecologists reported a high frequency of substance use screening in pregnant patients. Findings highlight the importance of increasing priority of substance use screening by obstetrician-gynecologists.

3.
J Perinatol ; 40(3): 412-421, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and attitudes related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. STUDY DESIGN: A 2017 cross-sectional survey assessed U.S. obstetrician-gynecologists' (N = 462; response rate = 34%) practices (management) and attitudes (knowledge, preparedness, confidence, barriers, and resources needed) related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. Modified Poisson regression determined adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for advising medication-assisted therapy (MAT) for pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD) by knowledge, confidence, and preparedness. RESULTS: Of respondents, 33% always or usually advised MAT to pregnant women with OUD. Confidence in treating pregnant women who use opioids (aPR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8) and knowledge that substance use services were covered under the Affordable Care Act (aPR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) were associated with advising MAT. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that efforts are needed to enhance physician confidence to manage pregnant and postpartum patients who use opioids, which may increase optimal care of this patient population.

4.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(8): 1068-1076, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298606

RESUMO

Background: Comorbid substance use disorder and mental health conditions are common in women of reproductive age. We sought to understand the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorder by depression and anxiety disorder status and the independent association between depression and anxiety disorder status with receiving substance use treatment. Materials and Methods: A sample of 106,142 women ages 18-44 years was drawn from the 2008 to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Differences in demographics, substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment by major depressive episode (MDE), and anxiety disorder status, were assessed with chi-squared tests. The independent association between MDE and anxiety disorder with substance use treatment was assessed with adjusted prevalence ratios. Results: Women with MDE and/or anxiety disorder had higher prevalence of substance use and substance use disorder than women with no MDE or anxiety disorder (p < 0.001). Less than a quarter of women with substance use disorders and both MDE and anxiety disorder received mental health and substance use treatment. After adjustment, women with substance use disorder and MDE and anxiety disorder, MDE only, or anxiety disorder only were more likely to receive substance use treatment (respectively, 2.4, 1.6, and 2.2 times) than women with no MDE or anxiety disorder (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Women with MDE and/or anxiety disorder are significantly more likely to suffer from substance use and substance use disorders than their counterparts. Integrating substance use treatment services and mental health services in settings frequently visited by reproductive-aged women may increase receipt of combined treatment.

6.
Prev Med ; 126: 105743, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173804

RESUMO

Use of some medications during pregnancy can be harmful to the developing fetus, and discussion of the risks and benefits with prenatal care providers can provide guidance to pregnant women. We used Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data collected for 2015 births aggregated from 34 US states (n = 40,480 women) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported receipt of prenatal care provider counseling about medications safe to take during pregnancy. We examined associations between counseling and maternal characteristics using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). The prevalence of counseling on medications safe to take during pregnancy was 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.7-89.7). Women who were nulliparous versus multiparous (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.04), who used prescription medications before pregnancy versus those who did not, (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05), and who reported having asthma before pregnancy versus those who did not, (aPR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08) were more likely to report receipt of counseling. There was no difference in counseling for women with pre-pregnancy diabetes, hypertension, and/or depression compared to those without. Women who entered prenatal care after the first trimester were less likely to report receipt of counseling (aPR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, self-reported receipt of counseling was high, with some differences by maternal characteristics. Although effect estimates were small, it is important to ensure that information is available to prenatal care providers about medication safety during pregnancy, and that messages are communicated to women who are or might become pregnant.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(8): 189-194, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817748

RESUMO

Electronic vapor products (EVPs) comprise a diverse group of devices, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). EVP users inhale an aerosol that typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives (1). Nicotine is a developmental toxicant that adversely affects pregnancy and infant outcomes (2). Data from the 2015 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) for Oklahoma and Texas were analyzed to estimate population-based EVP use among women with a recent live birth. EVP use before pregnancy (defined as >3 months before pregnancy) and around the time of pregnancy (defined as any time during the 3 months before pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, or 2-6 months after delivery), reasons for EVP use, and dual use of EVPs and cigarettes were assessed. Prevalence of EVP use was 10.4% before pregnancy and 7.0% around the time of pregnancy, including 1.4% during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Among women using EVPs during the last 3 months of pregnancy, 38.4% reported use of EVPs containing nicotine, and 26.4% were unsure of nicotine content. Among women who had used EVPs and cigarettes, dual use prevalence was 38.0% in the 3 months before pregnancy, 7.7% during the last 3 months of pregnancy, and 11.8% in the 2-6 months after delivery. The most frequently reported reasons for EVP use around the time of pregnancy were curiosity (54.0%), the perception that EVPs might help with quitting or reducing cigarette smoking (45.2%), and the perception of reduced harm to the mother, when compared with cigarette smoking (45.2%). Clear messages that EVP use is not safe during pregnancy are needed, and broad, barrier-free access to evidence-based tobacco cessation strategies need to be made available.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Medição de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Texas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Birth ; 46(2): 326-334, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking cessation has substantial health benefits for mothers and offspring, but concerns about weight gain may be a barrier to quitting. We quantified gestational weight gain associated with biochemically confirmed smoking cessation. METHODS: Data originated from a randomized controlled cessation trial: Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project (1987-1991). We calculated gestational weight gain using self-reported prepregnancy weight and measured weight at 30-34 weeks of gestation. We used linear regression to estimate adjusted mean differences in gain for quitters versus continuing smokers by the last trimester. The effects of quitting earlier (by 2nd trimester) versus later (by 3rd trimester) were calculated. We assessed the percentages who gained weight according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations within 2 weeks of a full-term delivery. RESULTS: At 30-34 weeks, nulliparous and multiparous quitters gained an average of 3.0 pounds (95% CI 0.9-5.1 pounds) (1.4 kg [0.4-2.3 kg]) and 6.6 pounds (95% CI 4.3-8.9 pounds) (3.0 kg [1.9-4.0 kg]) more, respectively, than continuing smokers. Weight gain in early quitters did not differ significantly from that in late quitters. Quitters were more likely than continuing smokers to gain above current guidelines (60.3% vs 46.3%) and were less likely to gain below guidelines (11.5% vs 21.6%) (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Although quitters had modest additional weight gain by 30-34 weeks compared to continuing smokers, a high proportion in both groups gained in excess of IOM recommendations. Both quitters and continuing smokers may need support to achieve optimal gestational weight gain.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(3): 314-322, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking near conception has adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. We estimated the proportion of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles with smoking reported and associated clinical outcomes. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort study (2009-2013) using national data of ART cycles in the United States. We compared patient characteristics, infertility diagnoses, and treatment procedures by self-reported smoking in the 3 months before treatment. Using multivariable logistic regression accounting for clustering by state, clinic, and patient, we assessed adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between smoking and clinical outcomes: cycle cancellations among all cycles (cycle stopped before retrieval of eggs or transfer of embryos), treatment outcomes (implantation, ectopic pregnancy, intrauterine pregnancy, and live birth) among cycles with ≥1 fresh embryo transferred, and pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, and live birth) among intrauterine pregnancies. RESULTS: Smoking was reported in 1.9% of cycles. Higher proportions of cycles among smokers versus nonsmokers were younger, non-Hispanic White, multigravida women and had tubal factor and male factor infertility diagnoses; lower proportions had diagnoses of diminished ovarian reserve and unexplained infertility, and used donor eggs. Smoking was associated with higher adjusted odds of cycle cancellation with no embryo transfer (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21) and cancellations before fresh oocyte retrieval or frozen embryo transfer (1.11; 1.02-1.21). Associations between other clinical outcomes were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Over 12,000 ART cycles in the United States were exposed to smoking during 2009-2013; smoking increased the odds of cycle cancellation. Providers should encourage women to quit smoking before ART treatments.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(31): 845-849, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091969

RESUMO

Opioid use by pregnant women represents a significant public health concern given the association of opioid exposure and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including preterm labor, stillbirth, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and maternal mortality (1,2). State-level actions are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic through programs and policies to reduce use of prescription opioids and illegal opioids including heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl, both of which contribute to the epidemic (3). Hospital discharge data from the 1999-2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were analyzed to describe U.S. national and state-specific trends in opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization. Nationally, the prevalence of opioid use disorder more than quadrupled during 1999-2014 (from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5; p<0.05). Increasing trends over time were observed in all 28 states with available data (p<0.05). In 2014, prevalence ranged from 0.7 in the District of Columbia (DC) to 48.6 in Vermont. Continued national, state, and provider efforts to prevent, monitor, and treat opioid use disorder among reproductive-aged and pregnant women are needed. Efforts might include improved access to data in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, increased substance abuse screening, use of medication-assisted therapy, and substance abuse treatment referrals.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Hospitalização , Registros Médicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Infect ; 76(6): 529-535, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2015-2016. To assist with planning for medical and supportive services for infants affected by prenatal ZIKV infection, we used a model to estimate the number of pregnant women infected with ZIKV and the number of infants with congenital microcephaly from August 2015 to August 2017. METHODS: We used nationally reported cases of symptomatic ZIKV disease among pregnant women and information from the literature on the percent of asymptomatic infections to estimate the number of pregnant women with ZIKV infection occurring August 2015-December 2016. We then estimated the number of infants with congenital microcephaly expected to occur August 2015-August 2017. To compare to the observed counts of infants with congenital microcephaly due to all causes reported through the national birth defects surveillance system, the model was time limited to produce estimates for February-November 2016. FINDINGS: We estimated 1140-2160 (interquartile range [IQR]) infants with congenital microcephaly in Colombia, during August 2015-August 2017, whereas 340-540 infants with congenital microcephaly would be expected in the absence of ZIKV. Based on the time limited version of the model, for February-November 2016, we estimated 650-1410 infants with congenital microcephaly in Colombia. The 95% uncertainty interval for the latter estimate encompasses the 476 infants with congenital microcephaly reported during that approximate time frame based on national birth defects surveillance. INTERPRETATION: Based on modeled estimates, ZIKV infection during pregnancy in Colombia could lead to 3-4 times as many infants with congenital microcephaly in 2015-2017 as would have been expected in the absence of the ZIKV outbreak. FUNDING: This publication was made possible through support provided by the Bureau for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development under the terms of an Interagency Agreement with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Estatísticos , Mães , Gravidez , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 72-78, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe the correlates of marijuana use during and after pregnancy, and to examine the independent relationship between prenatal marijuana use and infant outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We used state-specific data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (N = 9013) to describe correlates of self-reported prenatal and postpartum marijuana use. We estimated differences in mean infant birth weight and gestational age among prenatal marijuana users and nonusers, controlling for relevant covariates (i.e., cigarette smoking). RESULTS: Respectively, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8-4.7) and 6.8% (95% CI: 6.0-7.7) of women reported using marijuana during and after pregnancy. Compared to nonusers, prenatal marijuana users were more likely to be ≤24 years; non-Hispanic white, not married, have <12 years of education, have Medicaid/IHS/Other insurance, be on WIC during pregnancy, have annual household income <$20,000, cigarette smokers, and alcohol drinkers during pregnancy (p-values < 0.05). After adjustment, no differences in gestational age or birthweight were observed. Postpartum users were more likely to smoke cigarettes (48.7% vs. 20.3%), experience postpartum depressive symptoms (14.0% vs. 9.0%), and breastfeed for <8 weeks (34.9% vs. 18.1%). CONCLUSION: Co-use of substances was common among prenatal and postpartum marijuana users. Prenatal marijuana use was not independently associated with lower average birthweight or gestational age. Postpartum marijuana use was associated with depressive symptoms and shorter breastfeeding duration. Surveillance of marijuana use among pregnant and postpartum women is critical to better understanding the relationship of marijuana use with birth outcomes, and postpartum experiences such as depression and breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e016826, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2012, theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a national anti-smoking campaign, Tips from Former Smokers (Tips). As a result of the campaign, quit attempts among smokers increased in the general population by 3.7 percentage points. In the current study, we assessed the effects of Tips on smoking cessation in pregnant women. METHODS: We used 2009-2013 certificates of live births in three US states: Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio. Smoking cessation by the third trimester of pregnancy was examined among women who smoked in the 3 months prepregnancy. Campaign exposure was defined as overlap between the airing of Tips 2012 (March 19-June 10) and the prepregnancy and pregnancy periods. Women who delivered before Tips 2012 were not exposed. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine whether exposure to Tips was independently associated with smoking cessation. RESULTS: Cessation rates were stable during 2009-2011 but increased at the time Tips 2012 aired and remained elevated. Overall, 32.9% of unexposed and 34.7% of exposed smokers quit by the third trimester (p<0.001). Exposure to Tips 2012 was associated with increased cessation (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a national anti-smoking campaign for a general audience was associated with smoking cessation in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Gestantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Ohio/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fumar/tendências , Adulto Jovem
14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(6): 537-545, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are considered a potentially vulnerable population for Zika virus infection. However, data on paediatric Zika virus infection are sparse. METHODS: We analysed data from Colombia's national surveillance system during the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak on patients meeting the clinical case definition of Zika virus disease (ZVD) among children aged 1 month to 18 years to estimate incidence by demographic characteristics and characterize the occurrence of selected complications. RESULTS: Between August 14, 2015, and May 28, 2016, there were 18 576 reported cases of postnatal ZVD among children aged 1 month to 18 years. Laboratory testing was prioritized for high-risk patients (infants, pregnant women, adults aged ≥65 years, and persons with serious co-morbidities); among 1655 that were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 1207 (72.9%) were positive. The cumulative incidence of reported ZVD was 114.4 per 100 000. The incidence differed by sex, depending on age group; the largest difference was observed for 15-18 year olds, with females having a higher incidence than males (cumulative incidence ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3, 2.7). At the time of report to the surveillance system, 631 patients (3.4%) were hospitalised and 96 (0.5%) had a report of an accompanying neurological diagnosis, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in 40 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of reported paediatric ZVD cases in Colombia were hospitalized or had reported neurological conditions following ZVD. However, the potential for some serious outcomes demonstrates the importance of preventing Zika virus infection in children.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E41, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The US Surgeon General has concluded that e-cigarette aerosol is not harmless and can contain harmful and potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine. We assessed factors associated with adults' perceptions of harm related to children's exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs). METHODS: Data came from the 2015 Styles, an Internet panel survey of US adults aged 18 years or older (n = 4,127). Respondents were asked whether they believe aerosol from other people's EVPs causes children harm. Harm perceptions were assessed overall and by cigarette smoking, EVP use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess odds of perceived harm. RESULTS: Overall, 5.3% of adults responded that secondhand EVP exposure caused "no harm" to children, 39.9% responded "little harm" or "some harm," 21.5% responded "a lot of harm," and 33.3% responded "don't know." Odds of "no harm" response were greater among men than among women, current and former cigarette smokers than among never smokers, and current and former EVP users than among never users; odds were lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic other races than among non-Hispanic whites. Odds of responding "don't know" were greater among men, current cigarette smokers, and current and former EVP users; odds were lower among those aged 45 to 64 years than those aged 18 to 24 years and lower among non-Hispanic other races and Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSION: Two-fifths of US adults believe that children's exposure to secondhand EVP aerosol causes some or little harm, while one-third do not know whether it causes harm. Efforts are warranted to educate the public about the health risks of secondhand EVP aerosol, particularly for children.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(6): 153-158, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207685

RESUMO

Postpartum depression is common and associated with adverse infant and maternal outcomes (e.g., lower breastfeeding initiation and duration and poor maternal and infant bonding) (1-3). A developmental Healthy People 2020 objective is to decrease the proportion of women delivering a live birth who experience postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS).* To provide a baseline for this objective, CDC sought to describe self-reported PDS overall, by reporting state, and by selected sociodemographic factors, using 2004, 2008, and 2012 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). A decline in the prevalence of PDS was observed from 2004 (14.8%) to 2012 (9.8%) among 13 states with data for all three periods (p<0.01). Statistically significant (p<0.05) declines in PDS prevalence were observed for eight states, and no significant changes were observed for five states. In 2012, the overall PDS prevalence was 11.5% for 27 states and ranged from 8.0% (Georgia) to 20.1% (Arkansas). By selected characteristics, PDS prevalence was highest among new mothers who 1) were aged ≤19 years or 20-24 years, 2) were of American Indian/Alaska Native or Asian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity, 3) had ≤12 years of education, 4) were unmarried, 5) were postpartum smokers, 6) had three or more stressful life events in the year before birth, 7) gave birth to term, low-birthweight infants, and 8) had infants requiring neonatal intensive care unit admission at birth. Although the study did not investigate reasons for the decline, better recognition of risk factors for depression and improved screening and treatment before and during pregnancy, including increased use of antidepressants, might have contributed to the decline. However, more efforts are needed to reduce PDS prevalence in certain states and subpopulations of women. Ongoing surveillance and activities to promote appropriate screening, referral, and treatment are needed to reduce PDS among U.S. women.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(2): 144-148, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the effects of nondaily smoking or low-intensity daily smoking and infant outcomes. We examined the associations between preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) infants in relation to both nondaily and daily smoking. METHODS: We used population-based data on women who delivered live singleton infants using the 2009-11 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Women's smoking status in the last 3 months of pregnancy was categorised as nonsmokers, quitters, nondaily smokers (<1 cigarette/day), and daily smokers. Controlling for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, education, marital status, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), trimester of prenatal care entry, parity, and alcohol use, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the outcomes of preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation) and SGA. RESULTS: Of the 88 933 women, 13.1%, 1.7%, and 9.6% of the sample were quitters, nondaily smokers, and daily smokers, respectively, in the last 3 months of pregnancy. While nondaily smoking was not associated with preterm delivery, daily smoking was. However, we found no dose-response relationship with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Risk of delivering a SGA infant was increased for both nondaily and daily smokers (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8 and PR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9, 2.2 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nondaily smoking in the last 3 months of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of delivering a SGA infant. Pregnant women should be counselled that smoking, including nondaily and daily smoking, can adversely affect birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 19(7): 810-816, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986912

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to calculate the prevalence of pre-pregnancy nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day), risk factors, and report of prenatal provider smoking education; and assess the likelihood of prenatal cessation and postpartum relapse for nondaily smokers. Methods: We analyzed data from 2009 to 2011 among women with live-born infants participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We compared characteristics of pre-pregnancy daily smokers (≥1 cigarette/day), nondaily smokers, and nonsmokers (chi-square adjusted p < .025). Between nondaily and daily smokers, we compared proportions of prenatal cessation, postpartum relapse (average 4 months postpartum), and reported provider education. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for prenatal cessation among pre-pregnancy smokers (n = 27 360) and postpartum relapse among quitters (n = 13 577). Results: Nondaily smokers (11% of smokers) were more similar to nonsmokers and differed from daily smokers on characteristics examined (p ≤ .001 for all). Fewer nondaily smokers reported provider education than daily smokers (71.1%, 86.3%; p < .001). A higher proportion of nondaily compared to daily smokers quit during pregnancy (89.7%, 49.0%; p < .001), and a lower proportion relapsed postpartum (22.2%, 48.6%; p < .001). After adjustment, nondaily compared to daily smokers were more likely to quit (APR: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58-1.71) and less likely to relapse postpartum (APR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.48-0.62). Conclusions: Nondaily smokers were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy, less likely to relapse postpartum, and less likely to report provider education than daily smokers. Providers should educate all women, regardless of frequency of use, about the harms of tobacco during pregnancy, provide effective cessation interventions, and encourage women to be tobacco free postpartum and beyond. Implication: Nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day) is increasing among US smokers and carries a significant risk of disease. However, smoking patterns surrounding pregnancy among nondaily smokers are unknown. Using 2009-2011 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we found pre-pregnancy nondaily smokers compared to daily smokers were 65% more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy and almost half as likely to relapse postpartum. Providers should educate all women, regardless of frequency of use, about the harms of tobacco during pregnancy, provide effective cessation interventions, and encourage women to be tobacco free postpartum and beyond.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(49): 1409-1413, 2016 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27977645

RESUMO

In Colombia, approximately 105,000 suspected cases of Zika virus disease (diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, regardless of laboratory confirmation) were reported during August 9, 2015-November 12, 2016, including nearly 20,000 in pregnant women (1,2). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and serious congenital brain abnormalities and has been associated with other birth defects related to central nervous system damage (3). Colombia's Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) maintains national surveillance for birth defects, including microcephaly and other central nervous system defects. This report provides preliminary information on cases of congenital microcephaly identified in Colombia during epidemiologic weeks 5-45 (January 31-November 12) in 2016. During this period, 476 cases of microcephaly were reported, compared with 110 cases reported during the same period in 2015. The temporal association between reported Zika virus infections and the occurrence of microcephaly, with the peak number of reported microcephaly cases occurring approximately 24 weeks after the peak of the Zika virus disease outbreak, provides evidence suggesting that the period of highest risk is during the first trimester of pregnancy and early in the second trimester of pregnancy. Microcephaly prevalence increased more than fourfold overall during the study period, from 2.1 per 10,000 live births in 2015 to 9.6 in 2016. Ongoing population-based birth defects surveillance is essential for monitoring the impact of Zika virus infection during pregnancy on birth defects prevalence and measuring the success in preventing Zika virus infection and its consequences, including microcephaly.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 13: E175, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. METHODS: Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18-44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). RESULTS: Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). CONCLUSION: US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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