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1.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153610, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601398

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is recognized as systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It was demonstrated that a rapid increase of cytokines in the serum of COVID-19 patients is associated with the severity of disease. However, the mechanisms of the cytokine release are not clear. By using immunofluorescence staining we found that the number of CD11b positive immune cells including macrophages in the spleens of died COVID-19 patients, was significantly higher than that of the control patients. The incidence of apoptosis as measured by two apoptotic markers, TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3, in COVID-19 patients' spleen cells is higher than that in control patients. By double immunostaining CD11b or CD68 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, it was found that up to 67% of these immune cells were positive for spike protein, suggesting that viral infection might be associated with apoptosis in these cells. Besides, we also stained the autophagy-related molecules (p-Akt、p62 and BCL-2) in spleen tissues, the results showed that the number of positive cells was significantly higher in COVID-19 group. And compared with non-COVID-19 patients, autophagy may be inhibited in COVID-19 patients. Our research suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may result in a higher rate of apoptosis and a lower rate of autophagy of immune cells in the spleen of COVID-19 patients. These discoveries may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

2.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109813, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644565

RESUMO

A heterozygous missense mutation of the islet ß cell-enriched MAFA transcription factor (p.Ser64Phe [S64F]) is found in patients with adult-onset ß cell dysfunction (diabetes or insulinomatosis), with men more prone to diabetes than women. This mutation engenders increased stability to the unstable MAFA protein. Here, we develop a S64F MafA mouse model to determine how ß cell function is affected and find sex-dependent phenotypes. Heterozygous mutant males (MafAS64F/+) display impaired glucose tolerance, while females are slightly hypoglycemic with improved blood glucose clearance. Only MafAS64F/+ males show transiently higher MafA protein levels preceding glucose intolerance and sex-dependent changes to genes involved in Ca2+ signaling, DNA damage, aging, and senescence. MAFAS64F production in male human ß cells also accelerate cellular senescence and increase senescence-associated secretory proteins compared to cells expressing MAFAWT. These results implicate a conserved mechanism of accelerated islet aging and senescence in promoting diabetes in MAFAS64F carriers in a sex-biased manner.

3.
Psychol Methods ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647759

RESUMO

As a powerful tool for synthesizing information from multiple studies, meta-analysis has gained high popularity in many disciplines. Conclusions stemming from meta-analyses are often used to direct theory development, calibrate sample size planning, and guide critical decision-making and policymaking. However, meta-analyses can be conflicted, misleading, and irreproducible. One of the reasons for meta-analyses to be misleading is the improper handling of measurement unreliability. We show that even when there is no publication bias, the current meta-analysis procedures would frequently detect nonexistent effects, and provide severely biased estimates and intervals with coverage rates far below the intended level. In this study, an effective approach to correcting for unreliability is proposed and evaluated via simulation studies. Its sensitivity to the violation of the homogeneous reliability and residual correlation assumption is also tested. The proposed method is illustrated using a real meta-analysis on the relationship between extroversion and subjective well-being. Substantial differences in meta-analytic results are observed between the proposed method and existing methods. Further, although not specifically designed for aggregating effect sizes with various measures, the proposed method can be used to fulfill the purpose. The study ends with discussions on the limitations and guidelines for implementing the proposed approach. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637273

RESUMO

Broadening light absorption and improving charge carrier separation are very critical to boost the water splitting efficiency in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. We herein reported a heterostructured photoanode consisting of BiVO4 and eco-friendly, near-infrared (NIR) CuInSeS@ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) for PEC water oxidation. The decoration of core-shell QDs concurrently extends the absorption range of BiVO4 from the ultraviolet-visible to NIR region and promotes the effective separation and transfer of photo-excited electrons and holes. Without any sacrificial agents and co-catalysts, the as-fabricated NIR core-shell QDs/BiVO4 heterostructured photoanodes exhibit an approximately fourfold higher photocurrent density than that of the bare BiVO4, up to 3.17 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode. It is revealed that both a suitable band alignment and an intimate interfacial junction between QDs and BiVO4 are the main factors that result in enhanced charge separation and transfer efficiencies. We also highlight that the NIR CISeS QDs passivated with a ZnS shell can suppress the non-radiative recombination and enhance the stability of the QD photoanodes for optimized PEC performance. This work provides a facile and effective approach to boost the water oxidation efficiency of semiconductor photoanodes via utilizing NIR core-shell QDs as a light sensitizer and charge carrier separator.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639751

RESUMO

In previous studies, it has been documented that a short reproductive period is associated with a higher risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. This study aims to investigate the association of the reproductive period length with decreased renal function. This study obtained data from "the Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank". An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 indicated decreased renal function during follow-up. Participants were grouped into quintiles by reproductive period. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the reproductive period and decreased renal function. A total of 5503 menopausal women with baseline eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included. Age, eGFR, and metabolic equivalent of task (MET) at baseline were 61.0 (range, 36.0-74.0) years, 92.2 (range, 60.1-194.5) mL/min/1.73 m2, and 1386 (range, 160-6678), respectively. A reproductive period of 37-45 years was associated with a lower risk of decreased eGFR (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35-1.00, p = 0.049) after adjusting for confounding variables. METs decreased the risk of decreased eGFR in women with a reproductive period of 37-45 years (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.81, p = 0.010). Women with a longer reproductive period have a lower risk of decreased renal function. METs had an opposite influence on renal function in women with longer (decreased risk) or shorter (increased risk) reproductive periods.

6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(10): e00406, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608884

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stomach cancer is a serious global public health problem. The current burden of stomach cancer and its trends across time and location need to be understood to develop effective preventive strategies. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease study. The burden of stomach cancer and variations in time and geographical regions were assessed according to the age-standardized rate and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) of the incidence and mortality rate between 1991 and 2017. We also investigated the associations between the relevant rates and sociodemographic index (SDI). RESULTS: Overall, the age-standardized incidence rate (EAPC = -1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.47 to -1.25), age-standardized mortality rate (EAPC = -2.2, 95% CI: -2.29 to -2.12), and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years rate (EAPC = -2.52, 95% CI: -2.63 to -2.43) decreased worldwide from 1990 to 2017. This trend varied across different countries and regions and according to sex and age. SDI had a significant negative correlation with the age-standardized mortality rate (P < 0.01, r = -0.28) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years rate (P < 0.01, r = -0.31). Similar negative correlations were observed between SDI and the EAPC. DISCUSSION: The observed correlation between SDI and disease burden suggests that strategically implementing the screening and eradication of Helicobacter pylori, improving the medical level in countries with low SDI, and promoting the implementation of tobacco cessation policies would help reduce the disease burden of stomach cancer.

7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presentation with mild symptoms is a common reason for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) nonuse among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. We examined the impact of IVT on the outcomes of mild AIS over time. METHODS: Using the Paul Coverdell National Stroke Program data, we examined trends in IVT utilization from 2010 to 2019 among AIS patients presenting with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores ≤5. Outcomes adjudicated included rates of discharge to home and ability to ambulate independently at discharge. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the effect of IVT on outcomes of AIS patients presenting with mild symptoms and calculated adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During the study period, 346,762 patients presented with mild AIS symptoms. Approximately 6.2% were treated with IVT. IVT utilization trends increased from 3.7% in 2010 to 7.7% in 2019 (p < 0.001). Patients treated with IVT had higher median NIHSS scores upon presentation (IVT 3 [2, 4] vs. no IVT 2 [0, 3]). Rates of discharge to home (AOR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.99-2.13) and ability to ambulate at time of discharge (AOR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.76-1.89) were higher among those treated with IVT. CONCLUSION: There was an increased trend in IVT utilization among AIS patients presenting with mild symptoms. Utilization of IVT increased the odds of being discharged to home and the ability to ambulate at discharge independently in patients with mild stroke.

8.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490860

RESUMO

"Giant" core/shell quantum dots (g-QDs) are promising candidates for emerging optoelectronic technologies thanks to their facile structure/composition-tunable optoelectronic properties and outstanding photo-physical/chemical stability. Here, we synthesized a new type of CuInTeSe (CITS)/CdS g-QDs and regulated their optoelectronic properties by controlling the shell thickness. Through increasing the shell thickness, as-prepared g-QDs exhibited tunable red-shifted emission (from 900 to 1200 nm) and prolonged photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes (up to ∼14.0 µs), indicating a formed band structure showing efficient charge separation and transfer, which is further testified by theoretical calculations and ultrafast time-resolved transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. These CITS/CdS g-QDs with various shell thicknesses can be employed to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, exhibiting improved photoresponse and stability as compared to the bare CITS QD-based devices. The results indicate that the rational design and engineering of g-QDs is very promising for future QD-based optoelectronic technologies.

9.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478055

RESUMO

Unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy characterized by foci in the unilateral temporal lobe grey matters of regions such as the hippocampus. However, it remains unclear how the functional features of white matter are altered in TLE. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 71 left TLE (LTLE) patients, 79 right TLE (RTLE) patients and 47 healthy controls (HC). Clustering analysis was used to identify fourteen white matter networks (WMN). The functional connectivity (FC) was calculated among WMNs and between WMNs and grey matter. Furthermore, the FC laterality of hemispheric WMNs was assessed. First, both patient groups showed decreased FCs among WMNs. Specifically, cerebellar white matter illustrated decreased FCs with the cerebral superficial WMNs, implying a dysfunctional interaction between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex in TLE. Second, the FCs between WMNs and the ipsilateral hippocampus (grey matter foci) were also reduced in patient groups, which may suggest insufficient functional integration in unilateral TLE. Interestingly, RTLE showed more severe abnormalities of white matter FCs, including links to the bilateral hippocampi and temporal white matter, than LTLE. Taken together, these findings provide functional evidence of white matter abnormalities, extending the understanding of the pathological mechanism of white matter impairments in unilateral TLE.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492339

RESUMO

The oral cavity of each person is home to hundreds of bacterial species. While taxa for oral diseases have been studied using culture-based characterization as well as amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and genomic information remains scarce compared to the fecal microbiome. Here, using metagenomic shotgun data for 3346 oral metagenomics samples together with 808 published samples, we obtain 56,213 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), more than 64% of the 3589 species-level genome bins (SGBs) contained no publicly available genomes. The resulting genome collection is representative of samples around the world and containing many genomes from candidate phyla radiation (CPR) which lack monoculture. Also, it enables the discovery of new taxa such as a family Candidatus Bgiplasma within order Acholeplasmataceae. Large-scale metagenomic data from massive samples also allow the assembly of strains from important oral taxa such as Porphyromonas and Neisseria. The oral microbes encode genes that could potentially metabolize drugs. Apart from these findings, a strongly male-enriched Campylobacter species was identified. Oral samples would be more user-friendly collected than fecal samples and have the potential for disease diagnosis. Thus, these data lay down a genomic framework for future inquiries of the human oral microbiome.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 816-825, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534768

RESUMO

Introducing polymerizable monomers into a binary hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) template is a straightforward way for retaining the nanostructure but will decrease attractive intra- and inter- aggregate interactions. It is therefore crucial to understand the interfacial interactions at nanoscale after introducing the monomers but prior to polymerization. Herein, active species, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), were introduced into hexagonal LLC of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide and water to explore the structural variables, dimensional stability, and dynamic property. At a proper volume ratio of PEGDA/HEMA (1/4), the system presents excellent homogeneity with a higher dimensional stability and lower dynamic property from rheological assessments, thereby achieving robust, free-standing, and transparent membranes after photo-polymerization. The unique property of the system also lies in the much lower order-disorder transition temperature (45 °C) that facilitates the reorientation of mesochannels. They are in contrast inaccessible for the ternary system only with PEGDA, though the nanostructure for both systems could be retained. An insight into subtle variations in these parameters allows us to prepare a polymerizable template possessing higher dimensional stability and suitable flexibility via molecular design, thereby enabling simultaneous structural alignment and retention for the development of functional nanomaterials.

12.
Behav Res Methods ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590287

RESUMO

Growth mixture modeling is a common tool for longitudinal data analysis. One of the key assumptions of traditional growth mixture modeling is that repeated measures within each class are normally distributed. When this normality assumption is violated, traditional growth mixture modeling may provide misleading model estimation results and suffer from nonconvergence. In this article, we propose a robust approach to growth mixture modeling based on conditional medians and use Bayesian methods for model estimation and inferences. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of this approach. It is found that the new approach has a higher convergence rate and less biased parameter estimation than the traditional growth mixture modeling approach when data are skewed or have outliers. An empirical data analysis is also provided to illustrate how the proposed method can be applied in practice.

13.
Water Res ; 204: 117606, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500181

RESUMO

The epidemic of COVID-19 has aroused people's particular attention to biosafety. A growing number of disinfection products have been consumed during this period. However, the flaw of disinfection has not received enough attention, especially in water treatment processes. While cutting down the quantity of microorganisms, disinfection processes exert a considerable selection effect on bacteria and thus reshape the microbial community structure to a great extent, causing the problem of disinfection-residual-bacteria (DRB). These systematic and profound changes could lead to the shift in regrowth potential, bio fouling potential, as well as antibiotic resistance level and might cause a series of potential risks. In this review, we collected and summarized the data from the literature in recent 10 years about the microbial community structure shifting of natural water or wastewater in full-scale treatment plants caused by disinfection. Based on these data, typical DRB with the most reporting frequency after disinfection by chlorine-containing disinfectants, ozone disinfection, and ultraviolet disinfection were identified and summarized, which were the bacteria with a relative abundance of over 5% in the residual bacteria community and the bacteria with an increasing rate of relative abundance over 100% after disinfection. Furthermore, the phylogenic relationship and potential risks of these typical DRB were also analyzed. Twelve out of fifteen typical DRB genera contain pathogenic strains, and many were reported of great secretion ability. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter possess multiple disinfection resistance and could be considered as model bacteria in future studies of disinfection. We also discussed the growth, secretion, and antibiotic resistance characteristics of DRB, as well as possible control strategies. The DRB phenomenon is not limited to water treatment but also exists in the air and solid disinfection processes, which need more attention and more profound research, especially in the period of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bactérias , Desinfecção , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 349: 109662, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560070

RESUMO

As a widely used anticancer drug in the clinic, cisplatin has obvious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Previous studies have suggested that the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a hallmark of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ROS accumulation induced by cisplatin and 5-HT degradation. In vivo, by HE and TUNEL staining, we found that cisplatin-induced renal lesions and apoptotic regions, which were located in proximal tubular epithelial cells, were also the regions in which tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) were overexpressed, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Notably, the 5-HT2AR antagonist sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SH) and the AADC inhibitor carbidopa (CDP) significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, renal ROS levels, oxidative stress (SOD activity and MDA), proinflammatory cytokine levels (NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1ß), proapoptotic factor levels (Bax, Bcl-2, C-caspase 3 and C-caspase 9) and the phosphorylation of p38 and STAT3, as well as renal lesions and apoptosis. The combination of SH and CDP could almost abolish the effects of cisplatin challenge. In vitro, the effects of cisplatin challenge and the inhibitory effects of SH and CDP were also observed in HK-2 cells. Additionally, similar to the combination of SH and CDP, the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline could also abolish the effects of cisplatin challenge. More importantly, by western blotting, we detected that the upregulation of Tph1, AADC and MAO-A expression induced by cisplatin both in vivo and in vitro could be obviously suppressed by SH to decrease 5-HT synthesis and mitochondrial 5-HT degradation. Altogether, these findings suggested that cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is due to the activation of the 5-HT degradation system in proximal tubular epithelial cells, including 5-HT2AR and 5-HT synthesis and degradation. 5-HT2AR plays a role by mediating the expression of MAO-A and the 5-HT synthases Tph1 and AADC.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3106-3115, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467702

RESUMO

To obtain the difference of the fungal and bacterial community diversity between wild Cordyceps sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil, Illmina Hiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. The results show that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in C. sinensis, Actinobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in soil microhabitat, Ophiocordyceps sinensis was the predominant dominant fungus of C. sinensis. The α diversity analysis showed that the fungal diversity of stroma was lower than other parts, and the fungal diversity of wild C. sinensis was lower than that of artificial C. sinensis. The ß diversity analysis showed that the fungal and bacterial community diversity of soil microhabitat samples was significantly different from that of C. sinensis. The fungal community diversity was less different between wild and artificial C. sinensis, especially in sclerotia. LEfSe analysis showed a lot of species diversity between wild and artificial C. sinensis. Those different species between wild C. sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil provide ideas for further research on breed and components of C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Microbiota , Cordyceps/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499353

RESUMO

Serum hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) is associated with liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients. This study aimed to investigate whether anti-HBc could serve as a predictor of significant liver inflammation in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and detectable HBV DNA. Treatment-naïve HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infected patients with normal ALT and detectable HBV DNA who underwent liver biopsy were retrospectively included from two medical centers. Liver inflammation grade was evaluated using the Scheuer scoring system and significant liver inflammation was defined as ≥G2. Serum anti-HBc levels were measured by commercial immunoassays (Abbott GmbH & Co. KG). A total of 117 patients were included and 50 (42.7%) patients showed significant liver inflammation. Serum anti-HBc levels in patients with significant liver inflammation were significantly higher than patients with no or mild liver inflammation (

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149937, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525686

RESUMO

The accurate simulation of stomatal conductance is crucial for not only revealing the carbon and water cycle processes of an ecosystem, but also to improve the accuracy of simulations of evapotranspiration (ET). This study coupled three stomatal conductance models, i.e. the Stannard (ST), Jarvis-Stewart (JS), and Ball-Berry (BB) models, with the Shuttleworth-Wallace (SW) model to estimate ET for a mobile dune ecosystem in the Horqin Sandy Land, North China. These models were calibrated and validated using eddy covariance (EC) measurements taken during the growing season between 2013 and 2018. The results indicated that the SW-BB model showed better performance in comparison to the SW-JS and SW-ST models at half-hourly and daily timescales. The stomatal conductance models incorporating soil moisture (SM) content generally showed better performance during the extreme drought period, with the rank of the three models according to performance being: SW-BB > SW-JS > SW-ST. The models showed the highest sensitivity to SM when incorporating the effect of SM on stomatal conductance, indicating that SM has an important effect on stomatal conductance and ET. The results of this study indicate that of the models assessed, the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model coupled with the SW model is optimal for estimating ET in dune ecosystems with sparse vegetation.

18.
Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433630

RESUMO

Free fatty acids (FFAs) are often stored in lipid droplet (LD) depots for eventual metabolic and/or synthetic use in many cell types, such a muscle, liver, and fat. In pancreatic islets, overt LD accumulation was detected in humans but not mice. LD buildup in islets was principally observed after roughly 11 years of age, increasing throughout adulthood under physiologic conditions, and also enriched in type 2 diabetes. To obtain insight into the role of LDs in human islet ß cell function, the levels of a key LD scaffold protein, perilipin2 (PLIN2), were manipulated by lentiviral-mediated knock-down (KD) or over-expression (OE) in EndoCßH2-Cre cells, a human cell line with adult islet ß-like properties. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was blunted in PLIN2KD cells and improved in PLIN2OE cells. An unbiased transcriptomic analysis revealed that limiting LD formation induced effectors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that compromised the expression of critical ß cell function and identity genes. These changes were essentially reversed by PLIN2OE or using the ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid. These results strongly suggest that LDs are essential for adult human islet ß cell activity by preserving FFA homeostasis.

19.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(8): 716-726, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391676

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota is less complex than the gut microbiota, and the colonization of Lactobacillus in the female vagina is considered to be critical for reproductive health. Oral probiotics have been suggested as promising means to modulate vaginal homeostasis in the general population. In this study, 60 Chinese women were followed for over a year before, during, and after treatment with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillusreuteri RC-14. Shotgun metagenomic data of 1334 samples from multiple body sites did not support a colonization route of the probiotics from the oral cavity to the intestinal tract and then to the vagina. Our analyses enable the classification of the cervicovaginal microbiome into a stable state and a state of dysbiosis. The microbiome in the stable group steadily maintained a relatively high abundance of Lactobacilli over one year, which was not affected by probiotic intake, whereas in the dysbiosis group, the microbiota was more diverse and changed markedly over time. Data from a subset of the dysbiosis group suggests this subgroup possibly benefited from supplementation with the probiotics, indicating that probiotics supplementation can be prescribed for women in a subclinical microbiome setting of dysbiosis, providing opportunities for targeted and personalized microbiome reconstitution.

20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E82, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies documented significant reductions in emergency department visits and hospitalizations for acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic. A limited number of studies assessed the adherence to stroke performance measures during the pandemic. We examined rates of stroke hospitalization and adherence to stroke quality-of-care measures before and during the early phase of pandemic. METHODS: We identified hospitalizations with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke or transient ischemic attack among 406 hospitals who contributed data to the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program. We used 10 performance measures to examine the effect of the pandemic on stroke quality of care. We compared data from 2 periods: pre-COVID-19 (week 11-24 in 2019) and COVID-19 (week 11-24 in 2020). We used χ2 tests for differences in categorical variables and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank test or Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables. RESULTS: We identified 64,461 hospitalizations. We observed a 20.2% reduction in stroke hospitalizations (from 35,851 to 28,610) from the pre-COVID-19 period to the COVID-19 period. Hospitalizations among patients aged 85 or older, women, and non-Hispanic White patients declined the most. A greater percentage of patients aged 18 to 64 were hospitalized with ischemic stroke during COVID-19 than during pre-COVID-19 (34.4% vs 32.5%, P < .001). Stroke severity was higher during COVID-19 than during pre-COVID-19 for both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, and in-hospital death among patients with ischemic stroke increased from 4.3% to 5.0% (P = .003) during the study period. We found no differences in rates of receiving care across stroke type during the study period. CONCLUSION: Despite a significant reduction in stroke hospitalizations, more severe stroke among hospitalized patients, and an increase in in-hospital death during the pandemic period, we found no differences in adherence to quality of stroke care measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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