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1.
Mater Today Bio ; 12: 100156, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825160

RESUMO

The cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) is essential for transfusion therapy and maintaining the inventory of RBCs units. The existing cryoprotectants (CPAs) have many defects, and the search for novel CPAs is becoming a research hotspot. Sodium hyaluronate (SH) is polymerized from sodium glucuronate and N-acetylglucosamine, which has good water binding capacity and biocompatibility. Herein, we reported for the first time that under the action of medium molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (MSH), the thawed RBCs recovery increased from 33.1 â€‹± â€‹5.8% to 63.2 â€‹± â€‹3.5%. In addition, RBCs functions and properties were maintained normally, and the residual MSH could be removed by direct washing. When MSH was used with a very low concentration (5% v/v) of glycerol (Gly), the thawed RBCs recovery could be increased to 92.3 â€‹± â€‹4.6%. In general, 40% v/v Gly was required to achieve similar efficiency. A mathematical model was used to compare the performance of MSH, PVA and trehalose in cryopreservation, and MSH showed the best efficiency. It was found that MSH could periodically regulate the content of intracellular water through the "reservoir effect" to reduce the damages during freezing and thawing. Moreover, MSH could inhibit ice recrystallization when combined with RBCs. The high viscosity and strong water binding capacity of MSH was also conducive to reducing the content of ice. This works points out a new direction for cryopreservation of RBCs and may promote transfusion therapy in clinic.

2.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132465, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624343

RESUMO

Biofilm adhesion to the surface of a carrier plays an essential role during biofilm formation. Quorum quenching (QQ) has been shown to have great potential for delaying biofouling. However, little is known about whether QQ reduces the adhesion strength of biofilms during the formation process to inhibit biomass accumulation. In this study, we explored the effect of enzymatic QQ on the adhesion strength during biofilm development. In addition, a quantitative method was used to measure the adhesion strength of biofilms based on the shear force of water flow. Experimental results showed that QQ enzyme could reduce the adhesion strength of biofilms by at least 37% compared with the control. Furthermore, the biofilm accumulation rates were 0.05673 and 0.08762 h-1 with and without the QQ enzyme, illustrating a negative effect of QQ enzyme on biofilm accumulation. Specifically, QQ was confirmed to reduce extracellular polymeric substances, decrease the relative hydrophobicity, change the zeta potential by degrading signal molecules, and weaken the adhesion strength of biofilms. The successful reduction of the adhesion strength of the biofilm through QQ could provide a new strategy for the management and regulation of biofilm adhesion in the bioreactor.

3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 889-895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization and neonatal early-onset GBS disease (GBS-EOD), and to study the factors associated with the development of GBS-EOD in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. METHODS: A total of 16 384 pregnant women and 16 634 neonates delivered by them were enrolled prospectively who had medical records in Xiamen Maternal and Child Care Hospital, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Capital Medical University, and Zhangzhou Zhengxing Hospital from May 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. Unified GBS screening time, culture method, and indication for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) were adopted in the three hospitals. The incidence rates of maternal GBS colonization and neonatal GBS-EOD were investigated. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with the development of GBS-EOD in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. RESULTS: In these three hospitals, the positive rate of GBS culture among the pregnant women in late pregnancy was 11.29% (1 850/16 384), and the incidence rate of neonatal GBS-EOD was 0.96‰ (16/16 634). The admission rate of live infants born to the GBS-positive pregnant women was higher than that of those born to the GBS-negative ones (P<0.05). The live infants born to the GBS-positive pregnant women had a higher incidence rate of GBS-EOD than those born to the GBS-negative ones [6.38‰ (12/1 881) vs 0.27‰ (4/14 725), P<0.05]. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that placental swabs positive for GBS and positive GBS in neonatal gastric juice at birth were independent predictive factors for the development of GBS-EOD (P<0.05), while adequate IAP was a protective factor (P<0.05) in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. CONCLUSIONS: GBS colonization of pregnant women in late pregnancy has adverse effects on their offspring. It is important to determine prenatal GBS colonization status of pregnant women and administer with adequate IAP based on the indications of IAP to reduce the incidence of neonatal GBS-EOD. Citation.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Placenta , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(35): 19627-19635, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524282

RESUMO

Layered biaxial hyperbolic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) with weak van der Waals (vdW) interlayer bonding recently received extensive attention due to its anisotropic dielectric response to infrared (IR) radiation, which couples to the lattice vibrations and allows for manipulating the radiative energy transport. However, the understanding of IR-active phonon modes and dielectric function of it has not yet been fully achieved. Here, by utilizing mode-level first-principles analysis based on density functional theory (DFT), the phonon modes contributing to the IR dielectric response of α-MoO3 are fully determined. The anisotropic IR-active modes are identified from lattice vibration analysis, allowing for a clear evaluation of the IR absorption contribution from the weak or strong IR phonon modes. By further employing anharmonic-lattice dynamics calculations, the damping of the corresponding IR modes is directly obtained. This approach enables predictions of IR optical properties without any fitting or assumed parameters. Our predictions bridge the scientific gap of comprehensively understanding the unreported IR-active phonon modes of α-MoO3 and overall agree well with available experimental data, placing our DFT-based method at a privileged stage for accurately predicting the IR optical properties of α-MoO3. These comprehensive understandings of the IR phonons and dielectric properties of α-MoO3 pave the way for nanophotonic devices with tunable functionalities and enable design of α-MoO3 for advanced optical devices.

5.
Gland Surg ; 10(6): 2054-2061, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268090

RESUMO

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) is a rare benign tumor of low malignant potential. It is thought to be the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumors of the bone due to its pathological resemblances. GCT-ST is most commonly found in superficial soft tissue of thigh, trunk and upper extremities. The head and neck region is rarely affected. Here for the first time, we describe a case of GCT-ST in the thyroid region. A 70-year-old female patient presented with a painless swelling in her left neck for the previous three weeks. The condition was initially diagnosed as thyroid goiter and left lobectomy was arranged. Intraoperative findings showed an irregular mass invading the strap muscles and trachea. Complete tumor resection was difficult, and part of the tumor was left in the thyroid bed. Histopathology of the resected specimen showed a mixture of mononuclear round to oval cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. The giant cells were CD 68 positive. The patient received a revision surgery 3 months after the first operation to achieve complete resection. There was no recurrence in the first 3-month follow-up. However, 6 months after the revision surgery, the tumor recurred on both sides of the neck. The patient suffered from dysphagia and breathlessness. As further surgery and radiation therapy were not considered, denosumab was used as a novel agent After three months of treatment, the patient showed symptom-relief and tumor-regression. The patient continued to have tumor-regression after 1 year of the denosumab treatment. GCT-ST is a benign tumor, although in this case, it was showing features of malignancy. A review of the literature was conducted to identify previous studies on GCT-ST in the head and neck. We present this case for its rare location and novel treatment with denosumab.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200798

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in gallinaceous poultry are associated with viral infection of the endothelium, the induction of a 'cytokine storm, and severe disease. In contrast, in Pekin ducks, HPAIVs are rarely endothelial tropic, and a cytokine storm is not observed. To date, understanding these species-dependent differences in pathogenesis has been hampered by the absence of a pure culture of duck and chicken endothelial cells. Here, we use our recently established in vitro cultures of duck and chicken aortic endothelial cells to investigate species-dependent differences in the response of endothelial cells to HPAIV H5N1 infection. We demonstrate that chicken and duck endothelial cells display a different transcriptional response to HPAI H5N1 infection in vitro-with chickens displaying a more pro-inflammatory response to infection. As similar observations were recorded following in vitro stimulation with the viral mimetic polyI:C, these findings were not specific to an HPAIV H5N1 infection. However, similar species-dependent differences in the transcriptional response to polyI:C were not observed in avian fibroblasts. Taken together, these data demonstrate that chicken and duck endothelial cells display a different response to HPAIV H5N1 infection, and this may help account for the species-dependent differences observed in inflammation in vivo.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Patos/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Patos/virologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
7.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5042-5054, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216102

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) to respiratory viral infections. Despite the short history of COVID-19, various studies have shown that patients with DM are more likely to have increased hospitalisation and mortality rates as compared to patients without. At present, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unclear. However, prior studies show that the course of COVID-19 disease is linked to the efficacy of the host's T-cell responses. Healthy individuals who can elicit a robust T-cell response are more likely to limit the severity of COVID-19. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that an impaired T-cell response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drives the severity of COVID-19 in this patient population. While there is currently a limited amount of information that specifically addresses T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM, there is a wealth of evidence from other infectious diseases that T-cell immunity is impaired in patients with T2DM. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including the presence of hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability and metformin use. This review emphasises the need for further research into T-cell responses of COVID-19 patients with T2DM in order to better inform our response to COVID-19 and future disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Hiperglicemia/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/virologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T/virologia
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): e2101624, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291609

RESUMO

While graphene grain boundaries (GBs) are well characterized experimentally, their influence on transport properties is less understood. As revealed here, phononic thermal transport is vulnerable to GBs even when they are ultra-narrow and aligned along the temperature gradient direction. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations uncover large reductions in the phononic thermal conductivity (κp ) along linear GBs comprising periodically repeating pentagon-heptagon dislocations. Green's function calculations and spectral energy density analysis indicate that the origin of the κp reduction is hidden in the periodic GB strain field, which behaves as a reflective diffraction grating with either diffuse or specular phonon reflections, and represents a source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. The non-monotonic dependence with dislocation density of κp uncovered here is unaccounted for by the classical Klemens theory. It can help identify GB structures that can best preserve the integrity of the phononic transport.

9.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4351-4356, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979160

RESUMO

Monolayer molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) is an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material with high electrical conductivity but unexplored thermal conductivity. Using first-principles calculations and a Boltzmann transport theoretical framework, we predict a record low room-temperature phonon thermal conductivity (κp) of 1.57 and 1.26 W/mK along the principal in-plane directions of the MoO3 monolayer. The behavior is attributed to the combination of soft flexural and in-plane acoustic modes, which are coupled through the finite layer thickness, and to the strong bonding anharmonicity, which gives rise to significant 3- and 4-phonon scattering. These insights suggest new indicators for guiding the search of 2D materials with low κp and motivates κp measurements in MoO3 and its applications as a thermoelectric and thermally protective material.

10.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1055-1065.e5, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945786

RESUMO

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7+ COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. In vitro peptide stimulation and crystal structure analyses revealed T cell-mediated cross-reactivity toward circulating OC43 and HKU-1 betacoronaviruses but not 229E or NL63 alphacoronaviruses because of different peptide conformations. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing indicated that cross-reactivity was driven by private TCR repertoires with a bias for TRBV27 and a long CDR3ß loop. Our findings demonstrate the basis of selective T cell cross-reactivity for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 epitope and its homologs from seasonal coronaviruses, suggesting long-lasting protective immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/química , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-B7/química , Antígeno HLA-B7/genética , Antígeno HLA-B7/imunologia , Humanos , Epitopos Imunodominantes/química , Memória Imunológica , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(9): e2000747, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644938

RESUMO

Polyion complex (PIC) hydrogels attract lots of studies because of the relatively definite network and excellent mechanical strength. However, the stability of the PIC hydrogel is poor in salt solutions due to the counter-ion screening effect, which restricts their applications. Besides, novel functions of the PIC hydrogels also need to be explored. In this work, a multifunctional PIC hydrogel is prepared by polymerizing a hydrophobic monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate in poly(styrene sulfonic acid) aqueous solution with the presence of counter-ion NaCl. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, water content, and mechanical properties of the hydrogel are investigated. The introduction of hydrophobic weak electrolyte into the hydrogel brings stable excellent mechanical strength even in NaCl solutions with high concentration and pH modulated softening and strengthening. Surprisingly, the hydrogel swells but is strengthened in HCl, while it shrinks but is softened in NaOH. pH induced shape memory and unique spontaneous shape changing is thus presented benefiting from this synergistic effect. Moreover, information encryption is realized on the PIC hydrogel owing to the transmittance change and the different water absorption capability of the hydrogel at different states. This new kind of PIC hydrogel proposes a new smart material in continuously actuating soft machines and secretive information transformation.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Metacrilatos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Íons
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145735, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640544

RESUMO

Odor emissions from intensive livestock farms have attracted increased attention due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Nevertheless, a systematic summary regarding the characteristics, sampling detection, and control technology for odor emissions from livestock farms is currently lacking. This paper compares the development of odor standards in different countries and summarizes the odor emission characteristics of livestock farms. Ammonia, the most common odor substance, can reach as high as 4100 ppm in the compost area. Sampling methods for point and area source odor emissions are introduced in this paper, and odor analysis methods are compared. Olfactometers, odorometers, and the triangle odor bag method are usually used to measure odor concentration. Odor control technologies are divided into three categories: physical (activated carbon adsorption, masking, and dilution diffusion), chemical (plant extract spraying, wet scrubbing, combustion, non-thermal plasma, and photocatalytic oxidation), and biological (biofiltration, biotrickling, and bioscrubbing). Each technology is elucidated, and the performance in the removal of different pollutants is summarized. The application scopes, costs, operational stability, and secondary pollution of the technologies are compared. The generation of secondary pollution and long-term operation stability are issues that should be considered in future technological development. Lastly, a case analysis for engineering application is conducted.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Odorantes , Amônia , Animais , Fazendas , Humanos , Gado
13.
Soft Matter ; 17(11): 3222-3233, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624665

RESUMO

The gelation of a hydrophobically modified hyaluronic acid aqueous solution which shows a lower critical solution temperature of about 25 °C was investigated by multi-particle tracking microrheology. The linear viscoelasticity of the gelling system is converted from the microrheological data. The critical gelling temperature Tgel = 36.3 °C was determined from the loss tangent by the Winter-Chambon criterion. The critical exponent n = 0.62 was determined from the shift factors of the time-cure superposition. The length scales of the dynamic heterogeneity of the gelling system were analyzed using a proposed framework where single-particle and multi-particle non-Gaussian parameters were compared. The length scale of the dynamic heterogeneous regions monotonically decreases during the gelation process, consistent with the nucleation-and-growth mechanism of phase separation. Distributions of local viscosity in the gelling system were extracted from the observed distributions of particle displacement as a time-dependent fingerprint of the dynamic heterogeneity of the gelling system. The results and analyzing methods proposed in the present work can be applied to other microrheological studies.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(1): 120-132, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000173

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), and T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) are considered major immune co-inhibitory receptors (CIRs) and the most promising immunotherapeutic targets in cancer treatment, but they are largely unexplored in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide the first evidence regarding the expression profiles and clinical significance of CIRs in a large cohort of MTC patients. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: In total, 200 MTC patients who received initial surgery in our hospital were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate CIR expressions in tissue microarrays (TMAs). Combined with the results of our previous programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) study, clinicopathologic and prognostic correlations of these proteins were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: TIM-3, PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, and TIGIT positivity was detected in 96 (48.0%), 27 (13.5%), 25 (12.5%), 6 (3.0%), and 6 (3.0%) patients, respectively, in whom TIM-3, PD-1, and CTLA-4 expressions were positively correlated. Log-rank tests and multivariate Cox analyses both indicated that TIM-3, CTLA-4 expression, and PD-1/PD-L1 coexpression were associated with worse structural recurrence-free survival. In addition, among 20 patients who developed advanced disease during follow-up, 12 (60%) showed TIM-3 positivity, among whom 6 cases also had concurrent moderate to strong PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Using the currently largest TMA cohort of this rare cancer, we delineated the CIR expression profiles in MTC, and identified TIM-3, CTLA-4 expression, and PD-1/PD-L1 coexpression as promising biomarkers for tumor recurrence. Furthermore, a subset of advanced MTCs are probably immunogenic, for which single or combined immunotherapy including TIM-3, PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4 blockade may be potential therapeutic approaches in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Antígeno CTLA-4/análise , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/análise , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/análise , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/análise , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Virol Sin ; 36(2): 231-240, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767210

RESUMO

During virus infection, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) recognize viral RNAs and recruit the adaptor protein VISA to activate downstream signaling, leading to activation of transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs further induce expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that suppress viral replication and facilitate the adaptive immune response. Dysregulated production of IFNs is implicated in various immune diseases. Here we identified Signal Recognition Particle 54 (SRP54) as a negative regulator of RLRs-induced antiviral signaling. Overexpression of SRP54 inhibited RNA virus-triggered induction of IFN-ß and increased viral replication, whereas knockdown of SRP54 had opposite effects. Mechanistically, SRP54 interacted with both RIG-I and MDA5 and impaired their association with VISA. Our findings demonstrate that SRP54 acts as a negative regulator of RLRs-mediated innate immune response by disrupting the recruitment of VISA to RIG-I/MDA5.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Interferon beta , Antivirais , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal
16.
Nutr Cancer ; 73(4): 541-561, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393071

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) supplements for chemoprevention of different types of cancer including lung cancer has been investigated in recent years. ω-3 PUFAs are considered immunonutrients, commonly used in the nutritional therapy of cancer patients. ω-3 PUFAs play essential roles in cell signaling and in cell structure and fluidity of membranes. They participate in the resolution of inflammation and have anti-inflammatory effects. Lung cancer patients suffer complications, such as anorexia-cachexia syndrome, pain and depression. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) 2017 guidelines for cancer patients only discuss the use of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer-cachexia treatment, leaving aside other cancer-related complications that could potentially be managed by ω-3 PUFAs. This review aims to elucidate whether the effects of ω-3 PUFAs in lung cancer is supplementary, pharmacological or both. In addition, clinical studies, evidence in cell lines and animal models suggest how ω-3 PUFAs induce anticancer effects. ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolites are suggested to modulate pivotal pathways underlying the progression or complications of lung cancer, indicating that this is a promising field to be explored. Further investigation is still required to analyze the benefits of ω-3 PUFAs as supplementation or pharmacological treatment in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1146-e1153, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283240

RESUMO

The role of children in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains highly controversial. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the published literature on household SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters (n = 213 from 12 countries). Only 8 (3.8%) transmission clusters were identified as having a pediatric index case. Asymptomatic index cases were associated with a lower secondary attack in contacts than symptomatic index cases (estimate risk ratio [RR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.29). To determine the susceptibility of children to household infections the secondary attack rate in pediatric household contacts was assessed. The secondary attack rate in pediatric household contacts was lower than in adult household contacts (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91). These data have important implications for the ongoing management of the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential vaccine prioritization strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
18.
Oral Oncol ; 115: 105092, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189578

RESUMO

Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), or secretory carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare disease harboring ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion with TRK activation. Here we report the twelfth case of MASC of the thyroid worldwide. A 36-year-old female was diagnosed with poor-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Pathology consultant and immunochemical workups showed the tumor cells were negative for TTF1, TG, PAX8, positive for S100, Vimentin, GATA-3, and focally positive for mammaglobin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using a dual-color break-apart probe showed ETV6 translocation t(12p13) (ETV6) was present and established the diagnosis of MASC. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a 47-gene panel identified exon 1-5 of ETV6 gene were fused with exons 15-19 of NTRK3 gene. The patient experienced three loco-regional recurrences within 12 months and eventually developed inoperable local disease as well as bilateral lung metastasis. She is currently receiving anti-TRK treatment with a follow-up time of 33 months. A literature review of MASC in the thyroid was also conducted.

19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(11): 1419-1430, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320799

RESUMO

Rationale: Pulmonary endothelial permeability contributes to the high-permeability pulmonary edema that characterizes acute respiratory distress syndrome. Circulating BMP9 (bone morphogenetic protein 9) is emerging as an important regulator of pulmonary vascular homeostasis. Objectives:To determine whether endogenous BMP9 plays a role in preserving pulmonary endothelial integrity and whether loss of endogenous BMP9 occurs during LPS challenge. Methods: A BMP9-neutralizing antibody was administrated to healthy adult mice, and lung vasculature was examined. Potential mechanisms were delineated by transcript analysis in human lung endothelial cells. The impact of BMP9 administration was evaluated in a murine acute lung injury model induced by inhaled LPS. Levels of BMP9 were measured in plasma from patients with sepsis and from endotoxemic mice. Measurements and Main Results: Subacute neutralization of endogenous BMP9 in mice (N = 12) resulted in increased lung vascular permeability (P = 0.022), interstitial edema (P = 0.0047), and neutrophil extravasation (P = 0.029) compared with IgG control treatment (N = 6). In pulmonary endothelial cells, BMP9 regulated transcriptome pathways implicated in vascular permeability and cell-membrane integrity. Augmentation of BMP9 signaling in mice (N = 8) prevented inhaled LPS-induced lung injury (P = 0.0027) and edema (P < 0.0001). In endotoxemic mice (N = 12), endogenous circulating BMP9 concentrations were markedly reduced, the causes of which include a transient reduction in hepatic BMP9 mRNA expression and increased elastase activity in plasma. In human patients with sepsis (N = 10), circulating concentratons of BMP9 were also markedly reduced (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Endogenous circulating BMP9 is a pulmonary endothelial-protective factor, downregulated during inflammation. Exogenous BMP9 offers a potential therapy to prevent increased pulmonary endothelial permeability in lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Endotélio/patologia , Endotoxemia/sangue , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/etiologia , Endotoxemia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Edema Pulmonar/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/patologia
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(41): 46701-46709, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960035

RESUMO

Shape memory hydrogels have been paid plenty of attention as a kind of intelligent soft material. However, complicated preparation and slow and uncontrollable shape change have hindered their applications in smart actuators. In this work, a temperature-responsive strong hydrogel was prepared by a facial soaking method without any chemical reactions, i.e., soaking gelatin hydrogel in aqueous tannic acid solution. The hydrogel was constructed by hydrogen bonding between gelatin and tannic acid beside the triple helix of gelatin chains without any chemical cross-linkers. The hydrogel showed ultrafast shape memory and body-temperature response. The hydrogel can be fixed in temporary shape in only 1 s at 25 °C and recover to the original shape in also 1 s at 37 °C, superior to the reported shape memory hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel shape change can be programmed by fixing the temperature, and the designed shape is achieved stepwise by adjusting the recovery temperature. In addition, the hydrogel is stable in water without further swelling. These excellent features will initiate new prosperity of the shape memory hydrogel in biomedical technology, underwater actuators, and soft robots.

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