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1.
World J Urol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the benefit-risk ratio on the efficacy and safety of all phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in men with erectile dysfunction. METHODS: A systematic review with network meta-analysis, surface under the cumulative ranking analysis and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analyses were performed. Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science without limits for time-frame or language. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy or safety of any PDE5i compared to a placebo or to other PDE5i in males with erectile disfunction were included. RESULTS: Overall, 184 articles representing 179 randomized controlled trials (50,620 patients) were included. All PDE5i were significantly more efficient than placebo. Sildenafil 25 mg was statistically superior to all interventions in enhancing IIEF (with a 98% probability of being the most effective treatment), followed by sildenafil 50 mg (80% of probability). Taladafil 10 mg and 20 mg also presented good profiles (73% and 76%, respectively). Avanafil and lodenafil were less effective interventions. Mirodenafil 150 mg was the treatment that caused more adverse events, especially flushing and headaches. Sildenafil 100 mg was more related to visual disorders, while vardenafil and udenafil were more prone to cause nasal congestion. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil at low doses and tadalafil should be the first therapeutic options. Avanafil, lodenafil and mirodenafil use are hardly justified given the lack of expressive efficacy or high rates of adverse events.

2.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal meta-analyses with misleading conclusions are frequently published in the health areas, and they can compromise decision making in clinical practice. Aimofthereview: This systematic review aimed to map the characteristics of published meta-analyses of pharmacy services and their association with the study conclusions. METHOD: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify published meta-analyses of pharmacy services up to January 2019. Components of meta-analyses were extracted (i.e. studies' metadata; methods used in the systematic review; description of the statistical model used for the meta-analysis; main results; conflict of interest and funding source). The methodological quality was evaluated using the R-AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: A total of 85 meta-analyses were included, with 2016 as the median publication year. Overall, the methodological quality of meta-analyses of pharmacy services was considered suboptimal. Only one-third of authors registered a protocol; complete search strategy and raw data were provided by 55.3% and 9.4% of studies, respectively. Evidence strength (GRADE) was evaluated in only 19.2% of studies. PRISMA and Cochrane recommendations were stated to be followed in 60% and 27.4% of articles, respectively. Around half of studies performed sensitivity analysis, however, the prediction interval was presented by only one meta-analysis. Studies that favoured the pharmacists' interventions poorly discussed the methodological quality and heterogeneity of primary trials. CONCLUSION: Poor conduction and reporting were observed in meta-analyses of pharmacy services, especially in those that favoured the pharmacist's interventions. Reproducibility and transparency should be rigorously ensured by journal editors and peer-reviewers.

3.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397744

RESUMO

An observational retrospective study was conducted over a 5-year period to assess survival and predictors of death in people with HIV-positive serology undergoing antiretroviral treatment with first-line regimens at the Military Hospital of Nampula, Mozambique. We collected data from 332 patient records. Kaplan-Meier boundary product estimator, log-rank, Gehan-Breslow, Tarone-Ware, time-dependent Cox models and estimates of hazard ratios (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Meantime survival for females and males was 54.8 months [95% CI 50.32-55.40] and 49.7 months [95% CI 45.89-53.53], respectively. Cox regressions indicated higher death rates significantly or potentially associated with: male sex (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.7-2.39]); suspected diagnosis reported only by the physician (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.8-7.4]); disease stages III (HR=1.2 [95% CI 0.3-3.6]) or IV (HR 1.4 [95% CI 0.4-5.8]); first TCD4+ lymphocyte count lower than 350 cells per ml (HR = 3.2; [95% CI 0.9-11.2]) or between 350-500 cells per ml (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.3-5.8]); or do not present cells count (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.2-10.2]). The above variables were significant for HIV prognosis and as predictors of death and should be considered in the clinical care of these patients.

4.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-5654

RESUMO

Peer review provides the foundation for the scholarly publishing system. The conventional peer review system consists of using authors of articles as reviewers for other colleagues' manuscripts in a collaborative-basis system. However, authors complain about a theoretical overwhelming number of invitations to peer review. It seems that authors feel that they are invited to review many more manuscripts than they should when taking into account their participation in the scholarly publishing system. The high number of scientific journals and the existence of predatory journals were reported as potential causes of this excessive number of reviews required. In this editorial, we demonstrate that the number of reviewers required to publish a given number of articles depends exclusively on the journals' rejection rate and the number of reviewers intended per manuscript. Several initiatives to overcome the peer review crises are suggested


No disponible

5.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043906

RESUMO

Aim: Toenail fungal infections account for half of all nail disease cases, and a highly negative impact on patient quality of life. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of commercially available oral antifungals for onychomycosis.Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of oral antifungals on mycological cure, discontinuation and adverse events were included. Network meta-analyses were built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrI). Ranking probabilities were calculated by surface under the cumulative ranking analysis (SUCRA).Results: We included 40 trials (n = 9568). Albaconazole 400 mg (OR 0.02 [95% CrI 0.01-0.07] versus placebo), followed by posaconazole 200-400 mg and terbinafine 250-350 mg were considered the best therapies (SUCRA probabilities over 75%). For the networks of discontinuation and individual adverse events, few significant differences among treatments were observed, but itraconazole 400 mg was considered the safest drug (SUCRA around 25%). Albaconazole 400 mg, posaconazole 200-400 mg, and terbinafine 250-350 mg were the most effective therapies for onychomycosis, while itraconazole 400 mg was the safest.Conclusion: The profile of albaconazole and posaconazole compared to current first-line therapies should be further investigated in well-designed trials.

6.
J Hosp Med ; 15(1): 52-59, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EDATA SOURCES: Lectronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017). PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068444. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed all the steps of the systematic review process (screening of titles and abstracts, full-text appraisal, data extraction, and quality assessment), with contributions from a third researcher. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on pharmacist-led discharge counseling. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary extracted outcomes were emergency department visits and hospital readmission rates. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of intervention versus usual care for hospital readmission and emergency department visit rates were performed using the inverse variance method. Results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prediction intervals (PIs) were also calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 21 RCTs were included in the qualitative synthesis and 18 in the meta-analyses (n = 7,244 patients). The original meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the impact between pharmacist-led discharge counseling and usual care on overall hospital readmission (RR = 0.864 [95% CI 0.763-0.997], P = .020) and emergency department (RR = 0.697 [95% CI 0.535-0.907], P = .007) visits. However, the small number of included studies, the high heterogeneity among trials (I2 between 40% and 60%), and the wide PIs (hospital readmission: PI 0.542-1.186; emergency department visits: PI 0.027-1.367) prevented drawing further conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the effect of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits. Further well-designed clinical trials with defined core outcome sets are needed.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492033

RESUMO

The association of FLT3 mutations with white blood cell (WBC) counts at diagnosis and early death was studied in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Publications indexed in databases of biomedical literature were analyzed. Potential publication bias was evaluated by analyzing the standard error in funnel plots using the estimated relative risk (RR). Mixed-effect models were used to obtain the consolidated RR. All analyses were conducted using the R statistical software package. We used 24 publications in the final meta-analysis. Of 1005 males and 1376 females included in these 24 publications, 645 had FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication) mutations. Information on FLT3-D835 mutations was available in 10 publications for 175 patients. Concurrent occurrence of the two mutations was rare. WBC count at diagnosis was ≥10 × 109/L in 351 patients. For patients with the FLT3-ITD mutation, RR was 0.59 for overall survival (OS) and 1.62 for death during induction. For those with FLT3-D835 mutations, the RR was 0.50 for OS and 1.77 for death during induction. RR for WBC count ≥10 × 109/L was 3.29 and 1.48 for patients with FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835, respectively. APL patients with FLT3-ITD or FLT3-D835 are more likely to present with elevated WBC counts and poorer prognosis than those without these mutations.

8.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 17(10): 916-925, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in basic and molecular biology have promoted the use of cell cultures in a wide range of areas, including the evaluation of drug efficacy, safety and toxicity. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to provide a general overview of the methodological parameters of cell cultures used to investigate therapeutic options for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. METHOD: A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ. In vitro experimental studies using cell cultures were included. RESULTS: A total of 328 studies were initially identified, with 16 included for qualitative synthesis. Seven studies used neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and PC12 cell line) and nine used nonneuronal cells. All the studies described the culture conditions, but most studies were inconsistent with regard to reporting results and raw data. Only one-third of the studies performed cell viability assays, while a further 30% conducted gene expression analysis. Other additional tests included electrophysiological evaluation and transporter activity. More than 50% of the studies evaluated the effects of drugs such as methylphenidate and atomoxetine, while plant extracts were assessed in four studies and polyunsaturated fatty acids in one. CONCLUSION: We suggested a flowchart to guide the planning and execution of studies, and a checklist to be completed by authors to allow the standardized reporting of results. This may guide the elaboration of laboratory protocols and further in vitro studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Neurônios
9.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(3): 785-792, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963446

RESUMO

Background The Cochrane collaboration risk of bias assessment (RoB) tool is used in several fields to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Its strengths and challenges are discussed. Objective To assess the sensitivity of the RoB tool in studies of pharmacist interventions. Setting DEPICT database was used to pool randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions. Method A Guide for RoB Judgment in Pharmacy Services was created to help in the interpretation and judgment of bias criteria. The evaluation of bias (low, unclear, high risk) was performed by RCT. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of different interpretations of eight elements of judgment in the RoB tool. Paired analysis and estimations of the effect size (95% confidence interval) of the criteria modifications compared to the original analyses were calculated. Main outcome measure Changes in the interpretations of judgment in the RoB tool. Results Overall, 8.3, 45.4, and 46.3% of the studies were determined to have low, unclear, and high risk of bias, respectively. High risk of bias was caused by attrition and detection domains. The number of studies classified with high risk of bias significantly increased for five of the eight interpretations, while unclear risk of bias increased for three interpretations (with a negligible effect size in all of them). Lack of blinding, loss of participants, and the use of subjective and self-reported outcomes were the main elements resulting in high risk of bias. Conclusion The RoB tool is useful for evaluating RCTs of pharmacist interventions if adapted criteria for judgment are used. Ignoring these adjustments produces a floor-effect with studies classified with high risk of bias.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(10): 2280-2291, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907446

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite their overall favourable safety profile, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are related to severe adverse events including haematological toxicities such as anaemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We designed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare safety among TKIs (bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib and radotinib) used by patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: We obtained data from the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO databases. The Bayesian approach was used for direct and indirect comparisons, and the treatments were ranked by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the network meta-analysis. Our data show that dasatinib was generally considered worse than the other TKIs, with SUCRA values ​​for 140 mg dasatinib of 90.3% for anaemia, 87.4% for leucopenia, 90.6% for neutropenia and 97.2% for thrombocytopenia. In addition, nilotinib was shown to be safer, with SUCRA values ​​for 600 and 800 mg doses of 21.9 and 35.8% for anaemia, 23.8 and 14.6% for leucopenia, 33.0 and 17.7% for neutropenia, and 28.7 and 32.6% for thrombocytopenia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dasatinib appeared as the least safe drug for chronic myeloid leukaemia, probably because it binds to multiple key kinase targets, being more prone to cause serious haematological adverse events. Nilotinib demonstrated a safer profile, mostly due to its selective binding capacity.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adherence-enhancing interventions have been assessed in the literature, however heterogeneity and conflicting findings have prohibited a consensus on the most effective approach to maintain adherence over time. With the ageing population and growth of chronic conditions, evaluation of sustainable strategies to improve and maintain medication adherence long term is paramount. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving medication adherence over time among adults with any clinical condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analyses evaluating interventions to improve medication adherence were searched in PubMed in January 2019 and reviewed for primary studies. Experimental studies with a comparison group assessing an intervention to enhance medication adherence in adult patients with reported adherence outcomes were included. Two authors extracted data for study characteristics, interventions and adherence outcomes. Interventions were categorized into four groups or combinations: educational, attitudinal, technical and rewards. Four network meta-analyses were performed to compare interventions based on patient follow-up time. Medication adherence effect sizes were reported as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% credibility interval (CrI) and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) to allow ranking probabilities. Risk of bias was assessed as per Cochrane guidelines. RESULTS: Data was obtained from 69 meta-analyses with 468 primary studies being included in qualitative synthesis. The four networks compromised of 249 studies in total (0-3 month follow-up: 99 studies, 4-6 months: 104, 7-9 months: 18, ≥10 months: 94). Interventions showing success in follow-ups of less than 10 months varied across time. Significant effects compared to standard of care (SOC) were found in technical (4-6 months: OR 0.34, 95% CrI 0.25-0.45) and attitudinal interventions (7-9 months: 0.37, 0.17-0.84). Multicomponent interventions demonstrated effectiveness compared to standard of care with an additive effect displayed, particularly in longer follow-ups (educational + attitudinal + technical interventions ≥10 months: OR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.27-0.88). DISCUSSION: All interventions reviewed improved medication adherence compared to standard of care. Multicomponent interventions displayed the most promising results in maintenance of long-term medication adherence. Technical and reward components enhanced adherence on a short-term basis, while educational and attitudinal interventions evolved over time to be more effective in follow-ups greater than 7 months. Sustainability of adherence to medications over time is dependent upon multicomponent interventions including educational, attitudinal and technical aspects to modify and enhance patient medication-taking behavior. Future research should focus on the most cost-effective approaches able to be integrated into routine practice.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Teorema de Bayes , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Metanálise em Rede , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
12.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conduction and report of network meta-analysis (NMA), including the presentation of the network-plot, should be transparent. We aimed to propose metrics adapted from graph theory and social network-analysis literature to numerically describe NMA geometry. METHODS: A previous systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological interventions was performed. Data on the graph's presentation were collected. Network-plots were reproduced using Gephi 0.9.1. Eleven geometric metrics were tested. The Spearman test for non-parametric correlation analyses and the Bland-Altman and Lin's Concordance tests were performed (IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0). RESULTS: From the 477 identified NMAs only 167 graphs could be reproduced because they provided enough information on the plot characteristics. The median nodes and edges were 8 (IQR 6-11) and 10 (IQR 6-16), respectively, with 22 included studies (IQR 13-35). Metrics such as density (median 0.39, ranged 0.07-1.00), median thickness (2.0, IQR 1.0-3.0), percentages of common comparators (median 68%), and strong edges (median 53%) were found to contribute to the description of NMA geometry. Mean thickness, average weighted degree and average path length produced similar results than other metrics, but they can lead to misleading conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the incorporation of seven simple metrics to report NMA geometry. Editors and peer-reviews should ensure that guidelines for NMA report are strictly followed before publication.


Assuntos
Metanálise em Rede , Bibliometria , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Editoração
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94(1): 41-49, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635223

RESUMO

Colistin and polymyxin B are increasingly reintroduced in clinical practice due to the absence of effective antibiotics for the treatment of emerging infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. The synthesis of current evidence on the characteristics of polymyxins, especially regarding nephrotoxicity, is necessary. This study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort-type observational studies in order to identify the prevalence of nephrotoxicity in patients treated with either colistin or polymyxin B. PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ electronic databases were searched, and manual searches were done. Cohort studies evaluating renal damage (nephrotoxicity) in adult patients caused by colistin or polymyxin B were included. Meta-analyses of the prevalence of nephrotoxicity as well as cumulative meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted. After the systematic searches, 95 cohorts (n = 7911 patients) were included for analysis. The nephrotoxicity prevalence was 26.7% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 22.8-30.9%] for colistin and 29.8% (CI 23.8-36.7%) for polymyxin B (P = 0.720). The publication year of the studies, the criteria used to classify renal damage, and the nephrotoxicity as primary or secondary outcome showed a significant influence on the adverse event rates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Colistina/efeitos adversos , Polimixina B/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colistina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
14.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(12): 1464-1471, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy journals constitute a heterogeneous group that can be map to identify Pharmacy scientific subareas. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to objectively map Pharmacy journals by means of a lexicographic analysis of the titles of published articles. METHODS: Active journals between 2006 and 2016 containing any of the terms 'pharmacy', 'pharmacist*', 'pharmaceut*', 'pharmacol*', or 'pharmacotherap*' in their titles were searched in four databases (01/15/2018): Medline, PubMed Central, Science Citation Index expanded/Social Sciences Citation Index expanded (SCIe/SSCIe), and Scopus CiteScore Metrics. The titles of all the articles (Jan-2006 to Dec-2016) in the identified journals were gathered into a single text corpus. The following analyses were performed (Iramuteq 0.7): lexicographic analysis to determine the number, frequency and distribution of active words; descending hierarchical classification (DHC) to categorize active words and journals into lexical classes; factorial correspondence analyses (FCA) to obtain bi- and tri-dimensional graphs. RESULTS: A total of 285 journals comprising 316,089 articles (median 70.4 articles [IQR 34.0-141.0] per journal per year) were included for the analyses. The journals were indexed in Scopus (90.2%) with a median CiteScore of 1.16 (IQR 0.28-2.55); in SCIe/SSCIe (44.6%) with a median impact factor of 2.410 (IQR 1.629-3.316); and in PubMed (65.7%). The DHC of active words produced three major groups (A, B, C) with two lexical classes each, representing six Pharmacy subareas depicted by the FCA as: Group A comprising 'Cell Pharmacology' (20 journals) and 'Molecular Pharmacology' (46 journals), Group B with 'Clinical Pharmacology' (57 journals) and 'Pharmacy Practice' (67 journals), and Group C with 'Pharmaceutics' (35 journals) and 'Pharmaceutical Analysis' (60 journals). Coverage of the classes in bibliographic databases and impact metrics is unbalanced. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy journals that can be objectively classified into six different classes that represent different research subareas with uneven coverage in bibliographic databases.

15.
Endocrine ; 63(1): 18-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a rare disease that often requires drug treatment to achieve control, with pegvisomant being one of the most widely used therapies. In the present paper, we aimed to obtain evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of pegvisomant by reviewing real-world observational longitudinal studies. METHODS: A systematic review was performed with a meta-analysis of event rates (95% confidence interval (CI)) using a random effects model. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed (comprehensive meta-analysis 2.0). The systematic review was performed in accordance to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology, and Cochrane recommendations (PROSPERO register CRD 42017059880). PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO were used to search for literature. Observational studies in patients using pegvisomant for the treatment of acromegaly were included. RESULTS: Initially, 552 papers were retrieved from the databases; and 31 articles were included in the qualitative analysis and 14 in the quantitative analysis. Eight primary meta-analyses were performed. The overall rate of patients with disease control was of 60.9% (51.8-69.3%; 95% CI). When considering patients under monotherapy, the control rate was 71.7% (64.0-78.4%; 95% CI). Tumor growth was estimated in 7.3% (4.7-11.1%; 95% CI) and elevation of transaminases in 3.0% (1.7-5.2%; 95% CI). CONCLUSIONS: The real-world data showed that the effectiveness of pegvisomant is not as high as reported in interventional studies. Acromegaly appears to be better controlled when pegvisomant is used as a monotherapy. No serious adverse events were associated with the use of pegvisomant; however, given the high cost of this drug, further studies are required.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(2): 620-632, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the methodological quality of network meta-analyses (NMAs) and their compliance with reporting guidelines. METHODS: A systematic review of NMAs comparing any pharmacological interventions was performed (searches in Medline and Scopus). The characteristics of NMAs were collected by two independent reviewers. We applied R-AMSTAR to all NMAs, generating a methodological quality score that could range from 11 to 44 points. PRISMA and PRISMA-NMA reporting checklists were converted into quantitative scores (maximum values of 27 and 32 points). To normalize the values between these two checklists, a third score (PRISMA-SCORE) of 0-1 was created. The correlation of the scores with NMA publication year, journal impact factor and most productive countries were calculated using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: We identified 477 NMAs. Only 36.1% of studies reported having followed PRISMA statements. The medians of R-AMSTAR, PRISMA and PRISMA-NMA scores were 28 (IQR 25-31), 21 (IQR 19-23) and 23 (IQR 19-26), respectively. Several problems were noted in NMAs (e.g. lack of study protocol, issues in literature searches, lack of raw data). NMAs from the most productive countries (USA and China) have similar methodological quality. Correlation analyses between R-AMSTAR and normalized PRISMA-SCORE revealed a strong positive correlation (Spearman's ρ = 0.776; P <0.001). A weak but positive correlation was found for PRISMA-SCORE and journal impact factor (0.193; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The important growth of NMA publication rate during the past 5 years is not associated with better methodological and reporting quality. Editors, peer reviewers, researchers and funding agencies should ensure that methodological and reporting standards are met before publication.

17.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 34(2): 57-64, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422834

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the pharmacological options available to treat patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder, for generating evidence on the safest, most-effective and tolerable pharmacotherapy. To this end, a systematic search was performed in three electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Directory of Open Access Journals; December 2017). Randomized, double-blind, parallel-design clinical trials evaluating the efficacy, safety or tolerability of therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder in children and adolescents or adults were considered. A total of 1960 articles were retrieved from the databases, of which five studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Two of these studies evaluated the drug atomoxetine, another study evaluated desipramine, and the remaining two studies evaluated methylphenidate, with fluvoxamine being associated with methylphenidate in one of the trials. Owing to the high heterogeneity among studies, it was not possible to combine data for meta-analyses. Although only few studies have been evaluated in this systematic review, the results point to a more significant benefit of atomoxetine. This is probably because this drug was studied in a wider age range and evaluated by more specific scales for both disorders. To further strengthen this evidence, randomized, controlled and multicenter clinical trials with larger sample sizes should be conducted.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Comorbidade , Desipramina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluvoxamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metilfenidato , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(4): 358-365, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is associated with adverse health outcomes and higher costs of care. However, inconsistencies in the assessment of adherence are found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different measures of adherence in the comparative effectiveness of complex interventions to enhance patients' adherence to prescribed medications. METHODS: A systematic review with network meta-analysis was performed. Electronic searches for relevant pairwise meta-analysis including trials of interventions that aimed to improve medication adherence were performed in PubMed. Data extraction was conducted with eligible trials evaluating short-period adherence follow-up (until 3 months) using any measure of adherence: self-report, pill count, or MEMS (medication event monitoring system). To standardize the results obtained with these different measures, an overall composite measure and an objective composite measure were also calculated. Network meta-analyses for each measure of adherence were built. Rank order and surface under the cumulative ranking curve analyses (SUCRA) were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-one trials were included in the network meta-analyses. The five network meta-analyses demonstrated robustness and reliability. Results obtained for all measures of adherence were similar across them and to both composite measures. For both composite measures, interventions comprising economic + technical components were the best option (90% of probability in SUCRA analysis) with statistical superiority against almost all other interventions and against standard care (odds ratio with 95% credibility interval ranging from 0.09 to 0.25 [0.02, 0.98]). CONCLUSION: The use of network meta-analysis was reliable to compare different measures of adherence of complex interventions in short-periods follow-up. Analyses with longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Different measures of adherence produced similar results. The use of composite measures revealed reliable alternatives to establish a broader and more detailed picture of adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 104: 9-20, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pharmacotherapy of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is mainly based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of all TKIs in CML patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, radotinib and ponatinib. Searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and SciELo (March 2018). The NMAs were built for six outcomes at 12 months: complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major cytogenetic response (MCyR), deep molecular response, major molecular response (MMR), complete haematologic response and incidence of serious adverse events. We conducted rank order and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) analyses. RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs were included (n = 5079 patients). Statistical differences were observed for some comparisons in all outcomes. Imatinib 400 mg was considered the safest drug (SUCRA values of 10.3%) but presented low efficacy. Overall, nilotinib 600 mg was superior to the other TKI in efficacy (SUCRA values of 61.1% for CCyR, 81.0% for MMR, 90.0% for MCyR); however, no data on its safety profile at 12 months were reported. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that nilotinib should be upgraded to first-line therapy for CML, although further cost-effectiveness analyses, including the new TKI (i.e., ponatinib, radotinib), are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/economia , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/sangue , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Metanálise em Rede , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/economia , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/economia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 70(12): 1583-1595, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extracts of parts Musa spp. have been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional medicine. Studies have shown that these extracts have hypoglycaemic properties. The aim of this work was to gather evidence on the antidiabetic effects of Musa spp. inflorescence. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted with searches in three electronic databases, along with manual searches. Studies evaluating the antidiabetic properties of extracts of flower or bract of the genus Musa (in vitro or in vivo) were included. KEY FINDINGS: Overall, 16 studies were found. The reported assays were of hypoglycaemic effects, oral glucose tolerance, inhibitory activities in carbohydrate metabolism and digestive enzymes, enhanced glucose uptake activity and popular use of the extract in patients with diabetes type 2. In vitro studies showed that use of the extract was associated with antidiabetic effects (e.g. increased glucose uptake and inhibition of carbohydrate digestion enzymes). In induced diabetic models, Musa spp. extracts showed dose-dependent glycaemic level reductions compared with pharmacological drugs (P < 0.05). SUMMARY: In general, promising results regarding antidiabetic activity were found for inflorescence of Musa spp., suggesting that this plant could represent a natural alternative therapy for treating diabetes mellitus type 2.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Musa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Inflorescência
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