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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 142: 68-75, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoledronic Acid is a bisphosphonate used in a 4-week schedule for the treatment of bone metastases. Some randomized trials supported its role also when administered every 12 weeks. METHODS: we performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the two different schedules in terms of skeletal morbidity rate (SMR), skeletal related events (SRE) and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: our results showed a clinical difference favouring the 12-week schedule in terms of AEs (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29). No signifcant differences were found for SMR (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84-1.13) and SRE (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.89-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support in clinical practice the 12-week schedule an alternative to the standard 4-week schedule in advanced breast and prostate cancer, in particular when the clinical comorbidities of the patients suggest a higher risk of renal failure or hypocalcaemia.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330065

RESUMO

We analyzed data from 738 HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (mbc) patients treated with pertuzumab-based regimens and/or T-DM1 at 45 Italian centers. Outcomes were explored in relation to tumor subtype assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The median progression-free survival at first-line (mPFS1) was 12 months. Pertuzumab as first-line conferred longer mPFS1 compared to other first-line treatments (16 vs. 9 months, p = 0.0001), regardless of IHC subtype. Median PFS in second-line (mPFS2) was 7 months, with no difference by IHC subtype, but it was more favorable with T-DM1 compared to other agents (7 vs. 6 months, p = 0.03). There was no PFS2 gain in patients with tumors expressing both hormonal receptors (HRs; p = 0.17), while a trend emerged for tumors with one HR (p = 0.05). Conversely, PFS2 gain was significant in HRs-negative tumors (p = 0.04). Median overall survival (mOS) was 74 months, with no significant differences by IHC subtypes. Survival rates at 2 and 3 years in patients treated with T-DM1 in second-line after pertuzumab were significantly lower compared to pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.01). When analyzed by IHC subtype, the outcome was confirmed if both HRs or no HRs were expressed (p = 0.02 and p = 0.006, respectively). Our results confirm that HRs expression impacts the clinical behavior and novel treatment-related outcomes of HER2-positive tumors when treatment sequences are considered. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that HRs expression had no effect on PFS and OS. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the interplay between HER2 and estrogen receptor pathways in HER2-positive (mbc) patients.

3.
Prostate ; 79(11): 1211-1220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study aims to investigate the association between copy number of the androgen receptor (AR) and testosterone levels in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with second-generation antiandrogen therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from mCRPC treated with abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Serum testosterone levels were collected at baseline, at 3 months since the start of therapy and at disease progression. A cohort of cases treated with docetaxel was also used to evaluate the impact of testosterone levels. RESULTS: Patients treated with abiraterone with AR copy number aberrations and basal testosterone levels below 0.09 nmol/L had worse progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with no AR copy number abnormalities (8.5 vs 2.9 months, P = 0.005). No relevant differences were observed in the enzalutamide group with a PFS of 3.9 months (no AR gain) vs 2.7 months ( AR gain, P = 0.004) for patients with below 0.09 nmol/L testosterone levels. Similar results are obtained for univariate analysis for overall survival (OS). The negative prognostic role of AR copy number gain in OS for both treatment groups (25.5 vs 10.6 months, P = 0.0002 for abiraterone and 14.1 vs 8.3 months, P = 0.031 for enzalutamide) was confirmed, and it was recognized the negative prognostic impact of testosteronemia below 0.09 only for patients treated with enzalutamide (8.8 vs 42.8 months, P = 0.016). On multivariate analysis for patients treated with abiraterone, low testosterone levels below 0.09 and plasma AR gain were significantly associated with worse PFS and OS. These data are confirmed in the enzalutamide group for PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone levels and the AR copy number alterations were considered as independent prognostic factors. The results of this study show that serum testosteronemia associated with changes in copy number of AR gene could represent a noninvasive biomarker useful to identify a subgroup of patients with worse prognosis that can benefit less from second-generation antiandrogen therapies in the mCRPC setting.

4.
Breast ; 46: 70-74, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early toxicity of concurrent use of radiotherapy in association with CDK4/6 inhibitors (palbociclib or ribociclib) in patients with hormone-receptors positive metastatic breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of patients with histologically proven metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer treated in our institution were reviewed. Patients who received radiotherapy and concurrent palbociclib or ribociclib were selected. Toxicity was assessed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (NCI-CTCAE V4.0). RESULTS: Sixteen consecutive metastatic breast cancer patients with 24 radiotherapy treatments were studied. Thirteen patients (81.3%) received palbociclib, 3 (18.7%) patients received ribociclib concurrently with RT (18 and 5 radiotherapy courses respectively). The majority of patients (68.7%) received palliative radiotherapy to the bones (median dose 30 Gy, range 8-36 Gy). Five patients (31.2%) were treated in oligo-metastatic or oligo-progressive sites of disease with higher doses (median dose = 50 Gy, range 39.6-60 Gy). The most common toxicity observed was hematological toxicity. Neutropenia was common (grade 2 = 12.5%; grade 3 = 25%, grade 4 = 6.3%); 60% of patients experiencing grade ≥ 3 neutropenia had already experienced neutropenia during previous cycles of palbociclib. One patient (6.3%) completed the RT course earlier (48 Gy of 50 Gy prescribed) and another patient (6.3%) suspended RT for 2 days. CONCLUSION: concomitant treatment of CDK4/6 and radiotherapy seems well tolerated; high grade hematological toxicity is common, but did not change treatment course in the majority of patients. Previous toxicity should be carefully evaluated as it usually reoccurs.

5.
Melanoma Res ; 29(5): 527-532, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095039

RESUMO

Given the approval of dabrafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, a better understanding of treatment patterns and clinical outcomes with dabrafenib in a clinical setting is warranted. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who received dabrafenib in a compassionate use setting through the Named Patient Program (DESCRIBE I study) during December 2010-August 2013 in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Of the 331 Named Patient Program patients included, the majority (95.8%) had stage IV disease at dabrafenib initiation and 39.9% had brain metastases (BMs). Dabrafenib was used first line in 67.7% of patients, and median treatment duration was 6.4 months. Dabrafenib was well tolerated. Common grade 2/3 adverse events were hyperkeratosis (7.6%), pyrexia/fever (6.6%), fatigue (5.1%), hand-foot syndrome (5.4%) and nausea (3.6%). Overall response rate was 45.9%, median progression-free survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval, 4.2-6.1 months), and median overall survival was 12.4 months (95% confidence interval, 10.2-15.0 months). In patients with known brain metastases (n = 132) versus patients without (n = 199), overall response rate was 42.4% versus 48.2%, progression-free survival was 3.9 months (95% confidence interval, 3.8-5.5 months) versus 5.9 months (95% confidence interval, 4.8-7.8 months) and overall survival was 9.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.7-12.4 months) versus 15 months (95% confidence interval, 11.1-20.5 months), respectively. Safety and effectiveness of dabrafenib in patients with unresectable advanced BRAF V600-mutant melanoma treated in an Named Patient Program was similar to the clinical trial experience, demonstrating effectiveness of dabrafenib in a nontrial setting.

6.
Tumori ; 105(3): 243-252, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857495

RESUMO

AIMS: BEAWARE investigated the pattern of first-line bevacizumab early interruption in the Italian real-world setting of metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 386 patients were followed for 15 months after first-line chemotherapy + bevacizumab start. The rate of bevacizumab interruption for progression or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) constituted the primary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 78.2% of patients interrupted bevacizumab: 56.6% for progression, 7.3% for ADRs, and 36.1% for other reasons. Median treatment duration was 6.7, 2.5, and 4.6 months, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months; however, 35.8% of patients were not progressed and were thus censored at the data cutoff of 15 months, while 21.8% were still receiving bevacizumab. Patients discontinuing for progression/ADRs more frequently had metastases in >1 site (p = .0001), and a shorter median progression-free survival (6.9 vs 13.9 months, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, first-line bevacizumab is interrupted mainly for progression, only 7.3% due to adverse events, and about one third of cases for other reasons. In clinical practice, the attitude to treat until progression as per guidelines might be implemented. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01609075.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Lung Cancer ; 129: 35-40, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brain metastases are common among patients with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and result in a poor prognosis. Consequently, such patients are often excluded from clinical trials. In Italy an expanded access program (EAP) was used to evaluate nivolumab efficacy and safety in this subpopulation outside a clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this EAP, nivolumab was available for patients with non-squamous NSCLC in progression after at least one systemic treatment for stage IIIB/IV disease. Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Patients with brain metastases could be included if they were asymptomatic, neurologically stable and either off corticosteroids or on a stable or decreasing dose of ≤10 mg/day prednisone. RESULTS: 409 out of 1588 patients included had asymptomatic or controlled brain metastases. A median of 7 doses (range 1-45) were delivered. Median follow-up was 6.1 months (range 0.1-21.9). The disease control rate was 39%: 4 patients had a complete response, 64 a partial response and 96 showed stable disease. At baseline, 118 patients were on corticosteroids and 74 were undergoing concomitant radiotherapy. The median overall survival in this subpopulation was 8.6 months (95% CI: 6.4-10.8). 337 discontinued treatment for various reasons, 23 (7%) of whom due to adverse events, in line with that observed in the overall population and in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that nivolumab is active in non-squamous NSCLC patients with brain metastases, despite their poor prognosis. Its safety profile is also concordant with results in the EAP overall population and in patients with other malignancies.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 109: 175-182, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternating induction and maintenance phases is a common strategy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Metronomic chemotherapy (metroCT) may represent a well-tolerated chemotherapy backbone for maximising bevacizumab effect during maintenance. The MOMA trial was designed to compare metroCT plus bevacizumab versus bevacizumab alone as maintenance following 4 months of induction with FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II study, patients with unresectable mCRC were randomised to receive up to 8 cycles of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab, followed by bevacizumab (arm A) or the same regimen followed by bevacizumab plus metroCT (capecitabine 500 mg/three times per day and cyclophosphamide 50 mg/die, arm B) until disease progression. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). According to the Rubinstein and Korn's design, to detect a hazard ratio[HR] of 0.75 favouring arm B, with 1 sided-alpha and beta errors of 15% and 80%, 173 events and 222 patients were required. RESULTS: Between May 2012 and March 2015, 232 patients, mostly with RAS (65%) or BRAF (9%) mutant tumours, were randomised in 16 Italian centres. At a median follow-up of 47.8 months, 210 and 164 progression and death events were registered. The primary end-point was not met. Median PFS was 10.3 and 9.4 months in arm B and A, respectively (HR: 0.94 [70% confidence interval {CI}: 0.82-1.09], p = 0.680). No significant differences were reported in terms of overall survival (OS) (median OS arm B/A: 22.5/28 months; HR: 1.16 [95%CI: 0.99-1.37], p = 0.336). Response rate with FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab was 63% (arm B/A: 58%/68%). In the liver-limited subgroup, the secondary resection rate was 49% (arm B/A: 45%/55%). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of metroCT to maintenance with bevacizumab does not significantly improve PFS of mCRC patients. The activity of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab is confirmed in a population with high prevalence of RAS/BRAF mutations treated with a 4-months induction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02271464.

9.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(6): 7708-7717, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536609

RESUMO

Data from 423 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (aBC) patients treated with palbociclib and endocrine therapy (ET) were provided by 35 Italian cancer centers and analyzed for treatment outcomes. Overall, 158 patients were treated in first line and 265 in second/later lines. We observed 19 complete responses and 112 partial responses. The overall response rate (ORR) was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.6-35.4) and clinical benefit was 52.7% (95% CI, 48-57.5). ORR was negatively affected by prior exposure to everolimus/exemestane ( p = 0.002) and favorably influenced by early line-treatment ( p < 0.0001). At 6 months, median progression-free survival was 12 months (95% CI, 8-16) and median overall survival was 24 months (95% CI, 17-30). More favorable outcomes were associated with palbociclib in early lines, no visceral metastases and no prior everolimus/exemestane. The main toxicity reported was neutropenia. Our results provide further support to the use of palbociclib with ET in HER2-, HR+ aBC. Differences in outcomes across patients subsets remain largely unexplained.

10.
Cancer Biol Ther ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403909

RESUMO

We carried out a retrospective observational study of 264 HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients to explore the efficacy of first-line treatment with pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane in real-world setting. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves and log rank test. Median follow-up, length of pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane treatment and of pertuzumab, trastuzumab maintenance were 21, 4 and 15 months, respectively. The response rate was 77.3%, and the clinical benefit rate 93.6%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 21 months, and median overall survival (mOS) was not reached. When comparing patients by trastuzumab-pretreatment, similar PFS were observed, although a longer OS was reached in trastuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.02). Brain metastases at baseline and their development in course of therapy were associated with significantly shorter PFS (p = 0.0006) and shorter OS, although at a not fully statistically relevant extent (p = 0.06). The addition of maintenance endocrine therapy (ET) to pertuzumab/trastuzumab maintenance was associated with longer PFS (p = 0.0001), although no significant differences were detected in OS (p = 0.31). Results were confirmed by propensity score analysis (p = 0.003 and p = 0.46, respectively). In multivariate models, longer PFS was related to lower Performance Status (PS) (p = 0.07), metastatic stage at diagnosis (p = 0.006) and single metastatic site (p < 0.0001). An OS advantage was observed with lower PS (p < 0.0001), single metastatic site (p = 0.004), no prior exposure to trastuzumab (p = 0.004) and response to pertuzumab-based treatment (p = 0.003). Our results confirm that trastuzumab/pertuzumab/taxane is the standard of care as first-line treatment of patients with HER2-positive ABC even in the real-world setting. Moreover, the double-maintenance therapy (HER2 block and ET) is strongly recommended when feasible.

11.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758835918794623, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181783

RESUMO

Background: Rechallenge with imatinib is an option in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients following progression with standard tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib. We retrospectively collected data from metastatic Italian GIST patients treated with imatinib resumption after progression to conventional TKIs. Methods: A total of 104 eligible advanced GIST patients, previously treated with imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib, were collected from six referral Italian institutions. Mutational analysis was recorded and correlated with survival and response according to RECIST 1.1 or CHOI criteria. Results: Overall, 71 patients treated with imatinib 400 mg as rechallenge were included. Mutational status was available in all patients. The median follow up was 13 months. In patients who received a rechallenge therapy, the median time to progression (TTP) was 5.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-13.5] and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months (95% CI 2.8-26.9). A correlation between mutational status, response rate, TTP and OS was not found but comparing deleted versus nondeleted KIT exon 11 patients, a significant difference was identified in terms of TTP and OS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Our retrospective data confirm that imatinib rechallenge is a reasonable option in advanced GIST. The prognostic value of the specific KIT mutations was confirmed in our series.

12.
Radiol Med ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191448

RESUMO

Interventional radiology provides local management of bone metastases (BM) with a palliative intent in most cases, or with a curative intent in selected patients. Its role has rapidly expanded in the last decade, offering new treatment solutions often in combination with surgery, radiation therapy and medical treatments. The aim of the present paper is to increase awareness, acceptance and adoption of interventional radiology procedures for the treatment of BM; and to present the joint position of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology and the Italian College of Interventional Radiology.

13.
J Breath Res ; 12(4): 046007, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking cessation can change the natural history of COPD, as we know from the GOLD guidelines. Little is known about the short-term clinical and functional effects of smoking cessation treatment combined with anti-muscarinic bronchodilators. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quitting smoking, obtained by smoking cessation treatment combined with the use of a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist bronchodilator (LAMA), can improve lung function tests and respiratory symptoms more than the use of LAMA alone. METHODS: We evaluated, in a retrospective analysis, the functional and clinical data, collected in one year, of 120 patients who were current smokers affected by mild COPD and who quit smoking using smoking cessation treatment combined with glycopirronium. We compared them with a group of 80 patients with mild COPD undergoing the same treatment but who did not quit smoking. All patients underwent functional and clinical tests at baseline and at a third-month check. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The two groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic data without significant differences. All patients used varenicline for smoking cessation. They all performed the following tests: a spirometry with detection of resistances, the 6 min walking test, haemogasanalysis, the exhaled CO test, the COPD assessment test (CAT) and finally the modified Medical Research Council test (mMRC). A significant improvement in the functional tests at the third-month check was found in both groups-quitters and non-quitters. However, a notable increase in the examined parameters was registered in the group of patients who quit smoking, in particular, we observed a significant increase at the third-month check of the parameter forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of more than 200 ml with p < 0.001. A comparison between quitters and non-quitters revealed a major benefit derived from smoking cessation in terms of functional changes and symptom relief. In particular, not only FEV1 but also forced expiratory flow at 25%-75% of vital capacity (FEF 25-75) (p < 0.01) and CAT (p < 0.001) were found to be significantly improved in patients who quit than in patients who did not at the check time point. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation treatment obtained by varenicline was confirmed as a crucial therapeutic option, especially when combined with bronchodilator in mild COPD. Patients who quit smoking could already benefit from both treatments in the short term, improving lung function and respiratory symptoms and therefore improving their quality of life.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(6)2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865170

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to identify potential variables influencing the clinical presentation of breakthrough cancer pain (BTP). Methods: Cancer patients with a diagnosis of BTP were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as background pain and BTP characteristics were collected. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the correlation between BTP characteristics and the variables examined. Results: Data of 4016 patients were analysed. Average daily number of BTP episodes was 2.4, mean intensity was 7.5, and a mean duration was 43.3 min. A short onset BTP was observed in 68.9% of patients. In 30.5% of patients BTP was predictable. There were 86.0% of participants who reported a marked interference of BTP with their daily activities. Furthermore, 86.8% of patients were receiving opioids for the management of BTP. The average time to meaningful pain relief was 16.5 min and 70.9% of patients were satisfied with their BTP medications. Age, head and neck cancer, Karnofsky, background pain intensity, predictable and fast onset BTP were independently associated with the number of BTP episodes. BTP pain intensity was independently associated with background pain intensity, fast onset BTP, and Karnofsky. Neuropathic pain mechanism was independently associated with unpredictable BTP. Variables independently associated with a longer duration of BTP were age, place of visit, cancer diagnosis, disease-oriented therapy, background pain intensity and mechanism, and unpredictable BTP. Age, Karnofsky, background pain intensity, fast onset, and long duration of BTP were independently associated with interference with daily activity. Conclusions: BTP has a variable presentation depending on interdependent relationships among its different characteristics.

15.
Future Oncol ; 14(14): 1339-1346, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846100

RESUMO

The optimal duration and intensity of first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients once they have achieved an objective response is controversial. In a molecularly selected RAS and BRAF wild-type (wt) population, this concern is amplified. Once disease control has been achieved with a combination therapy including an anti-EGFR antibody, further exposure both to cytotoxic drugs and targeted therapy might result only in increased toxicity. In unresectable metastatic RAS and BRAF wt colorectal cancer patients, a deintensified therapy could represent a valuable option that might preserve quality of life. We designed a study to compare FOLFIRI/cetuximab to FOLFIRI/cetuximab for eight cycles followed by cetuximab alone in first-line treatment of RAS and BRAF (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncology ; 95(1): 1-7, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low body mass index (BMI) and/or low lean body mass have been shown to be risk factors for chemotherapy-related toxicities in a number of different cancers. However, no data are available regarding the role of BMI as a risk factor for developing toxicities related to the novel anticancer agent, trabectedin, in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). We evaluated the role of BMI as a risk factor for trabectedin-related toxicity in patients with STS. METHODS: Data from 51 patients with metastatic/advanced STS treated with trabectedin after progression on ≥1 anthracycline ± ifosfamide regimen were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (35.3%) were underweight, and the remainder were of normal bodyweight (45.1%) or overweight (19.6%). Neutropenia of any grade (77.8 vs. 33.3%) and grade 3-4 neutropenia (50.0 vs. 18.2%) occurred more frequently in the underweight versus normal/overweight patients (p = 0.025). Febrile neutropenia also occurred more frequently in underweight patients. Differences remained statistically significant after adjusting for other predictors of toxicity. There were no significant differences in other hematological and nonhematological toxicities between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest for the first time that BMI should be considered a risk factor for neutropenia in patients with STS treated with trabectedin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dioxóis/efeitos adversos , Dioxóis/uso terapêutico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Trabectedina
17.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(4): 461-467, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, results of combination therapy studies have shown no meaningful clinical benefit over monotherapy and an unacceptably high degree of toxicity in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with the exception of a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and the association of lenvatinib with everolimus. Lenvatinib is a potent multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR pathways. Everolimus inhibits primarily mTORC1 complex, a downstream effecter of the intracellular PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The association of these two drugs was demonstrated to enhance the inhibitory activity against VEGF and FGF-induced angiogenesis by a vertical inhibition of angiogenic signaling pathways, suggesting a synergistic activity. Areas covered: In this review we summarize the lenvatinib pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, characteristics and the main clinical trial that showed lenvatinib activity in advanced RCC. Expert opinion: Lenvatinib plus everolimus showed promising results in a phase II trial, leading to FDA approval of this combination. Their synergic action on inhibiting the VEGF/VEGFR, FGF (a compensatory mechanism to VEGFR inhibition) and mTOR pathway could be a potential mechanism to overcome treatment resistance. Given that the activity of lenvatinib as an immune-regulator in tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated in cell lines, novel combinations, in particular with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, are under development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacocinética , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacologia
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(4): 529-536, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450468

RESUMO

Importance: The combination of a triple-drug chemotherapy regimen with an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agent as a first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) showed promising activity along with safety concerns in single-arm phase 2 trials. The role of maintenance following chemotherapy and anti-EGFR and the optimal regimen to be adopted are not established. Objectives: To evaluate the activity and safety of cetuximab plus modified FOLFOXIRI (mFOLFOXIRI) and explore the role of maintenance with cetuximab or bevacizumab in RAS and BRAF wild-type mCRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, noncomparative, open-label, multicenter, randomized phase 2 trial, patients aged 18 to 75 years with unresectable, previously untreated RAS and BRAF wild-type (before amendment, KRAS wild-type) mCRC were recruited from 21 oncology units in Italy from October 19, 2011, to March 1, 2015 (followed up through May 31, 2017). In total, 323 patients were screened and 143 were randomized to 2 treatment arms to receive as a first-line induction a regimen of mFOLFOXIRI plus cetuximab followed by cetuximab (arm A) or bevacizumab (arm B) until disease progression. Primary analyses were conducted in a modified intention-to-treat population. Interventions: mFOLFOXIRI plus cetuximab repeated every 2 weeks for up to 8 cycles, followed by maintenance with cetuximab or bevacizumab until disease progression. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the 10-month progression-free rate (PFR); secondary end points included progression-free and overall survival, response rate, rate of metastases resection, and adverse events. Results: Of 143 patients randomized, 116 (81.1%) (median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 59.5 [53-67] years; 34 [29.3%] women) had RAS and BRAF wild-type mCRC. At a median (IQR) follow-up of 44.0 (30.5-52.1) months, 10-month PFRs were 50.8% (90% CI, 39.5%-62.2%) in arm A and 40.4% (90% CI, 29.4%-52.1%) in arm B. The overall response rate was 71.6% (95% CI, 62.4%-79.5%). Main grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (occurring in 36 patients [31%]), diarrhea (in 21 patients [18%]), skin toxic effects (in 18 patients [16%]), asthenia (in 11 patients [9%]), stomatitis (in 7 patients [6%]), and febrile neutropenia (in 3 patients [3%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Although neither of the 2 arms met the primary end point, the findings indicate that a 4-month induction regimen of mFOLFOXIRI plus cetuximab is feasible and provides relevant activity results, leading to a high surgical resection rate. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02295930.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 98, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer elderly patients with anti-EGFR agents in combination with chemotherapy. FOLFOX plus panitumumab is a standard first-line option for RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Slight adjustments in chemo-dosage are commonly applied in clinical practice to elderly patients, but those modified schedules have never been prospectively tested. Clinical definition of elderly (≥70 years old) patients that may deserve a more or less intensive combination therapy is still debated. Several geriatric screening tools have been developed to predict survival and risk of toxicity from treatment. Among those, the G8 screening tool has been tested in cancer patients showing the strongest prognostic value for overall survival, while the CRASH score can stratify patients according to an estimated risk of treatment-related toxicities. METHODS: The PANDA study is a prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial of first-line therapy with panitumumab in combination with dose-adjusted FOLFOX or with 5-fluorouracil monotherapy, in previously untreated elderly patients (≥70 years) with RAS and BRAF wild-type unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. RAS and BRAF analyses are centralized. Geriatric assessment by means of G8 and CRASH score is planned at baseline and G8 will be re-evaluated at disease progression. The primary endpoint is duration of progression-free survival in both arms. Secondary endpoints include prospective evaluation of the prognostic role of G8 score and the correlation of CRASH risk categories with toxicity. DISCUSSION: The PANDA study aims at exploring safety and efficacy of panitumumab in combination with FOLFOX or with 5FU/LV in elderly patients affected by RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, to identify the most promising treatment strategy in this setting. Additionally, this is the first trial in which the prognostic role of the G8 score will be prospectively evaluated. Results of this study will drive further experimental developments for one or both combinations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PANDA is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02904031 , July 11, 2016. PANDA is registered at EudraCT-No.: 2015-003888-10, September 3, 2015.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Mutação , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Panitumumabe , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas ras/genética
20.
Future Oncol ; 14(4): 353-361, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135281

RESUMO

AIM: Ceritinib was evaluated within a compassionate use program of Italian patients. PATIENTS & METHODS: 70 patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive crizotinib-refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer received ceritinib. RESULTS: Overall response was 40.6%, median progression-free survival was 8.2 months and median survival was 15.5 months. Dose reduction due to treatment-related adverse events occurred in 50.8% of patients starting at 750 mg/day. No significantly different progression-free survival was observed between patients who underwent any time dose reduction (n = 38) versus those who remained on the recommended dose of 750 mg/day (n = 32; p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of ceritinib compassionate use program resembled that of clinical trials. Dose reductions and adjustments did not appear to negatively affect clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Crizotinibe , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos
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