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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 498, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436751

RESUMO

Powerful, broadband terahertz (THz) pulses and its application attract an exponential growth of interests. Dual-color laser filamentation in gases is one of the promising THz sources because of the scalability of the THz energy and wavelength with input parameters. But the additional phase induced by the nonlinearities associated with high intensities cannot be neglected because it may result in modulation of the THz waves. We investigate the influences of the infrared pump energy and air dispersion on the terahertz generation in dual-color laser filament. We observe that optimum dual-color laser relative phase of the THz generation undergoes a linear shift with increasing pump energy due to the intensity-induced refractive index change. This phase shift is verified by the spectral broadening of a two-color laser affected by the same mechanism. The result improves our understanding of the theoretical framework for a higher power THz source.

2.
Biophys J ; 119(12): 2469-2482, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189688

RESUMO

Terahertz waves have attracted great attention in biomolecule research because of the fact that they cover the range of energy levels of weak interactions, skeleton vibrations, and dipole rotations during inter- and intramolecular interactions in biomacromolecules. In this study, we validated the feasibility of employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for the nondestructive and label-free monitoring of protein digestion. The acid protease, pepsin, was used at its optimal pH to hydrolyze bovine serum albumin. Correspondingly, the control group experiment was also conducted by adjusting the pH value to inactivate pepsin. The progress of these two experiments was tracked by a compact commercial THz-TDS for 1 h. On one hand, the reaction-time-dependent absorption coefficient was calculated, and a direct absorption coefficient analysis was completed. The results indicate that protein hydrolysis can be easily monitored over time by focusing on the variation tendency of the absorption coefficient from a macroscopic perspective. On the other hand, we explored the use of the Debye model to analyze the dielectric properties of the solution during protein hydrolysis. The results of the Debye analysis prove that it is possible to investigate in detail the microscopic dynamics of biomacromolecule solutions at the molecular level by THz-TDS. Our research examined the process of protein hydrolysis by a combination of absorption spectra and Debye analysis and demonstrated that terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful technology for the investigation of biomolecular reactions, with potential applications in variety of fields.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Terahertz , Proteólise , Soroalbumina Bovina , Vibração
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14633, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884079

RESUMO

Gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising wide-bandgap semiconductor, and new characterization tools are needed to study its local crystallinity, carrier dynamics, and doping effects. Terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy (TES) is an emerging experimental technique that can probe the ultrafast carrier dynamics in optically excited semiconductors. In this work, the carrier dynamics and THz emission mechanisms of GaN were examined in unintentionally doped n-type, Si-doped n-type, and Mg-doped p-type GaN films. The photocarriers excited near the surface travel from the excited-area in an ultrafast manner and generate THz radiation in accordance with the time derivative of the surge drift current. The polarity of the THz amplitude can be used to determine the majority carrier type in GaN films through a non-contact and non-destructive method. Unique THz emission excited by photon energies less than the bandgap was also observed in the p-type GaN film.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3098-3105, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227963

RESUMO

Excitons play major roles in optical processes in modern semiconductors, such as single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), transition metal dichalcogenides, and 2D perovskite quantum wells. They possess extremely large binding energies (>100 meV), dominating absorption and emission spectra even at high temperatures. The large binding energies imply that they are stable, that is, hard to ionize, rendering them seemingly unsuited for optoelectronic devices that require mobile charge carriers, especially terahertz emitters and solar cells. Here, we have conducted terahertz emission and photocurrent studies on films of aligned single-chirality semiconducting CNTs and find that excitons autoionize, i.e., spontaneously dissociate into electrons and holes. This process naturally occurs ultrafast (<1 ps) while conserving energy and momentum. The created carriers can then be accelerated to emit a burst of terahertz radiation when a dc bias is applied, with promising efficiency in comparison to standard GaAs-based emitters. Furthermore, at high bias, the accelerated carriers acquire high enough kinetic energy to create secondary excitons through impact exciton generation, again in a fully energy and momentum conserving fashion. This exciton multiplication process leads to a nonlinear photocurrent increase as a function of bias. Our theoretical simulations based on nonequilibrium Boltzmann transport equations, taking into account all possible scattering pathways and a realistic band structure, reproduce all of our experimental data semiquantitatively. These results not only elucidate the momentum-dependent ultrafast dynamics of excitons and carriers in CNTs but also suggest promising routes toward terahertz excitonics despite the orders-of-magnitude mismatch between the exciton binding energies and the terahertz photon energies.

5.
Opt Lett ; 42(15): 3056-3059, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957244

RESUMO

Parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of thin and low conductive materials. In this Letter, we determine the lower limit of detection of the PPWG-THz-TDS approach. We provide a closed-form expression of the minimal measurable conductivity by the system. The experimental results of amorphous YBa2Cu3O7-δ films indicate that the factor limiting the spectroscopic modality is the waveguide device misalignment. On the other hand, the expression of the minimal detectable conductivity provides a clear scheme of optimization by increasing the waveguide length and therefore enhancing the sensitivity of the system.

6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1774, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28496178

RESUMO

Adsorption of gas molecules on the surface of atomically layered two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, can significantly affect their electrical and optical properties. Therefore, a microscopic and quantitative understanding of the mechanism and dynamics of molecular adsorption and desorption has to be achieved in order to advance device applications based on these materials. However, recent theoretical calculations have yielded contradictory results, particularly on the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Here, we have experimentally determined the adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and 2D tungsten disulfide using temperature-programmed terahertz (THz) emission microscopy (TPTEM). The temperature dependence of THz emission from InP surfaces covered with 2D materials reflects the change in oxygen concentration due to thermal desorption, which we used to estimate the adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene (~0.15 eV) and tungsten disulphide (~0.24 eV). Furthermore, we used TPTEM to visualize relative changes in the spatial distribution of oxygen molecules on monolayer graphene during adsorption and desorption. Our results provide much insight into the mechanism of molecular adsorption on the surface of 2D materials, while introducing TPTEM as a novel and powerful tool for molecular surface science.

7.
Opt Express ; 24(4): 3885-93, 2016 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907041

RESUMO

As novel classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures continue to emerge at an increasing pace, methods are being sought for elucidating their electronic properties rapidly, non-destructively, and sensitively. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is a well-established method for characterizing charge carriers in a contactless fashion, but its sensitivity is limited, making it a challenge to study atomically thin materials, which often have low conductivities. Here, we employ THz parallel-plate waveguides to study monolayer graphene with low carrier densities. We demonstrate that a carrier density of ~2 × 10(11) cm(-2), which induces less than 1% absorption in conventional THz transmission spectroscopy, exhibits ~30% absorption in our waveguide geometry. The amount of absorption exponentially increases with both the sheet conductivity and the waveguide length. Therefore, the minimum detectable conductivity of this method sensitively increases by simply increasing the length of the waveguide along which the THz wave propagates. In turn, enabling the detection of low-conductivity carriers in a straightforward, macroscopic configuration that is compatible with any standard time-domain THz spectroscopy setup. These results are promising for further studies of charge carriers in a diverse range of emerging 2D materials.

8.
Sci Rep ; 5: 13860, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350203

RESUMO

Wide-gap semiconductors have received significant attention for their advantages over existing semiconductors in energy-efficient power devices. To realize stable and reliable wide-gap semiconductor devices, the basic physical properties, such as the electric properties on the surface and at the interface, should be revealed. Here, we report visualization of terahertz (THz) emission from the surface of GaN, which is excited by ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses. We found that the THz emission is enhanced by defects related to yellow luminescence, and this phenomenon is explained through the modification of band structures in the surface depletion layer owing to trapped electrons at defect sites. Our results demonstrate that the surface potential in a GaN surface could be detected by laser-induced THz emission. Moreover, this method enables feasible evaluation of the distribution of non-radiative defects, which are undetectable with photoluminescence, and it contributes to the realization normally-off GaN devices.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 24(21): 214003, 2013 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23618809

RESUMO

Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range.


Assuntos
Manufaturas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Modelos Químicos , Refratometria/métodos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Radiação Terahertz , Simulação por Computador , Teste de Materiais , Espalhamento de Radiação , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Opt Lett ; 38(6): 953-5, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503271

RESUMO

We present a simple scheme of narrowband terahertz (THz) generation by optical rectification in the lithium niobate crystal covered by a binary phase mask. It is shown that a single-domain crystal illumination by spatiotemporal shaped fs-laser pulses is equivalent to the formation of a transversally patterned, quasi-phase-matching structure. Decrease of the optical beam size on the mask leads to an increase of the THz-wave linewidth from 17 GHz to a few THz. The frequency of the generation was tuned in the range of 0.4-1.0 THz by building images of the mask in the crystal with various magnifications. Application results of the presented THz source for measuring transmittance of the superconducting NbN thin film in the 4.2-15 K temperature range are also presented.

12.
Opt Express ; 20(23): 25752-7, 2012 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23187392

RESUMO

A simple approach to generate high energy, frequency and bandwidth tunable multicycle THz pulses by optical rectification (OR) of spatially shaped femtosecond laser pulses in the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is proposed and demonstrated. A one dimensional binary shadow mask is used as a laser beam shaper. By building the mask's image in the bulk LN crystal with various demagnifications, the frequency of THz generation was tuned in the range of 0.3 - 1.2 THz. There exist also an opportunity to tune the bandwidth of THz generation from 20 GHz to approximately 1 THz by changing the optical beam size on the crystal. The energy spectral density of narrowband THz generation is almost independent of the bandwidth and is typically 0.18 µJ/THz for ~1 W pump power at 1 kHz repetition rate.

13.
Opt Express ; 20(16): 18397-414, 2012 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23038391

RESUMO

The process of terahertz generation through optical rectification in a nonlinear crystal is modeled using discretized equivalent current sources. The equivalent terahertz sources are distributed in the active volume and computed based on a separately modeled near-infrared pump beam. This approach can be used to define an appropriate excitation for full-wave electromagnetic numerical simulations of the generated terahertz radiation. This enables predictive modeling of the near-field interactions of the terahertz beam with micro-structured samples, e.g. in a near-field time-resolved microscopy system. The distributed source model is described in detail, and an implementation in a particular full-wave simulation tool is presented. The numerical results are then validated through a series of measurements on square apertures. The general principle can be applied to other nonlinear processes with possible implementation in any full-wave numerical electromagnetic solver.

14.
Opt Lett ; 37(19): 4155-7, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23027310

RESUMO

It is theoretically shown that application of a phase mask in optical rectification scheme is equivalent to spatial modulation of the crystal's nonlinear coefficient in cross-section plane of the laser beam. It allows using the technique of quasi-phase-matching for efficient noncollinear terahertz (THz) generation by using high-power wide-aperture optical beam. According to calculations, the linewidth of THz generation can be varied from 10 GHz to a few THz by changing the optical beam size. It is shown that the frequency of THz generation can be also tuned by building the image of the phase mask in the crystal with variable magnification.

15.
Opt Express ; 20(12): 12959-65, 2012 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22714323

RESUMO

We have proposed and developed a scanning laser terahertz (THz) near-field imaging system using a 1.56 µm femtosecond fiber laser for high spatial resolution and high-speed measurement. To obtain the two-dimensional (2D) THz images of samples, the laser pulses are scanned over a 2D THz emitter plate [DASC: 4'-dimenthylamino-N-methyl-4- stilbazolium p-chlorobenzenesulfonate] by a galvano meter. In this system, THz wave pulses locally generated at the laser irradiation spots transmit through the sample set on the emitter, and the amplitude of the transmitted THz wave pulse is detected by using a typical THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Using this system, we have succeeded in obtaining THz transmission images of a triangle shaped metal sheet of millimeter-size and a human hair sample with a spatial resolution of sub-wavelength order up to ~27 µm (~λTHz/28) at an imaging speed of about 47 seconds/image for 512 x 512 pixels.

16.
Nano Lett ; 12(7): 3711-5, 2012 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22663563

RESUMO

We have fabricated a centimeter-size single-layer graphene device with a gate electrode, which can modulate the transmission of terahertz and infrared waves. Using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in a wide frequency range (10-10 000 cm(-1)), we measured the dynamic conductivity change induced by electrical gating and thermal annealing. Both methods were able to effectively tune the Fermi energy, E(F), which in turn modified the Drude-like intraband absorption in the terahertz as well as the "2E(F) onset" for interband absorption in the mid-infrared. These results not only provide fundamental insight into the electromagnetic response of Dirac fermions in graphene but also demonstrate the key functionalities of large-area graphene devices that are desired for components in terahertz and infrared optoelectronics.

17.
Opt Express ; 20(8): 8784-90, 2012 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22513589

RESUMO

A new scheme of optical rectification (OR) of femtosecond laser pulses in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal, which generates high energy and bandwidth tunable multicycle THz pulses, is proposed and demonstrated. We show that the number of the oscillation cycles of the THz electric field and therefore bandwidth of generated THz spectrum can easily and smoothly be tuned from a few tens of GHz to a few THz by changing the pump optical spot size on PPLN crystal. The minimal bandwidth is 17 GHz that is smallest ever of reported in scheme of THz generation by OR at room temperature. Similar to the case of Cherenkov-type OR in single-domain LiNbO3, the spectrum of THz generation extends from 0.1 THz to 3 THz when laser beam is focused to a size close to half-period of PPLN structure. The energy spectral density of narrowband THz generation is almost independent of the bandwidth and is typically 220 nJ/THz for ~1 W pump power at 1 kHz repetition rate.

18.
Opt Express ; 20(3): 3345-52, 2012 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22330572

RESUMO

Planar metamaterials consisting of subwavelength resonators have been recently proposed for thin dielectric film sensing in the terahertz frequency range. Although the thickness of the dielectric film can be very small compared with the wavelength, the required area of sensed material is still determined by the diffraction-limited spot size of the terahertz beam excitation. In this article, terahertz near-field sensing is utilized to reduce the spot size. By positioning the metamaterial sensing platform close to the sub-diffraction terahertz source, the number of excited resonators, and hence minimal film area, are significantly reduced. As an additional advantage, a reduction in the number of excited resonators decreases the inter-cell coupling strength, and consequently the resonance Q factor is remarkably increased. The experimental results show that the resonance Q factor is improved by more than a factor of two compared to the far-field measurement. Moreover, for a film with a thickness of λ/375 the minimal area can be as small as 0.2λ × 0.2λ. The success of this work provides a platform for future metamaterial-based sensors for biomolecular detection.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Dispositivos Ópticos , Transdutores , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Radiação Terahertz
19.
Nano Lett ; 12(2): 787-90, 2012 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22268490

RESUMO

We demonstrate a terahertz polarizer built with stacks of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibiting ideal broadband terahertz properties: 99.9% degree of polarization and extinction ratios of 10(-3) (or 30 dB) from ~0.4 to 2.2 THz. Compared to structurally tuned and fragile wire-grid systems, the performance in these polarizers is driven by the inherent anistropic absorption of SWCNTs that enables a physically robust structure. Supported by a scalable dry contact-transfer approach, these SWCNT-based polarizers are ideal for emerging terahertz applications.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Dispositivos Ópticos , Anisotropia , Membranas Artificiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Espectroscopia Terahertz
20.
Opt Express ; 19(11): 10864-73, 2011 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21643344

RESUMO

We have investigated the characteristics of THz emissions from p/n junctions with metallic lines under non-bias conditions. The waveforms, spectra, and polarizations depend on the length and shape of the lines. This indicates that the transient photocurrents from p/n junctions flow into the metallic lines that emit THz waves and act as an antenna. We have successfully demonstrated the non-contact inspection of open defects of multi-layered interconnects in a large-scale integrated circuit using the laser THz emission microscope (LTEM). The p/n junctions connected to the defective interconnects can be identified by comparing the LTEM images of normal and defective circuits.

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