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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104748

RESUMO

In the United States, the public has a constitutional right to access criminal trial proceedings. In practice, it can be difficult or impossible for the public to exercise this right. We present JUSTFAIR: Judicial System Transparency through Federal Archive Inferred Records, a database of criminal sentencing decisions made in federal district courts. We have compiled this data set from public sources including the United States Sentencing Commission, the Federal Judicial Center, the Public Access to Court Electronic Records system, and Wikipedia. With nearly 600,000 records from the years 2001-2018, JUSTFAIR is the first large scale, free, public database that links information about defendants and their demographic characteristics with information about their federal crimes, their sentences, and, crucially, the identity of the sentencing judge.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343722

RESUMO

In its December 2019 edition, the Notices of the American Mathematical Society published an essay critical of the use of diversity statements in academic hiring. The publication of this essay prompted many responses, including three public letters circulated within the mathematical sciences community. Each letter was signed by hundreds of people and was published online, also by the American Mathematical Society. We report on a study of the signatories' demographics, which we infer using a crowdsourcing approach. Letter A highlights diversity and social justice. The pool of signatories contains relatively more individuals inferred to be women and/or members of underrepresented ethnic groups. Moreover, this pool is diverse with respect to the levels of professional security and types of academic institutions represented. Letter B does not comment on diversity, but rather, asks for discussion and debate. This letter was signed by a strong majority of individuals inferred to be white men in professionally secure positions at highly research intensive universities. Letter C speaks out specifically against diversity statements, calling them "a mistake," and claiming that their usage during early stages of faculty hiring "diminishes mathematical achievement." Individuals who signed both Letters B and C, that is, signatories who both privilege debate and oppose diversity statements, are overwhelmingly inferred to be tenured white men at highly research intensive universities. Our empirical results are consistent with theories of power drawn from the social sciences.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/ética , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Logro , Crowdsourcing , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social , Sociedades Científicas/ética , Estados Unidos , Universidades
3.
Chaos ; 29(10): 103116, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675805

RESUMO

In a complex system, the interactions between individual agents often lead to emergent collective behavior such as spontaneous synchronization, swarming, and pattern formation. Beyond the intrinsic properties of the agents, the topology of the network of interactions can have a dramatic influence over the dynamics. In many studies, researchers start with a specific model for both the intrinsic dynamics of each agent and the interaction network and attempt to learn about the dynamics of the model. Here, we consider the inverse problem: given data from a system, can one learn about the model and the underlying network? We investigate arbitrary networks of coupled phase oscillators that can exhibit both synchronous and asynchronous dynamics. We demonstrate that, given sufficient observational data on the transient evolution of each oscillator, machine learning can reconstruct the interaction network and identify the intrinsic dynamics.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212852, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893328

RESUMO

The U.S. art museum sector is grappling with diversity. While previous work has investigated the demographic diversity of museum staffs and visitors, the diversity of artists in their collections has remained unreported. We conduct the first large-scale study of artist diversity in museums. By scraping the public online catalogs of 18 major U.S. museums, deploying a sample of 10,000 artist records comprising over 9,000 unique artists to crowdsourcing, and analyzing 45,000 responses, we infer artist genders, ethnicities, geographic origins, and birth decades. Our results are threefold. First, we provide estimates of gender and ethnic diversity at each museum, and overall, we find that 85% of artists are white and 87% are men. Second, we identify museums that are outliers, having significantly higher or lower representation of certain demographic groups than the rest of the pool. Third, we find that the relationship between museum collection mission and artist diversity is weak, suggesting that a museum wishing to increase diversity might do so without changing its emphases on specific time periods and regions. Our methodology can be used to broadly and efficiently assess diversity in other fields.


Assuntos
Arte , Diversidade Cultural , Museus , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213679, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875410

RESUMO

We use topological data analysis as a tool to analyze the fit of mathematical models to experimental data. This study is built on data obtained from motion tracking groups of aphids in [Nilsen et al., PLOS One, 2013] and two random walk models that were proposed to describe the data. One model incorporates social interactions between the insects via a functional dependence on an aphid's distance to its nearest neighbor. The second model is a control model that ignores this dependence. We compare data from each model to data from experiment by performing statistical tests based on three different sets of measures. First, we use time series of order parameters commonly used in collective motion studies. These order parameters measure the overall polarization and angular momentum of the group, and do not rely on a priori knowledge of the models that produced the data. Second, we use order parameter time series that do rely on a priori knowledge, namely average distance to nearest neighbor and percentage of aphids moving. Third, we use computational persistent homology to calculate topological signatures of the data. Analysis of the a priori order parameters indicates that the interactive model better describes the experimental data than the control model does. The topological approach performs as well as these a priori order parameters and better than the other order parameters, suggesting the utility of the topological approach in the absence of specific knowledge of mechanisms underlying the data.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Social , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos , Movimento (Física) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Chaos ; 29(12): 123125, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893635

RESUMO

We use topological data analysis and machine learning to study a seminal model of collective motion in biology [M. R. D'Orsogna et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 104302 (2006)]. This model describes agents interacting nonlinearly via attractive-repulsive social forces and gives rise to collective behaviors such as flocking and milling. To classify the emergent collective motion in a large library of numerical simulations and to recover model parameters from the simulation data, we apply machine learning techniques to two different types of input. First, we input time series of order parameters traditionally used in studies of collective motion. Second, we input measures based on topology that summarize the time-varying persistent homology of simulation data over multiple scales. This topological approach does not require prior knowledge of the expected patterns. For both unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods, the topological approach outperforms the one that is based on traditional order parameters.

7.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161357, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536970

RESUMO

We study gender representation on the editorial boards of 435 journals in the mathematical sciences. Women are known to comprise approximately 15% of tenure-stream faculty positions in doctoral-granting mathematical sciences departments in the United States. Compared to this group, we find that 8.9% of the 13067 editorships in our study are held by women. We describe group variations within the editorships by identifying specific journals, subfields, publishers, and countries that significantly exceed or fall short of this average. To enable our study, we develop a semi-automated method for inferring gender that has an estimated accuracy of 97.5%. Our findings provide the first measure of gender distribution on editorial boards in the mathematical sciences, offer insights that suggest future studies in the mathematical sciences, and introduce new methods that enable large-scale studies of gender distribution in other fields.


Assuntos
Matemática/organização & administração , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0126383, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970184

RESUMO

We apply tools from topological data analysis to two mathematical models inspired by biological aggregations such as bird flocks, fish schools, and insect swarms. Our data consists of numerical simulation output from the models of Vicsek and D'Orsogna. These models are dynamical systems describing the movement of agents who interact via alignment, attraction, and/or repulsion. Each simulation time frame is a point cloud in position-velocity space. We analyze the topological structure of these point clouds, interpreting the persistent homology by calculating the first few Betti numbers. These Betti numbers count connected components, topological circles, and trapped volumes present in the data. To interpret our results, we introduce a visualization that displays Betti numbers over simulation time and topological persistence scale. We compare our topological results to order parameters typically used to quantify the global behavior of aggregations, such as polarization and angular momentum. The topological calculations reveal events and structure not captured by the order parameters.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e83343, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24376691

RESUMO

From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Animais , Aglomeração , Ervilhas/parasitologia , Processos Estocásticos
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 8(8): e1002642, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22916003

RESUMO

Locusts exhibit two interconvertible behavioral phases, solitarious and gregarious. While solitarious individuals are repelled from other locusts, gregarious insects are attracted to conspecifics and can form large aggregations such as marching hopper bands. Numerous biological experiments at the individual level have shown how crowding biases conversion towards the gregarious form. To understand the formation of marching locust hopper bands, we study phase change at the collective level, and in a quantitative framework. Specifically, we construct a partial integrodifferential equation model incorporating the interplay between phase change and spatial movement at the individual level in order to predict the dynamics of hopper band formation at the population level. Stability analysis of our model reveals conditions for an outbreak, characterized by a large scale transition to the gregarious phase. A model reduction enables quantification of the temporal dynamics of each phase, of the proportion of the population that will eventually gregarize, and of the time scale for this to occur. Numerical simulations provide descriptions of the aggregation's structure and reveal transiently traveling clumps of gregarious insects. Our predictions of aggregation and mass gregarization suggest several possible future biological experiments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Biológicos
11.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 85(2 Pt 2): 026215, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463307

RESUMO

We study instabilities and pattern formation in reaction-diffusion layers that are diffusively coupled. For two-layer systems of identical two-component reactions, we analyze the stability of homogeneous steady states by exploiting the block symmetric structure of the linear problem. There are eight possible primary bifurcation scenarios, including a Turing-Turing bifurcation that involves two disparate length scales whose ratio may be tuned via the interlayer coupling. For systems of n-component layers and nonidentical layers, the linear problem's block form allows approximate decomposition into lower-dimensional linear problems if the coupling is sufficiently weak. As an example, we apply these results to a two-layer Brusselator system. The competing length scales engineered within the linear problem are readily apparent in numerical simulations of the full system. Selecting a sqrt[2]:1 length-scale ratio produces an unusual steady square pattern.

12.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 81(2 Pt 2): 026213, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20365644

RESUMO

We study time-periodic forcing of spatially extended patterns near a Turing-Hopf bifurcation point. A symmetry-based normal form analysis yields several predictions, including that (i) weak forcing near the intrinsic Hopf frequency enhances or suppresses the Turing amplitude by an amount that scales quadratically with the forcing strength, and (ii) the strongest effect is seen for forcing that is detuned from the Hopf frequency. To apply our results to specific models, we perform a perturbation analysis on general two-component reaction-diffusion systems, which reveals whether the forcing suppresses or enhances the spatial pattern. For the suppressing case, our results are consistent with features of previous experiments on the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid chemical reaction. However, we also find examples of the enhancing case, which has not yet been observed in experiment. Numerical simulations verify the predicted dependence on the forcing parameters.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Bull Math Biol ; 68(7): 1601-23, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16858662

RESUMO

We construct a continuum model for biological aggregations in which individuals experience long-range social attraction and short-range dispersal. For the case of one spatial dimension, we study the steady states analytically and numerically. There exist strongly nonlinear states with compact support and steep edges that correspond to localized biological aggregations, or clumps. These steady-state clumps are reached through a dynamic coarsening process. In the limit of large population size, the clumps approach a constant density swarm with abrupt edges. We use energy arguments to understand the nonlinear selection of clump solutions, and to predict the internal density in the large population limit. The energy result holds in higher dimensions as well, and is demonstrated via numerical simulations in two dimensions.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Comportamento Espacial , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Simulação por Computador , Atividade Motora , Densidade Demográfica
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(3): 034502, 2004 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15323826

RESUMO

We use symmetry considerations to investigate control of a class of resonant three-wave interactions relevant to pattern formation in weakly damped, parametrically forced systems near onset. We classify and tabulate the most important damped, resonant modes and determine how the corresponding resonant triad interactions depend on the forcing parameters. The relative phase of the forcing terms may be used to enhance or suppress the nonlinear interactions. We compare our symmetry-based predictions with numerical and experimental results for Faraday waves. Our results suggest how to design multifrequency forcing functions that favor chosen patterns in the lab.

15.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 70(6 Pt 2): 066206, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15697483

RESUMO

We show how pattern formation in Faraday waves may be manipulated by varying the harmonic content of the periodic forcing function. Our approach relies on the crucial influence of resonant triad interactions coupling pairs of critical standing wave modes with damped, spatiotemporally resonant modes. Under the assumption of weak damping and forcing, we perform a symmetry-based analysis that reveals the damped modes most relevant for pattern selection, and how the strength of the corresponding triad interactions depends on the forcing frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. In many cases, the further assumption of Hamiltonian structure in the inviscid limit determines whether the given triad interaction has an enhancing or suppressing effect on related patterns. Surprisingly, even for forcing functions with arbitrarily many frequency components, there are at most five frequencies that affect each of the important triad interactions at leading order. The relative phases of those forcing components play a key role, sometimes making the difference between an enhancing and suppressing effect. In numerical examples, we examine the validity of our results for larger values of the damping and forcing. Finally, we apply our findings to one-dimensional periodic patterns obtained with impulsive forcing and to two-dimensional superlattice patterns and quasipatterns obtained with multifrequency forcing.

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