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1.
Anal Chem ; 91(8): 5074-5082, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921513

RESUMO

Measurements of the water activity-dependent viscosity of aerosol particles from two techniques are compared, specifically from the coalescence of two droplets in holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and poke-and-flow experiments on particles deposited onto a glass substrate. These new data are also compared with the fitting of dimer coagulation, isolation, and coalescence (DCIC) measurements. The aerosol system considered in this work are ternary mixtures of sucrose-citric acid-water and sucrose-NaNO3-water, at varying solute mass ratios. Results from HOT and poke-and-flow are in excellent agreement over their overlapping range of applicability (∼103-107 Pa s); fitted curves from DCIC data show variable agreement with the other two techniques because of the sensitivity of the applied modeling framework to the representation of water content in the particles. Further, two modeling approaches for the predictions of the water activity-dependent viscosity of these ternary systems are evaluated. We show that it is possible to represent their viscosity with relatively simple mixing rules applied to the subcooled viscosity values of each component or to the viscosity of the corresponding binary mixtures.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 956, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511168

RESUMO

The importance of organic aerosol particles in the environment has been long established, influencing cloud formation and lifetime, absorbing and scattering sunlight, affecting atmospheric composition and impacting on human health. Conventionally, ambient organic particles were considered to exist as liquids. Recent observations in field measurements and studies in the laboratory suggest that they may instead exist as highly viscous semi-solids or amorphous glassy solids under certain conditions, with important implications for atmospheric chemistry, climate and air quality. This review explores our understanding of aerosol particle phase, particularly as identified by measurements of the viscosity of organic particles, and the atmospheric implications of phase state.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(47): 31634-31646, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164191

RESUMO

The physicochemical changes experienced by organic aerosol particles undergoing dehydration into the surrounding gas phase can be drastic, forcing rapid vitrification of the particle and suppressing internal diffusion. Until recently, experimental studies have concentrated on quantifying diffusional mixing of either water or non-volatile components, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of semivolatile organic component (SVOC) diffusion and volatilisation in maintaining the equilibrium between the gas and particle phases. Here we present methods to simultaneously investigate diffusivities and volatilities in studies of evolving single ternary aerosol particle size and composition. Analysing particles of ternary composition must account for the multiple chemical species that volatilise in response to a step change in gas phase water activity. In addition, treatments of diffusion in multicomponent mixtures are necessary to represent evolving heterogeneities in particle composition. We find that the contributions to observed size behaviour from volatilisation of water and a SVOC can be decoupled and treated separately. Employing Fickian diffusion modelling, we extract the compositional dependence of the diffusion constant of water and compare the results to recently published parametrisations in binary aerosol particles. The treatment of ideality and activity in each case is discussed, with reference to use in multicomponent core shell models. Meanwhile, the evaporation of an SVOC into an unsaturated gas flow may be treated by Maxwell's equation, with slow diffusional transport manifesting as a suppression in the extracted vapour pressure.

4.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 639-661, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574570

RESUMO

Laboratory studies can provide important insights into the processes that occur at the scale of individual particles in ambient aerosol. We examine the accuracies of measurements of core physicochemical properties of aerosols that can be made in single particle studies and explore the impact of these properties on the microscopic processes that occur in ambient aerosol. Presenting new measurements, we examine here the refinements in our understanding of aerosol hygroscopicity, surface tension, viscosity and optical properties that can be gained from detailed laboratory measurements for complex mixtures through to surrogates for secondary organic atmospheric aerosols.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(41): 8123-8137, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684278

RESUMO

Organic aerosol particles are known to often absorb/desorb water continuously with change in gas phase relative humidity (RH) without crystallization. Indeed, the prevalence of metastable ultraviscous liquid or amorphous phases in aerosol is well-established with solutes often far exceeding bulk phase solubility limits. Particles are expected to become increasingly viscous with drying, a consequence of the plasticizing effect of water. We report here measurements of the variation in aerosol particle viscosity with RH (equal to condensed phase water activity) for a range of organic solutes including alcohols (diols to hexols), saccharides (mono-, di-, and tri-), and carboxylic acids (di-, tri-, and mixtures). Particle viscosities are measured over a wide range (10-3 to 1010 Pa s) using aerosol optical tweezers, inferring the viscosity from the time scale for a composite particle to relax to a perfect sphere following the coalescence of two particles. Aerosol measurements compare well with bulk phase studies (well-within an order of magnitude deviation at worst) over ranges of water activity accessible to both. Predictions of pure component viscosity from group contribution approaches combined with either nonideal or ideal mixing reproduce the RH-dependent trends particularly well for the alcohol, di-, and tricarboxylic acid systems extending up to viscosities of 104 Pa s. By contrast, predictions overestimate the viscosity by many orders of magnitude for the mono-, di-, and trisaccharide systems, components for which the pure component subcooled melt viscosities are ≫1012 Pa s. When combined with a typical scheme for simulating the oxidation of α-pinene, a typical atmospheric pathway to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these predictive tools suggest that the pure component viscosities are less than 106 Pa s for ∼97% of the 50,000 chemical products included in the scheme. These component viscosities are consistent with the conclusion that the viscosity of α-pinene SOA is most likely in the range 105 to 108 Pa s. Potential improvements to the group contribution predictive tools for pure component viscosities are considered.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(16): 9298-305, 2014 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062124

RESUMO

The growth, composition, and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are governed by properties of individual compounds and ensemble mixtures that affect partitioning between the vapor and condensed phase. There has been considerable recent interest in the idea that SOA can form highly viscous particles where the diffusion of either water or semivolatile organics within the particle is sufficiently hindered to affect evaporation and growth. Despite numerous indirect inferences of viscous behavior from SOA evaporation or "bounce" within aerosol instruments, there have been no bulk measurements of the viscosity of well-constrained model aerosol systems of atmospheric significance. Here the viscous behavior of a well-defined model system of 9 dicarboxylic acids is investigated directly with complementary measurements and model predictions used to infer phase state. Results not only allow us to discuss the atmospheric implications for SOA formation through this representative mixture, but also the potential impact of current methodologies used for probing this affect in both the laboratory and from a modeling perspective. We show, quantitatively, that the physical state transformation from liquid-like to amorphous semisolid can substantially increase the importance of mass transfer limitations within particles by 7 orders of magnitude for 100 nm diameter particles. Recommendations for future research directions are given.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Modelos Químicos , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Difusão , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Viscosidade , Água/química
7.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(16): 3428-41, 2013 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23506155

RESUMO

In order to model the properties and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), estimated physical property data for many thousands of organic compounds are required. Seven methods for estimating liquid density are assessed against experimental data for a test set of 56 multifunctional organic compounds. The group contribution method of Schroeder coupled with the Rackett equation using critical properties by Nannoolal was found to give the best liquid density values for this test set. During this work some problems with the representation of certain groups (aromatic amines and phenols) within the critical property estimation methods were identified, highlighting the importance (and difficulties) of deriving the parameters of group contribution methods from good quality experimental data. A selection of the estimation methods are applied to the 2742 compounds of an atmospheric chemistry mechanism, which showed that they provided consistent liquid density values for compounds with such atmospherically important (but poorly studied) functional groups as hydroperoxide, peroxide, peroxyacid, and PAN. Estimated liquid density values are also presented for a selection of compounds predicted to be important in atmospheric SOA. Hygroscopic growth factor (a property expected to depend on liquid density) has been calculated for a wide range of particle compositions. A low sensitivity of the growth factor to liquid density was found, and a single density value of 1350 kg·m(-3) could be used for all multicomponent SOA in the calculation of growth factors for comparison with experimentally measured values in the laboratory or the field without incurring significant error.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Atmosfera/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aminas/química , Modelos Químicos , Peróxidos/química , Transição de Fase , Fenóis/química , Água/química
8.
Faraday Discuss ; 165: 45-73, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24600996

RESUMO

Carbonyl oxides ("Criegee intermediates"), formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes, are key species in tropospheric oxidation of organic molecules and their decomposition provides a non-photolytic source of OH in the atmosphere (Johnson and Marston, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2008, 37, 699, Harrison et al, Sci, Total Environ., 2006, 360, 5, Gäb et al., Nature, 1985, 316, 535, ref. 1-3). Recently it was shown that small Criegee intermediates, C.I.'s, react far more rapidly with SO2 than typically represented in tropospheric models, (Welz, Science, 2012, 335, 204, ref. 4) which suggested that carbonyl oxides could have a substantial influence on the atmospheric oxidation of SO2. Oxidation of 502 is the main atmospheric source of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), which is a critical contributor to aerosol formation, although questions remain about the fundamental nucleation mechanism (Sipilä et al., Science, 2010, 327, 1243, Metzger et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010 107, 6646, Kirkby et al., Nature, 2011, 476, 429, ref. 5-7). Non-absorbing atmospheric aerosols, by scattering incoming solar radiation and acting as cloud condensation nuclei, have a cooling effect on climate (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ref. 8). Here we explore the effect of the Criegees on atmospheric chemistry, and demonstrate that ozonolysis of alkenes via the reaction of Criegee intermediates potentially has a large impact on atmospheric sulphuric acid concentrations and consequently the first steps in aerosol production. Reactions of Criegee intermediates with SO2 will compete with and in places dominate over the reaction of OH with SO2 (the only other known gas-phase source of H2SO4) in many areas of the Earth's surface. In the case that the products of Criegee intermediate reactions predominantly result in H2SO4 formation, modelled particle nucleation rates can be substantially increased by the improved experimentally obtained estimates of the rate coefficients of Criegee intermediate reactions. Using both regional and global scale modelling, we show that this enhancement is likely to be highly variable spatially with local hot-spots in e.g. urban outflows. This conclusion is however contingent on a number of remaining uncertainties in Criegee intermediate chemistry.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Atmosfera , Ácidos Sulfúricos/análise , Oxirredução
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(48): 12682-91, 2010 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21067131

RESUMO

Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aerossóis/química , Umidade , Análise Espectral Raman , Termodinâmica
10.
J Phys Chem A ; 112(39): 9413-22, 2008 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18593140

RESUMO

Aerosol optical tweezers are used to simultaneously characterize and compare the hygroscopic properties of two aerosol droplets, one containing inorganic and organic solutes and the second, referred to as the control droplet, containing a single inorganic salt. The inorganic solute is either sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate and the organic component is glutaric acid. The time variation in the size of each droplet (3-7 microm in radius) is recorded with 1 s time resolution and with nanometre accuracy. The size of the control droplet is used to estimate the relative humidity with an accuracy of better than +/-0.09%. Thus, the Kohler curve of the multicomponent inorganic/organic droplet, which characterizes the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity, can be determined directly. The measurements presented here focus on high relative humidities, above 97%, in the limit of dilute solutes. The experimental data are compared with theoretical treatments that, while ignoring the interactions between the inorganic and organic components, are based upon accurate representations of the activity-concentration relationships of aqueous solutions of the individual salts. The organic component is treated by a parametrized fit to experimental data or by the UNIFAC model and the water activity of the equilibrium solution droplet is calculated using the approach suggested by Clegg, Seinfeld and Brimblecombe or the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson approximation. It is shown that such an experimental strategy, comparing directly droplets of different composition, enables highly accurate measurements of the hygroscopic properties, allowing the theoretical treatments to be rigorously tested. Typical deviations of the experimental measurements from theoretical predictions are shown to be around 1% in equilibrium size, comparable to the variation between the theoretical frameworks considered.

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