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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1452, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210229

RESUMO

In mice, the maternal microbiome influences fetal immune development and postnatal allergic outcomes. Westernized populations have high rates of allergic disease and low rates of gastrointestinal carriage of Prevotella, a commensal bacterial genus that produces short chain fatty acids and endotoxins, each of which may promote the development of fetal immune tolerance. In this study, we use a prebirth cohort (n = 1064 mothers) to conduct a nested case-cohort study comparing 58 mothers of babies with clinically proven food IgE mediated food allergy with 258 randomly selected mothers. Analysis of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples shows maternal carriage of Prevotella copri during pregnancy strongly predicts the absence of food allergy in the offspring. This association was confirmed using targeted qPCR and was independent of infant carriage of P. copri. Larger household size, which is a well-established protective factor for allergic disease, strongly predicts maternal carriage of P. copri.

2.
Anal Chem ; 91(8): 5074-5082, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921513

RESUMO

Measurements of the water activity-dependent viscosity of aerosol particles from two techniques are compared, specifically from the coalescence of two droplets in holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and poke-and-flow experiments on particles deposited onto a glass substrate. These new data are also compared with the fitting of dimer coagulation, isolation, and coalescence (DCIC) measurements. The aerosol system considered in this work are ternary mixtures of sucrose-citric acid-water and sucrose-NaNO3-water, at varying solute mass ratios. Results from HOT and poke-and-flow are in excellent agreement over their overlapping range of applicability (∼103-107 Pa s); fitted curves from DCIC data show variable agreement with the other two techniques because of the sensitivity of the applied modeling framework to the representation of water content in the particles. Further, two modeling approaches for the predictions of the water activity-dependent viscosity of these ternary systems are evaluated. We show that it is possible to represent their viscosity with relatively simple mixing rules applied to the subcooled viscosity values of each component or to the viscosity of the corresponding binary mixtures.

3.
Nature ; 565(7741): 587-593, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700872

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol contributes to the atmospheric particle burden with implications for air quality and climate. Biogenic volatile organic compounds such as terpenoids emitted from plants are important secondary organic aerosol precursors with isoprene dominating the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds globally. However, the particle mass from isoprene oxidation is generally modest compared to that of other terpenoids. Here we show that isoprene, carbon monoxide and methane can each suppress the instantaneous mass and the overall mass yield derived from monoterpenes in mixtures of atmospheric vapours. We find that isoprene 'scavenges' hydroxyl radicals, preventing their reaction with monoterpenes, and the resulting isoprene peroxy radicals scavenge highly oxygenated monoterpene products. These effects reduce the yield of low-volatility products that would otherwise form secondary organic aerosol. Global model calculations indicate that oxidant and product scavenging can operate effectively in the real atmosphere. Thus highly reactive compounds (such as isoprene) that produce a modest amount of aerosol are not necessarily net producers of secondary organic particle mass and their oxidation in mixtures of atmospheric vapours can suppress both particle number and mass of secondary organic aerosol. We suggest that formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere need to be considered more realistically, accounting for mechanistic interactions between the products of oxidizing precursor molecules (as is recognized to be necessary when modelling ozone production).

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 956, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511168

RESUMO

The importance of organic aerosol particles in the environment has been long established, influencing cloud formation and lifetime, absorbing and scattering sunlight, affecting atmospheric composition and impacting on human health. Conventionally, ambient organic particles were considered to exist as liquids. Recent observations in field measurements and studies in the laboratory suggest that they may instead exist as highly viscous semi-solids or amorphous glassy solids under certain conditions, with important implications for atmospheric chemistry, climate and air quality. This review explores our understanding of aerosol particle phase, particularly as identified by measurements of the viscosity of organic particles, and the atmospheric implications of phase state.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(47): 31634-31646, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164191

RESUMO

The physicochemical changes experienced by organic aerosol particles undergoing dehydration into the surrounding gas phase can be drastic, forcing rapid vitrification of the particle and suppressing internal diffusion. Until recently, experimental studies have concentrated on quantifying diffusional mixing of either water or non-volatile components, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of semivolatile organic component (SVOC) diffusion and volatilisation in maintaining the equilibrium between the gas and particle phases. Here we present methods to simultaneously investigate diffusivities and volatilities in studies of evolving single ternary aerosol particle size and composition. Analysing particles of ternary composition must account for the multiple chemical species that volatilise in response to a step change in gas phase water activity. In addition, treatments of diffusion in multicomponent mixtures are necessary to represent evolving heterogeneities in particle composition. We find that the contributions to observed size behaviour from volatilisation of water and a SVOC can be decoupled and treated separately. Employing Fickian diffusion modelling, we extract the compositional dependence of the diffusion constant of water and compare the results to recently published parametrisations in binary aerosol particles. The treatment of ideality and activity in each case is discussed, with reference to use in multicomponent core shell models. Meanwhile, the evaporation of an SVOC into an unsaturated gas flow may be treated by Maxwell's equation, with slow diffusional transport manifesting as a suppression in the extracted vapour pressure.

7.
Analyst ; 142(19): 3666-3673, 2017 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879361

RESUMO

Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting, sensitive and robust method for the detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture and results of lithium based ion attachment ionisation sources for two different mass spectrometry systems are presented. In this study trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure measurements are made using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS). In the Li+ CIMS, where the Li+ ionization acts a soft and unselective ionization source, limits of detection of 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt for ammonia were achieved, allowing for ambient measurements of such species at atmospherically relevant concentrations. In the first application of Lithium ion attachment in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), vapor pressures of various atmospherically relevant species were measured with the adapted KEMS, giving measured values equivalent to previous results from electron impact KEMS. In the Li+ KEMS vapour pressures <10-3 mbar can be measured without any fragmentation, as is seen with the initial electron impact (EI) set up, allowing the vapor pressure of individual components within mixtures to be determined.

8.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805735

RESUMO

Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis. Rats were fed with a Western style diet alone (controls) or supplemented with different amounts of Chinese propolis (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) to examine effects on acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Propolis at 0.3%, but not lower levels, significantly improved colitis symptoms compared with the control group, with a less pronounced disease activity index (DAI) (p < 0.001), a significant increase in colon length/weight ratio (p < 0.05) and an improved distal colon tissue structure as assessed by histology. Although short chain fatty acid levels in digesta were not altered by propolis supplementation, 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing revealed a significant increase in gut microbial diversity after 21 days of 0.3% propolis supplementation compared with controls including a significant increase in bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria phyla. This is the first study to demonstrate that propolis can attenuate DSS-induced colitis and provides new insight into diet-microbiota interactions during inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 639-661, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574570

RESUMO

Laboratory studies can provide important insights into the processes that occur at the scale of individual particles in ambient aerosol. We examine the accuracies of measurements of core physicochemical properties of aerosols that can be made in single particle studies and explore the impact of these properties on the microscopic processes that occur in ambient aerosol. Presenting new measurements, we examine here the refinements in our understanding of aerosol hygroscopicity, surface tension, viscosity and optical properties that can be gained from detailed laboratory measurements for complex mixtures through to surrogates for secondary organic atmospheric aerosols.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(7): 3922-3928, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263597

RESUMO

Phenolic and nitro-aromatic compounds are extremely toxic components of atmospheric aerosol that are currently not well understood. In this Article, solid and subcooled-liquid-state saturation vapor pressures of phenolic and nitro-aromatic compounds are measured using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) over a range of temperatures (298-318 K). Vapor pressure estimation methods, assessed in this study, do not replicate the observed dependency on the relative positions of functional groups. With a few exceptions, the estimates are biased toward predicting saturation vapor pressures that are too high, by 5-6 orders of magnitude in some cases. Basic partitioning theory comparisons indicate that overestimation of vapor pressures in such cases would cause us to expect these compounds to be present in the gas state, whereas measurements in this study suggest these phenolic and nitro-aromatic will partition into the condensed state for a wide range of ambient conditions if absorptive partitioning plays a dominant role. While these techniques might have both structural and parametric uncertainties, the new data presented here should support studies trying to ascertain the role of nitrogen containing organics on aerosol growth and human health impacts.


Assuntos
Pressão de Vapor , Volatilização , Nitrocompostos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Temperatura
13.
Nat Immunol ; 18(5): 552-562, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346408

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis might underlie the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we found that key features of disease correlated inversely with blood and fecal concentrations of the microbial metabolites acetate and butyrate. We therefore fed NOD mice specialized diets designed to release large amounts of acetate or butyrate after bacterial fermentation in the colon. Each diet provided a high degree of protection from diabetes, even when administered after breakdown of immunotolerance. Feeding mice a combined acetate- and butyrate-yielding diet provided complete protection, which suggested that acetate and butyrate might operate through distinct mechanisms. Acetate markedly decreased the frequency of autoreactive T cells in lymphoid tissues, through effects on B cells and their ability to expand populations of autoreactive T cells. A diet containing butyrate boosted the number and function of regulatory T cells, whereas acetate- and butyrate-yielding diets enhanced gut integrity and decreased serum concentration of diabetogenic cytokines such as IL-21. Medicinal foods or metabolites might represent an effective and natural approach for countering the numerous immunological defects that contribute to T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Butiratos/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Linfócitos B/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Colo/patologia , Dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interleucinas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Linfócitos T Reguladores/microbiologia
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(41): 8123-8137, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684278

RESUMO

Organic aerosol particles are known to often absorb/desorb water continuously with change in gas phase relative humidity (RH) without crystallization. Indeed, the prevalence of metastable ultraviscous liquid or amorphous phases in aerosol is well-established with solutes often far exceeding bulk phase solubility limits. Particles are expected to become increasingly viscous with drying, a consequence of the plasticizing effect of water. We report here measurements of the variation in aerosol particle viscosity with RH (equal to condensed phase water activity) for a range of organic solutes including alcohols (diols to hexols), saccharides (mono-, di-, and tri-), and carboxylic acids (di-, tri-, and mixtures). Particle viscosities are measured over a wide range (10-3 to 1010 Pa s) using aerosol optical tweezers, inferring the viscosity from the time scale for a composite particle to relax to a perfect sphere following the coalescence of two particles. Aerosol measurements compare well with bulk phase studies (well-within an order of magnitude deviation at worst) over ranges of water activity accessible to both. Predictions of pure component viscosity from group contribution approaches combined with either nonideal or ideal mixing reproduce the RH-dependent trends particularly well for the alcohol, di-, and tricarboxylic acid systems extending up to viscosities of 104 Pa s. By contrast, predictions overestimate the viscosity by many orders of magnitude for the mono-, di-, and trisaccharide systems, components for which the pure component subcooled melt viscosities are ≫1012 Pa s. When combined with a typical scheme for simulating the oxidation of α-pinene, a typical atmospheric pathway to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these predictive tools suggest that the pure component viscosities are less than 106 Pa s for ∼97% of the 50,000 chemical products included in the scheme. These component viscosities are consistent with the conclusion that the viscosity of α-pinene SOA is most likely in the range 105 to 108 Pa s. Potential improvements to the group contribution predictive tools for pure component viscosities are considered.

16.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 67(6): 678-85, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282074

RESUMO

Using barley cultivars differing widely in ß-glucan content, we aimed to determine their effects on small intestinal macronutrient digestion in 24 ileorectostomised rats. The rats were fed 1 of 4 experimental diets, each containing a different barley variety, for 11 d. The diets had a content of 0, 2.1, 2.6 and 4.3 g of ß-glucan/100 g. Feed intake and faecal excretion of fat, protein, starch, and non-starch polysaccharides were determined in the final 5 d of the study and apparent macronutrient digestibility calculated. Higher dietary levels of ß-glucan (2.6% and 4.3%) lowered feed intake (by 15 and 19%, respectively) but final body weight was only lowered by the 4.3% ß-glucan diet relative to rats fed the 0% ß-glucan diet (all ps < 0.05). Protein, lipid and starch digestibility was unrelated to the dietary ß-glucan content. Higher dietary levels of barley ß-glucan lower feed intake of ileorectostomised rats, which is independent of intestinal fermentation and unrelated to macronutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Digestão , Hordeum/química , Ileostomia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/química , beta-Glucanas/análise , Animais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/análise , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
17.
Nutrients ; 8(5)2016 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164138

RESUMO

Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Células CACO-2 , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Polifenóis/química , Própole/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(9): 1616-23, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26585823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and explanations for the avoidance of dairy foods, including symptoms attributed to their consumption, diagnoses and psychological predictors of avoidance. Also considered were comparisons with symptom-related avoidance of wheat in the same sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: The study was conducted in Australia using a national postal omnibus survey. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18 years and over (n 1184; 52·9 % female) selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll. RESULTS: Despite few claims of formally diagnosed allergy or intolerance, 11·8 % of the sample reported avoiding dairy products because of adverse physiological effects, which commonly included gastrointestinal symptoms. Unlike wheat (3·5 %) or wheat-and-dairy (3·6 %) avoidance, dairy avoidance (8·2 %) was predicted by age (negatively) and worry about illness (positively). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are further evidence of a widespread tendency for consumers to exercise control over their health by eliminating dietary factors considered suspect without medical evidence or oversight. Unanswered questions include the decision processes underlying dairy avoidance, whether symptoms are attributed correctly, the agents and physiological mechanism(s) involved, the relative contributions of symptom severity and vigilance to the association with illness worry, and the nutritional adequacy of dairy avoiders' diets. Irrespective of the accuracy of self-diagnoses, if the elimination of suspect foods is an end in itself the paradoxical possibility for nutritional imbalances may have significant public health implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Laticínios , Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triticum/efeitos adversos
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