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1.
Cephalalgia ; : 3331024221082506, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cervical musculoskeletal impairments during the 4 phases of a migraine cycle in episodic migraine patients, controlling for the presence of concomitant neck pain. METHODS: Differences in cervical musculoskeletal impairments were assessed during the 4 migraine phases in episodic migraine patients and compared with healthy controls controlling for concomitant neck pain. Cervical musculoskeletal impairments were assessed as follow: cervical active range of motion; flexion rotation test; craniocervical flexion test and calculation of activation pressure score; the total number of myofascial trigger points in head/neck muscles; the number of positivevertebral segments (headache's reproduction) during passive accessory intervertebral movement; pressure pain thresholds over C1, C2, C4, C6 vertebral segments bilaterally, trigeminal area, hand, and leg. Signs of pain sensitization were assessed by evaluating mechanical pain threshold over trigeminal area and hand, pressure pain thresholds, and the wind-up ratio. The Bonferroni-corrected p-value (05/4 = 0.013) was adopted to assess the difference between groups, while a p-value of 0.05 was considered significant for the correlation analysis. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients and 52 controls were included. Flexion rotation test and craniocervical flexion test were reduced in all 4 phases of the migraine cycle versus healthy controls (p < 0.001). The number of myofascial trigger points and positive vertebral segments was increased in all 4 phases of the migraine cycle versus healthy controls (p < 0.001). Flexion, extension, and total cervical active range of motion and cervical pressure pain thresholds were reduced in episodic migraine in the ictal phase versus controls (p < 0.007) with no other significant differences. Outside the ictal phase, the total cervical active range of motion was positively correlated with trigeminal and leg pressure pain threshold (p < 0.026), the number of active myofascial trigger points and positive positive vertebral segments were positively correlated with higher headache frequency (p=0.045), longer headache duration (p < 0.008), and with headache-related disability (p = 0.031). Cervical pressure pain thresholds were positively correlated with trigeminal, hand, and leg pressure pain threshold (p < 0.001), and trigeminal and leg mechanical pain thresholds (p < 0.005), and negatively correlated with the wind-up ratio (p < 0.004). CONCLUSION: In all phases of the migraine cycle, independent of the presence of concomitant neck pain, episodic migraine patients showed reduced flexion rotation test and craniocervical flexion test and an increased number of myofascial trigger points and passive accessory vertebral segments. These impairments are correlated with enhanced headache duration, headache-related disability, and signs of widespread pain sensitization. Reduction in active cervical movement and increased mechanical hyperalgesia of the cervical was consistent in ictal episodic migraine patients and the subgroups of episodic migraine patients with more pronounced widespread sensitization.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203839

RESUMO

Prematurity exposes newborns to increased risks of infections and it is associated with critical morbidities. Preterm infants often require antibiotic therapies that can affect the correct establishment of gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate targeted intestinal bacteria in preterm neonates with common morbidities and receiving antibiotic treatments of variable duration. Stool samples were collected after birth, at 15, 30 and 90 days of life. qPCR quantification of selected microbial groups (Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides fragilis group, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium cluster I and total bacteria) was performed and correlation between their levels, the duration of antibiotic treatment and different clinical conditions was studied. An increasing trend over time was observed for all microbial groups, especially for Bifdobacterium spp. Prolonged exposure to antibiotics in the first weeks of life affected Clostridium and B. fragilis levels, but these changes no longer persisted at 90 days of life. Variations of bacterial counts were associated with the length of hospital stay, feeding and mechanical ventilation. Late-onset sepsis and patent ductus arteriosus reduced the counts of Bifidobacterium, whereas B. fragilis was influenced by compromised respiratory conditions. This study can be a start point for the identification of microbial biomarkers associated with some common morbidities and tailored strategies for a healthy microbial development.

3.
Headache ; 62(2): 176-190, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessing mechanical pain thresholds from trigeminal, cervical, and distal pain-free areas during the four phases of a migraine cycle in patients with episodic migraine (EM). METHODS: This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study conducted in Parma and Genoa's Headache Centers assessed quantitative sensory tests during the four migraine phases in patients with EM compared to controls. Temporal summation of pain (TSP), static pressure pain threshold (sPPT), and mechanical pinprick pain threshold (MPT) were assessed from the trigeminal area, sPPT and dynamic PPT (dPPT) from the cervical area, sPPT and MPT over the hand, and sPPT from the tibialis anterior. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients and 46 controls were included. TSP was facilitated in ictal EM (EM vs. controls: mean [standard deviation] 2.7 [2.0] vs. 1.4 [1.8]; p = 0.004); trigeminal sPPT and MPT were reduced in interictal (sPPT: 198.5 [79.3] kPa; p = 0.021; MPT: 12.6 [15.7] g; p = 0.001), preictal (sPPT: 200.6 [71.6] kPa; p = 0.033; MPT: 10.7 [12.4] g; p < 0.001), ictal (sPPT: 171.4 [95.9] kPa; p < 0.001; MPT: 7.3 [12.0] g; p < 0.001), and postictal EM (sPPT: 182.2 [76.3] kPa; p = 0.006; MPT: 10.1 [14.9] g; p = 0.001), compared to controls (sPPT: 238.3 [73.8] kPa; MPT: 21.9 [17.3] g). Cervical sPPTs and dPPT were reduced in interictal (sPPT upper cervical spine: 420.5 [176.7] kPa; p = 0.031; sPPT lower cervical spine: 458.6 [207.3] kPa; p = 0.002; dPPT: 4826.5 [2698.0] g; p < 0.001), preictal (sPPT upper cervical spine: 389.3 [133.4] kPa; p = 0.006; sPPT lower cervical spine: 450.8 [174.3] kPa; p = 0.005; dPPT: 4184.2 [2628.3] g; p < 0.001), ictal (sPPT upper cervical spine: 379.9 [205.6] kPa p = 0.003; sPPT lower cervical spine: 436.3 [271.1] kPa; p = 0.001; dPPT: 3838.3 [2638.7] g; p < 0.001), and postictal EM (sPPT upper cervical spine: 385.5 [131.6] kPa; p = 0.020; sPPT lower cervical spine: 413.0 [150.3] kPa; p = 0.002; dPPT: 4679.6 [2894.9] g; p = 0.001), compared to controls (sPPT upper cervical spine: 494.9 [171.5] kPa; sPPT lower cervical spine: 586.9 [210.8] kPa; dPPT: 7693.9 [2896.8] g). Preictal EM had reduced hand sPPT and MPT (sPPT: 248.8 [96.6] kPa vs. 319.8 [112.3] kPa; p = 0.006; MPT: 23.6 [12.2] g vs. 32.5 [14.4] g; p = 0.035), while EM in the other phases showed reduction in hand MPT (interictal: 22.3 [15.6] g vs. 32.5 [14.4] g; p = 0.002; ictal: 22.4 [17.0] g vs. 32.5 [14.4] g; p = 0.004; postictal: 24.2 [18.8] g vs. 32.5 [14.4] g; p = 0.003) without significant reduction in hand sPPT. No difference in sPPT over the tibialis anterior was found. Hand MPT was negatively correlated with longer disease duration (r = -0.25; p = 0.011) and hand sPPT was negatively correlated with higher drug usage (r = -0.31; p = 0.002). TSP during the ictal phase was positively correlated with the physical (r = 0.38; p = 0.040) and emotional headache-related disability (r = 0.53; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In all phases of the migraine cycle, patients with EM show signs of sensitization in the trigeminocervical area, with patients with the most prominent sensitization in the ictal phase. Signs of widespread sensitization were consistent in the preictal phase in patients with EM and in the subgroups of patients with EM with the longest disease duration and more usage of symptomatic drugs.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Cervicalgia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Nervo Trigêmeo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Neurol Sci ; 43(2): 1273-1280, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether erenumab is effective and safe in refractory chronic migraine with medication overuse headache. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentric, real-life study, chronic migraine with medication overuse headache patients who received erenumab were recruited. Study inclusion was limited to patients who previously failed onabotulinumtoxinA in addition to at least three other pharmacological commonly used migraine preventive medication classes. RESULTS: Of 396 patients who received erenumab, 38% (n = 149) met inclusion criteria. After 3 months, 51% (n = 76) and 20% (n = 30) patients achieved ≥ 50% and ≥ 75% reduction in monthly headache days, respectively. Monthly pain medications intake decreased from 46.1 ± 35.3 to 16.8 ± 13.9 (p < 0.001), while monthly headache days decreased from 25.4 ± 5.4 to 14.1 ± 8.6 (p < 0.001). Increasing efficacy of erenumab over the study period was observed. Allodynia was a negative predictive factor of erenumab response (odds ratio = 0.47; p = 0.03). Clinical conversion to episodic migraine with no medication overuse was observed in 64% (n = 96) patients. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Erenumab reduced significantly migraine frequency and pain medication intake in refractory chronic migraine with MOH patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina , Cefaleia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 154, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (mAbs anti-CGRP) pathway are effective and safe on migraine prevention. However, some drug agencies limited these treatments to one year due to their high costs. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of discontinuing mAbs anti-CGRP on monthly migraine days (MMDs) and disability in high-frequency episodic (HFEM) and chronic migraine (CM) patients. METHODS: This observational longitudinal cohort study was conducted at 10 Italian headache centres. Consecutive adult patients were followed-up for three months (F-UP1-3) after discontinuation of a one-year erenumab/galcanezumab treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in F-UP MMDs. Secondary endpoints included variation in pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale, NRS), monthly acute medication intake (MAMI), and HIT-6 scores. We also assessed from F-UP1 to 3 the ≥50% response rate, relapse rate to CM, and recurrence of Medication Overuse (MO). RESULTS: We enrolled 154 patients (72.1% female, 48.2 ± 11.1 years, 107 CM, 47 HFEM); 91 were treated with erenumab, 63 with galcanezumab. From F-UP1 to F-UP3, MMDs, MAMI, NRS, and HIT-6 progressively increased but were still lower at F-UP3 than baseline (Friedman's analysis of rank, p < .001). In the F-UP1-3 visits, ≥50% response rate frequency did not differ significantly between CM and HFEM patients. However, the median reduction in response rate at F-UP3 was higher in HFEM (- 47.7% [25th, - 79.5; 75th,-17.0]) than in CM patients (- 25.5% [25th, - 47.1; 75th, - 3.3]; Mann-Whitney U test; p = .032). Of the 84 baseline CM patients who had reverted to episodic migraine, 28 (33.3%) relapsed to CM at F-UP1, 35 (41.7%) at F-UP2, 39 (46.4%) at F-UP3. Of the 64 baseline patients suffering of medication overuse headache ceasing MO, 15 (18.3%) relapsed to MO at F-UP1, 26 (31.6%) at F-UP2, and 30 (42.3%, 11 missing data) at F-UP3. Lower MMDs, MAMI, NRS, and HIT-6 and higher response rate in the last month of therapy characterized patients with ≥50% response rate at F-UP1 and F-UP3 (Mann-Whitney U test; consistently p < .01). CONCLUSION: Migraine frequency and disability gradually increased after mAbs anti-CGRP interruption. Most patients did not relapse to MO or CM despite the increase in MMDs. Our data suggest to reconsider mAbs anti-CGRP discontinuation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Pain Ther ; 10(2): 1605-1618, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migraine is mostly a female disorder because of its lower prevalence in men. Less than 20% of patients included in the available studies on migraine treatments are men; hence, the evidence on migraine treatments might not apply to men. The aims of the present study were to provide reliable information on the effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA (BT-A) for chronic migraine in men and to compare clinical benefits between men and women. METHODS: We performed a pooled patient-level gender-specific analysis of real-life data on BT-A for chronic migraine of patients followed-up to 9 months. We reported the 50% responder rates during each BT-A cycle, defined as percentage of reduction in monthly headache days (MHDs) compared to baseline, along with 75% and 30% responder rates. We also reported the mean decrease in MHDs and in days of acute medication use (DAMs) during each BT-A cycle as compared to baseline. We also evaluated the reasons for stopping the treatment within the third cycle. RESULTS: We included an overall cohort of 2879 patients, 522 of whom (18.1%) were men. In men, 50% responder rates were 27.7% during the first BT-A cycle, 29.2% during the second, and 35.6% during the third cycle; in women, the corresponding rates were 26.6%, 33.5%, and 41.0%. In the overall cohort, responder rates did not differ between men and women during the first two cycles; during the third cycle, the distribution was different (P < 0.001) mostly because of higher rates of treatment stopping and non-responders in men. In the propensity score matched cohort, the trend was maintained but lost its statistical significance. Both men and women had a significant decrease in MHDs and in DAMs with BT-A treatment (P < 0.001). There were no gender differences in those changes with the only exception of MHD decrease which, during the third cycle, was lower in men than in women (7.4 vs 8.2 days, P = 0.016 in the overall cohort and 9.1 vs 12.5 days, P = 0.009 in the propensity score matched cohort). At the end of follow-up, 152 men and 485 women stopped BT-A treatment (29.1% vs 20.6%; P < 0.001). The relative proportion of patients stopping treatment because of inadequate response (less than 30% decrease in MHDs from baseline) was higher in men than in women (42.8% vs 39.6%), while the proportion of patients stopping because of adverse events was higher in women than in men (5.6% vs 0%; P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Our pooled analysis suggests that the response to BT-A is significant in both men and women with a small gender difference in favor of women. Men tended to stop the treatment more frequently than women. We emphasize the need for more gender-specific data on migraine treatments from randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

7.
Headache ; 61(9): 1351-1363, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of erenumab in a real-world migraine population, looking for putative predictors of responsiveness. BACKGROUND: Erenumab proved to be effective, safe, and well tolerated in the prevention of episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM) in long-term extension studies of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with no more than two (EM) or three (CM) prior preventive treatment failures. METHODS: A 48-week, multicenter, longitudinal cohort real-life study was conducted at 15 headache centers across eight Italian regions between December 20, 2018 and July 31, 2020. We considered all consecutive patients with high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) or CM aged 18-65 years. Each patient was treated with erenumab 70 mg, administered monthly. The dose was switched to 140 mg in nonresponders and in responders who had become nonresponders for at least 4 weeks. Change in monthly migraine days (MMDs) or monthly headache days (MHDs) at Weeks 45-48 compared with baseline was the primary efficacy endpoint. Secondary endpoints encompassed variation in monthly analgesic intake, achievement of a ≥50%, ≥75%, or 100% reduction in migraine or headache days, and any change in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Headache Impact Test-6 scores (HIT-6) during the same time interval. RESULTS: A total of 242 patients with migraine received at least one dose of erenumab 70 mg and were considered for safety analysis, whereas 221 received a monthly erenumab dose for ≥48 weeks and were included in the effectiveness and safety analysis set. All patients had previously been treated unsuccessfully with ≥3 migraine-preventive medication classes. From baseline to Weeks 45-48, erenumab treatment reduced MMD by 4.3 ± 5.3 (mean ± SD) in patients with HFEM, and MHD by 12.8 ± 8.9 (mean ± SD) in subjects with CM. VAS and HIT-6 scores were decreased by 1.8 ± 1.9 (mean ± SD) and 12.3 ± 11 (mean ± SD) in HFEM, and by 3.0 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) and 13.1 ± 11.2 (mean ± SD) in CM. Median monthly analgesic intake passed from 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 10.0-13.0) to 5 (IQR 2.0-8.0) in HFEM and from 20.0 (IQR 15.0-30.0) to 6.0 (IQR 3.8-10.0) in CM. The ≥50% responders were 56.1% (32/57) in HFEM and 75.6% (124/164) in CM; ≥75% responders were 31.6% (18/57) and 44.5% (73/164); and 100% responders were 8.8% (5/57) and 1.2% (2/164), respectively. At Week 48, 83.6% (137/164) of patients with CM had reverted to EM. Erenumab was safe and well tolerated. Responsiveness to erenumab was positively associated with cutaneous allodynia (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 1.52-19.41; p = 0.009) in HFEM. In patients with CM, ≥50% responsiveness was positively associated with male sex (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.03-8.7; p = 0.044) and baseline migraine frequency (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05-1.20; p = 0.001) and negatively associated with psychiatric comorbidities (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.87; p = 0.023) and prior treatment failures (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.92; p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term (48-week) erenumab treatment provides sustained effectiveness, safety, and tolerability in real-life patients with HFEM or CM with ≥3 prior preventive treatment failures. The dose of 140 mg was required in most patients along the study and should be taken into consideration as the starting dose. Allodynia (in HFEM), male sex, and baseline migraine frequency (in CM) might represent positive responsiveness predictors. Conversely, psychiatric comorbidities and multiple prior preventive treatment failures could be negative predictors in patients with CM.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Scand J Pain ; 21(4): 766-777, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This observational study aimed to assess the difference in disability, burden, and sensitization between migraine patients with low-frequency headache attack (1-8 headache days/month), high-frequency headache attack (9-14 headache days/months), and patients with chronic migraine (>14 headache days/months). METHODS: Migraine patients with or without aura were divided into three groups according to headache frequency (low-frequency episodic migraine; high-frequency episodic migraine; chronic migraine). Questionnaires were used to assess the burden of headache, quality of life, phycological burden, and symptoms related to sensitization (estimated by the Central Sensitization Inventory). Differences among migraine groups were assessed using Chi-Quadro test, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis as appropriate. RESULTS: 136 patients were included (68 low-frequency episodic migraine, 45 high-frequency episodic migraine, 23 chronic migraine). Patients with high frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine differed from patients with low frequency episodic migraine showing a worse burden of headache (p=0.002; p=0.002), worse level of physical (p=0.001; p<0.001) and mental (p=0.002; p=0.001) quality of life, worse level of depression (p=0.008; p=0.003), and increase presence of symptoms related to sensitization (p<0.001; p=0.003). No differences were found in any variables between patients with high-frequency episodic migraine and patients with chronic migraine (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high-frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine could be considered in the same segment of the migraine population, with similar degrees of disability and sensitization related symptoms.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Headache ; 61(6): 936-950, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a dedicated Italian chronic migraine (CM) database (IRON project) to overcome disease misconceptions, improve clinical administration, reduce patients' burden, and rationalize economic resource allotment. BACKGROUND: Proper CM management requires a comprehensive appraisal of its full clinical, social, and economic complexity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, CM patients were screened in 24 certified headache centers with face-to-face interviews. Information on sociodemographic factors, medical history, characteristics of CM, and of prior episodic migraine (EM), and healthcare resource use was gathered using a semistructured web-based questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 866 CM patients were enrolled. CM started ~20 years after EM onset (age at EM onset 17.4 ± 9.1 vs. age at CM onset 35.3 ± 12.5 [mean ± SD]). CM prophylaxis, used by 430/866 (49.6%) of the patients, was often ineffective, not tolerated, and prematurely discontinued. Medications and diagnostic workup, frequently inappropriate, were mostly subsidized by the Italian national health service. CM patients with ≥25 headache days/month revealed substantial clinical differences and heavier disability and economic burden compared with those with <25 headache days/month. CONCLUSIONS: CM is a heterogeneous headache disorder deserving more in-depth clinical characterization, sharper diagnostic criteria, and tailored treatments. CM registries are expected to improve clinical management, resulting in increased disease awareness, better healthcare resource allocation, and reduced economic burden.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/patologia , Clínicas de Dor , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 133, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine and depression are highly prevalent and partly overlapping disorders that cause strong limitations in daily life. Patients tend to respond poorly to the therapies available for these diseases. OnabotulinumtoxinA has been proven to be an effective treatment for both migraine and depression. While many studies have addressed the effect of onabotulinumtoxinA in migraine or depression separately, a growing body of evidence suggests beneficial effects also for patients comorbid with migraine and depression. The current meta-analysis systematically investigates to what extent onabotulinumtoxinA is efficient in migraineurs with depression. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed based on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from the earliest date till October [Formula: see text], 2020. Mean, standard deviation (SD) and sample size have been used to evaluate improvement in depressive symptoms and migraine using random-effects empirical Bayes model. RESULTS: Our search retrieved 259 studies, eight of which met the inclusion criteria. OnabotulinumtoxinA injections administered to patients with both chronic migraine and major depressive disorder led to mean reduction of [Formula: see text] points (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) in the BDI scale, of [Formula: see text] points (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) in the BDI-II scale and of [Formula: see text] points (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) in the PHQ-9 scale, when evaluating depressive symptoms. In the case of the migraine-related symptoms, we found mean reductions of [Formula: see text] (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) points in the HIT6 scale, [Formula: see text] (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) in the MIDAS scale, [Formula: see text] (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) points in the VAS scale and of [Formula: see text] (CI [[Formula: see text]], [Formula: see text]) migraine episodes per month. Comorbid patients showed slightly better improvements in BDI, HIT6 scores and migraine frequency compared to monomorbid patients. The latter group manifested better results in MIDAS and VAS scores. CONCLUSION: Treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA leads to a significant reduction of disease severity of both chronic migraine and major depressive disorder in patients comorbid with both diseases. Comparative analyses suggest an equivalent strong effect in monomorbid and comorbid patients, with beneficial effects specifically seen for certain migraine features.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Teorema de Bayes , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Pain Ther ; 10(1): 637-650, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: OnabotulinumtoxinA (BT-A) quarterly was the first treatment approved specifically for chronic migraine (CM). It is unclear whether three cycles are better than two to assess early BT-A response. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on real-life prospectively collected data in 16 European headache centers. All the centers provided data on patients treated with BT-A for CM over the first three cycles of treatment. For each treatment cycle we defined patients as "good responders" if reporting a ≥ 50% reduction in monthly headache days compared with the three months before starting BT-A, "partial responders" if reporting a 30-49% reduction in monthly headache days, and "non-responders" if reporting a < 30% reduction in monthly headache days or stopping the treatment before the third cycle. RESULTS: We included 2879 patients. Seven hundred and eighty-four (64.6%) of the 1213 patients reporting a good response during the first and/or the second cycle had a good response during the third cycle; 309 (49.3%) of the 627 patients reporting a partial response (but no good response) during the first and/or the second cycle had a good response during the third cycle; only 65 (6.3%) of the 1039 patients who did not respond during both the first two cycles achieved a good response during the third cycle. Multivariate analyses showed that partial or good response during the first or the second cycle were independently associated with good response during the third cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that patients with CM responding to BT-A during the first two cycles will likely benefit from the third cycle of treatment, while the probability that non-responders to the first two cycles start responding during the third cycle is low. These results can help guide the individual decision to stop or continue treatment after the second cycle in patients who have not responded to the first two cycles.

12.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(2): 847-856, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigidity is a key clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), but in a very early phase of the disease it may be absent and can be enhanced through active movements of the arm contralateral to the one being tested. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a large cohort of neurologically and cognitively healthy (NCH) subjects aged 18-90 years if activation-induced rigidity (AR) is present in all age classes, and if there are biological differences between subjects showing AR (AR+) and not showing AR (AR-). METHODS: 2,228 NCH subjects categorized as young adult (18-44 years), adult (45-64 years), elderly (65-74 years), and old/oldest-old (75-90 years) were included in the analysis, and underwent brain MRI. White matter hyperintensities were assessed through two visual rating scales. Lacunes were also rated. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and ventricular enlargement were assessed through the bicaudate ratio and the lateral ventricles to brain ratio. To elicit AR, the Froment's maneuver (FM) and the instructions of the UPDRS-ME were used. RESULTS: Among the sample, 1,689 (75.81%) subjects showed AR, of which 1,270 (57.00%) subjects showed AR by using FM, and 419 (18.81%) showed AR by using UPDRS-ME instructions. The latter subjects also showed AR by using FM. The number of AR+ subjects significantly increased with increasing age, regardless of the activation maneuver used. In each age class, the number of AR+ subjects was significantly higher by using the FM than the UPDRS-ME instructions. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that AR is likely to be one of the signs of the prodromal phase of PD.


Assuntos
Cognição , Doença de Parkinson , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 17(8): 766-780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in 419 stroke-free cognitively normal subjects (CN) aged 45-82 years covering during a long prospective study (11.54 ± 1.47 years) the preclinical to dementia spectrum: 1) the distribution of small vessel disease (V) and brain atrophy (A) aggregated as following: V-/A-, V-/A+, V+/A-, V+/A+; 2) the relationship of these imaging classes with individual apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes; 3) the risk of progression to Alzheimer Disease (AD) of the individual APOE genotypes. METHODS: Participants underwent one baseline (t0), and 4 clinical and neuropsychological assessments (t1,t2,t3, and t4). Brain MRI was performed in all subjects at t0, t2, t3 and t4.. White matter hyperintensities were assessed through two visual rating scales. Lacunes were also rated. Subcortical and global brain atrophy were determined through the bicaudate ratio and the lateral ventricle to brain ratio, respectively. APOE genotypes were determined at t0 in all subjects. Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the risk of progression to AD. RESULTS: The imaging class of mixed type was very common in AD, and in non amnestic mild cognitive impaired APOE ε4 non carriers. In these subjects, frontal and parieto-occipital regions were most affected by small vessel disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the APOE ε3 allele is probably linked to the brain vascular pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3385-3389, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent lockdown came as a storm disrupting people's everyday life. This study aimed at observing whether the COVID-19 related lockdown influenced migraine frequency and disability in migraine patients on therapy with monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the CGRP pathway. METHODS: In this longitudinal observational cohort study, 147 consecutive patients receiving monthly administration of erenumab or galcanezumab were enrolled in four Italian headache centers. All patients filled a questionnaire concerning working and household settings, recent flu symptoms or COVID-19 diagnosis, and family loss due to COVID-19 infection. Monthly migraine days (MMDs), monthly painkiller intake (MPI), and HIT-6 disability relative to the first month of lockdown imposition (T-lock) and the month before (T-free) were also collected. RESULTS: From T-free to T-lock, the cohort displayed a reduction in MMDs (from 10.5 ± 7.6 to 9.8 ± 7.6, p = .024) and HIT-6 scores (from 59.3 ± 8.3 men reduced MPI more frequently than women (p = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Our study observed that the lockdown impact to 57.8 ± 8.8, p = .009), while MPI resulted unchanged (from 11.6 ± 11.5 to 11.1 ± 11.7; p = .114). MMDs, MPI, and HIT-6 variations from T-free to T-lock did not differ according to work settings or household. Patients beyond the first 3 months of therapy presented less often a reduction in MMDs (p = .006) and on everyday life did not affect the migraine load in patients receiving monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the CGRP pathway. Patients in the first months of therapy experienced a greater improvement according to drug pharmacokinetics, while women more frequently needed rescue medications, possibly indicating presenteeism or cephalalgophobia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 47(1): 77-91, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated, subtle neurological abnormalities (ISNA) are commonly seen in aging and have been related to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and subcortical atrophy in neurologically and cognitively healthy aging subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of ISNA in different mild cognitive impairment (MCI) types and to evaluate for each MCI type, the cross-sectional relation between ISNA and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, caudate atrophy, and ventricular enlargement. METHODS: One thousand two hundred fifty subjects with different MCI types were included in the analysis and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. WMHs were assessed through two visual rating scales. Lacunes were also rated. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and ventricular enlargement were assessed through the bicaudate ratio (BCr) and the lateral ventricles to brain ratio (LVBr), respectively. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were also assessed. The routine neurological examination was used to evaluate ISNAs that were clustered as central-based signs, cerebellar-based signs, and primitive reflexes. The items of Part-III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale were used to evaluate ISNAs that were clustered as mild parkinsonian signs. Associations of ISNAs with imaging findings were determined through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The ISNAs increase with the age and are present in all MCI types, particularly in those multiple domains, and carrying the APOE ϵ4 allele, and are associated with WMH, lacunes, BCr, and LVBr. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that cortical and subcortical vascular and atrophic processes contribute to ISNAs. Long prospective population-based studies are needed to disentangle the role of ISNAs in the conversion from MCI to dementia.


Des anomalies neurologiques subtiles et isolées associées à différents types de déficience cognitive légère. Contexte: Des anomalies neurologiques à la fois subtiles et isolées sont fréquemment observées chez les personnes vieillissantes. Elles ont été associées à la maladie des petits vaisseaux du cerveau (cerebral small vessel disease) et à une atrophie des structures sous-corticales chez des sujets âgés en santé sur les plans neurologique et cognitif. Objectif: Étudier la fréquence de ces anomalies dans le cas de différents types de déficience cognitive légère ; évaluer, pour chaque type de déficience, la relation transversale entre ces anomalies et des hyper-signaux de la substance blanche, des lacunes cérébrales, l'atrophie du noyau caudé et l'élargissement des ventricules. Méthodes: Au total, 1250 sujets atteints de différents types de déficience cognitive légère ont été inclus dans notre analyse et ont passé un examen d'IRM du cerveau. On a évalué les hyper-signaux de la substance blanche à l'aide de deux échelles d'évaluation visuelle. À noter que les lacunes cérébrales ont également été évaluées. Du côté de l'atrophie du noyau caudé et de l'élargissement des ventricules, ces anomalies ont été mesurées respectivement au moyen de l'index bicaudé (bicaudate ratio) et du ratio volumique ventricule-cerveau (lateral ventricles to brain ratio). Enfin, les génotypes associés à l'apolipoprotéine E (ApoE) ont été examinés. Fait à souligner, des examens neurologiques de routine portant sur les signes du système nerveux central, sur les signes du cervelet et sur les réflexes archaïques ont été utilisés pour tenter de cerner les anomalies évoquées ci-dessus. Des éléments de la partie III de l'échelle UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) ont été par ailleurs mis à profit pour évaluer les anomalies regroupées au sein de la catégorie des signes bénins de la maladie de Parkinson. Les liens entre ces anomalies et les résultats aux examens d'IRM ont été déterminés à l'aide d'une analyse de régression logistique. Résultats: Ces anomalies neurologiques à la fois subtiles et isolées augmentent en fonction de l'âge et sont présentes parmi tous les types de déficience cognitive légère, en particulier dans ces domaines multiples et chez les sujets porteurs de l'allèle ϵ4 du gène de l'ApoE. On a vu également qu'elles sont associées à des hyper-signaux de la substance blanche, à des lacunes cérébrales, à l'atrophie du noyau caudé et à l'élargissement des ventricules. Conclusion: Cette étude démontre que les processus vasculaires et atrophiques des structures corticales et sous-corticales contribuent à l'apparition d'anomalies neurologiques à la fois subtiles et isolées. Des études prospectives de longue haleine basées sur la population sont toutefois nécessaires pour mieux comprendre le rôle de ces anomalies dans l'évolution des cas de déficience cognitive légère vers la démence.

16.
Front Neurol ; 11: 570335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519664

RESUMO

Introduction: A large corpus of evidence has reported encouraging results for acupuncture as a prophylaxis therapy for migraine. However, trials that investigated the efficacy of acupuncture in comparison with pharmacological treatment in episodic migraine showed conflicting results. The study aimed to evaluate if acupuncture is as effective as evidence-based pharmacological drugs in episodic migraine prophylaxis. Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical study. Patients suffering from migraine without preventive treatment in the past 3 months were recruited. After the run-in period, episodic migraineurs were assigned randomly to two groups: the acupuncture group (A) was treated with 12 sessions of acupuncture, and the pharmacological group (B) was treated with the most appropriate medication for each patient. Headache frequency was compared at baseline and at the end of treatment. Both groups were evaluated 3 and 6 months after treatment. Results: A total of 148 patients (24 males and 124 females) were enrolled in the study. Out of these, 69 were randomized to A and 66 to B. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the two groups. Of the patients, 15.5% (21/135) interrupted the treatment, especially those randomized to B. After 4 months, migraine frequency decreased from 8.58 ± 3.21 to 6.43 ± 3.45 in A and from 8.29 ± 2.72 to 6.27 ± 4.01 in B. Headache frequency decreased significantly after treatment without differences between the two groups (time-effect: p < 0.001; group effect: p = 0.332; interaction time-group effects: p = 0.556). Approximately 34% of patients showed a reduction of headache days by at least 50% after the treatment. The improvements observed at the end of treatment persisted in 57.3% (59/103) after 3 months and 38.8% (40/103) after 6 months, especially in patients randomized to A. Conclusions: Our trial is the first one comparing acupuncture with the more appropriate pharmacological treatment for migraine prophylaxis. Data suggested that acupuncture could be adopted as migraine prophylaxis and seem to be slightly superior to pharmacological treatment in compliance and rate of adverse events.

17.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 16(7): 633-649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild Parkinsonian Signs (MPS) have been associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) types with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of individual MPS with different MCI types using logistic ridge regression analysis, and to evaluate for each MCI type, the association of MPS with caudate atrophy, global cerebral atrophy, and the topographical location of White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH), and lacunes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,168 subjects with different types of MCI aged 45-97 (70,52 ± 9,41) years, who underwent brain MRI. WMH were assessed through two visual rating scales. The number and location of lacunes were also rated. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and global cerebral atrophy were assessed through the bicaudate ratio, and the lateral ventricles to brain ratio, respectively. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were also assessed. Using the items of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait/balance/axial dysfunction were evaluated. RESULTS: Bradykinesia, and gait/balance/axial dysfunction were the MPS more frequently encountered followed by rigidity, and tremor. MPS were present in both amnestic and non-amnestic MCI types, and were associated with WMH, lacunes, bicaudate ratio, and lateral ventricles to brain ratio. CONCLUSION: MPS are present in both amnestic and non-amnestic MCI types, particularly in those multiple domain, and carrying the APOE ε4 allele. Cortical and subcortical vascular and atrophic processes contribute to MPS. Long prospective studies are needed to disentangle the contribution of MPS to the conversion from MCI to dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 46(2): 199-208, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of three nociceptive primitive reflexes (nPR), i.e., glabellar tap, snout reflex, and palmomental reflex, in neurologically and cognitively healthy (NCH) aging subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether nPR are cross-sectionally associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, atrophy of the caudate nuclei, and global brain atrophy. METHODS: A total of 1246 NCH subjects aged 45-91 years were included in the study and underwent standard brain MRI. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and global brain atrophy were assessed through the bicaudate ratio (BCr) and lateral ventricles to brain ratio (LVBr), respectively. WMH were assessed through visual rating scales. Lacunes were also rated. Association of nPR with vascular risk factors/diseases and imaging findings was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: nPR were exhibited by 33.1% of subjects and increased with age. Subjects with nPR performed less than subjects without nPR in tests evaluating global cognition, executive functions, attention, and language. Snout reflex was the most common nPR, followed by glabellar tap and palmomental reflex. Glabellar tap was associated with parieto-temporal WMH, BCr, and LVBr; snout reflex was associated with frontal lacunes, temporal WMH, BCr, and LVBr; palmomental reflex was associated with parieto-occipital WMH, basal ganglia lacunes, BCr, and LVBr. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that in NCH aging individuals, nPR are associated with WMH, lacunes, BCr, and LVBr and are probably a warning sign of incipient cognitive decline. Therefore, NCH subjects presenting nPR should manage their vascular risk factors/vascular diseases rigorously in order to prevent or delay progression of small vessel disease, and future neurological and cognitive disabilities.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
20.
Neurol Sci ; 40(Suppl 1): 9-13, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796624

RESUMO

Cluster headache (CH) has always been considered a type of primary headache affecting predominantly male subjects in early and medium adulthood. However, recent studies carried out in large case series of patients with CH show that not infrequently it may set in also after age 50; by contrast, onset before adolescence is very rare. Additionally, when onset occurs before age 14 or from the sixth decade of life onward, male predominance decreases to the point that in chronic forms CH predominantly affects the female sex. This particular pattern of the gender ratio in relation to onset in different age groups suggests that hormonal factors may actually play a role in the genesis of CH. In particular, future studies should be aimed at investigating the possible protective role of estrogen.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cefaleia Histamínica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica , Cefaleia Histamínica/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
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