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1.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524681

RESUMO

The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) is considered as the main mechanical vector of the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In addition, the mosquito species Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) was shown to transmit the virus from donor to receptor animals. Retention of the virus for several days was shown for two additional tropical mosquito species and the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In the present study, viral retention for 10- or 7-days post feeding on virus-spiked blood through a membrane was shown for field-collected Aedes japonicus and laboratory-reared Culex pipiens, two widely distributed mosquito species in temperate regions. Viral DNA could be detected from honey-coated Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards and shedded faeces for 1 or 4 days after an infectious blood meal was given to Ae. aegypti. Virus increase over time and virus dissemination was observed in laboratory-reared C. nubeculosus, but the virus could be isolated from field-collected biting midges only from the day of exposure to the blood meal. Thus, mosquitoes might serve as mechanical vectors of LSDV in case of interrupted feeding. A putative biological virus transmission by Culicoides biting midges, as suspected from field observations, deserves further investigations.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631039

RESUMO

Both alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are lacking pathognomonic clinical signs; consequently imaging technologies and serology remain the main pillars for diagnosis. The present study included 100 confirmed treatment-naïve AE and 64 CE patients that were diagnosed in Switzerland or Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 10 native Echinococcus spp. antigens, 3 recombinant antigens, and 4 commercial assays were comparatively evaluated. All native E. multilocularis antigens were produced in duplicates with a European and a Kyrgyz isolate and showed identical test values for the diagnosis of AE and CE. Native antigens and three commercial tests showed high diagnostic sensitivities (Se: 86-96%) and specificities (Sp: 96-99%) for the diagnosis of AE and CE in Swiss patients. In Kyrgyz patients, values of sensitivities and specificities were 10-20% lower as compared to the Swiss patients' findings. For the sero-diagnosis of AE in Kyrgyzstan, a test-combination of an E. multilocularis protoscolex antigen and the recombinant antigen Em95 appears to be the most suitable test strategy (Se: 98%, Sp: 87%). For the diagnosis of CE in both countries, test performances were hampered by major cross-reactions with AE patients and other parasitic diseases as well as by limited diagnostic sensitivities (93% in Switzerland and 76% in Kyrgyzstan, respectively).

4.
Vet Surg ; 51(4): 648-657, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting artificial meniscal, meniscotibial ligament (MTL) lesions and cruciate ligament (CL) lesions in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo controlled laboratory study. ANIMALS: Nineteen stifles from adult horses. METHODS: Stablike defects (n = 84) (16 mm long, 10 mm deep) were created in the menisci (n = 35), CLs (n = 24), and MTLs (n = 25) via arthroscopy prior to MRI and CTA (80 mL contrast at 85 mg/mL per joint). Two radiologists, unaware of the lesions, reached a consensus regarding the presence of lesions, based on 2 reviews of each study. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI and CTA were determined using arthroscopy as a reference and compared with McNemar's tests. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of MRI (41% and 86% respectively) and CTA (32% and 90% respectively) did not differ (P = .65). The sensitivity (MRI: 24%-50%; CTA:19%-40%) and specificity (MRI: 75%-92%; CTA 75%-100%) of imaging modalities did not differ when detecting lesions of the menisci, MTLs, and CLs (P = .1-1.0). The highest sensitivities were achieved when MTLs were evaluated with MRI (50%) and CLs with both modalities (40%). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of CTA was comparable with that of MRI, with a low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Computed tomographic arthrography should be considered as an adjunct to diagnose CL injuries. This is important for equine clinicians, as the CL cannot be visualized adequately using basic imaging techniques preoperatively.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Artropatias , Animais , Artrografia/métodos , Artrografia/veterinária , Artroscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Artropatias/veterinária , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 203: 105617, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358837

RESUMO

The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) is an international collaboration aiming, in part, to measure and improve societal outcomes from livestock. One GBADs objective is to estimate the economic impact of endemic diseases in livestock. However, if individual disease impact estimates are linearly aggregated without consideration for associations among diseases, there is the potential to double count impacts, overestimating the total burden. Accordingly, the authors propose a method to adjust an array of individual disease impact estimates so that they may be aggregated without overlap. Using Bayes' Theorem, conditional probabilities were derived from inter-disease odds ratios in the literature. These conditional probabilities were used to calculate the excess probability of disease among animals with associated conditions, or the probability of disease overlap given the odds of coinfection, which were then used to adjust disease impact estimates so that they may be aggregated. The aggregate impacts, or the yield, fertility, and mortality gaps due to disease, were then attributed and valued, generating disease-specific losses. The approach was illustrated using an example dairy cattle system with input values and supporting parameters from the UK, with 13 diseases and health conditions endemic to UK dairy cattle: cystic ovary, disease caused by gastrointestinal nematodes, displaced abomasum, dystocia, fasciolosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, milk fever, neosporosis, paratuberculosis, retained placenta, and subclinical ketosis. The diseases and conditions modelled resulted in total adjusted losses of £ 404/cow/year, equivalent to herd-level losses of £ 60,000/year. Unadjusted aggregation methods suggested losses 14-61% greater. Although lameness was identified as the costliest condition (28% of total losses), variations in the prevalence of fasciolosis, neosporosis, and paratuberculosis (only a combined 22% of total losses) were nearly as impactful individually as variations in the prevalence of lameness. The results suggest that from a disease control policy perspective, the costliness of a disease may not always be the best indicator of the investment its control warrants; the costliness rankings varied across approaches and total losses were found to be surprisingly sensitive to variations in the prevalence of relatively uncostly diseases. This approach allows for disease impact estimates to be aggregated without double counting. It can be applied to any livestock system in any region with any set of endemic diseases, and can be updated as new prevalence, impact, and disease association data become available. This approach also provides researchers and policymakers an alternative tool to rank prevention priorities.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Paratuberculose , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(13-14): 1167-1192, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757089

RESUMO

In the past 50 years, enormous progress has been made in the diagnosis, treatment and control of taeniid cestode infections/diseases and in the scientific understanding thereof. Most interest in this group of parasites stems from the serious diseases that they cause in humans. It is through this lens that we summarize here the most important breakthroughs that have made a difference to the treatment of human diseases caused by these parasites, reduction in transmission of the taeniid species associated with human disease, or understanding of the parasites' biology likely to impact diagnosis or treatment in the foreseeable future. Key topics discussed are the introduction of anti-cestode drugs, including benzimidazoles and praziquantel, and the development of new imaging modalities that have transformed the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of human echinococcoses and neurocysticercosis. The availability of new anti-cestode drugs for use in dogs and a detailed understanding of the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato have underpinned successful programs that have eliminated cystic echinococcosis in some areas of the world and greatly reduced the incidence of infection in others. Despite these successes, cystic and alveolar echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis continue to be prevalent in many parts of the world, requiring new or renewed efforts to prevent the associated taeniid infections. Major advances made in the development of practical vaccines against E. granulosus and Taenia solium will hopefully assist in this endeavour, as might the understanding of the parasites' biology that have come from an elucidation of the nuclear genomes of each of the most important taeniid species causing human diseases.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Neurocisticercose , Parasitos , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 491, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bluetongue is a serious disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Serological evidence from livestock and the presence of at least one competent vector species of Culicoides suggests that transmission of BTV is possible and may have occurred in Kazakhstan. METHODS: We estimated the risk of transmission using a mathematical model of the reproduction number R0 for bluetongue. This model depends on livestock density and climatic factors which affect vector density. Data on climate and livestock numbers from the 2466 local communities were used. This, together with previously published model parameters, was used to estimate R0 for each month of the year. We plotted the results on isopleth maps of Kazakhstan using interpolation to smooth the irregular data. We also mapped the estimated proportion of the population requiring vaccination to prevent outbreaks of bluetongue. RESULTS: The results suggest that transmission of bluetongue in Kazakhstan is not possible in the winter from October to March. Assuming there are vector-competent species of Culicoides endemic in Kazakhstan, then low levels of risk first appear in the south of Kazakhstan in April before spreading north and intensifying, reaching maximum levels in northern Kazakhstan in July. The risk declined in September and had disappeared by October. CONCLUSION: These results should aid in surveillance efforts for the detection and control of bluetongue in Kazakhstan by indicating where and when outbreaks of bluetongue are most likely to occur. The results also indicate where vaccination efforts should be focussed to prevent outbreaks of disease.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Bluetongue/transmissão , Animais , Bluetongue/virologia , Clima , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Gado/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438896

RESUMO

Medetomidine partial intravenous anaesthesia (PIVA) has not been compared to xylazine PIVA regarding quality of recovery. This clinical retrospective study compared recoveries following isoflurane anaesthesia balanced with medetomidine or xylazine. The following standard protocol was used: sedation with 7 µg·kg-1 medetomidine or 1.1 mg·kg-1 xylazine, anaesthesia induction with ketamine/diazepam, maintenance with isoflurane and 3.5 µg·kg-1·h-1 medetomidine or 0.7 mg·kg-1·h-1 xylazine, and sedation after anaesthesia with 2 µg·kg-1 medetomidine or 0.3 mg·kg-1 xylazine. Recovery was timed and, using video recordings, numerically scored by two blinded observers. Influence of demographics, procedure, peri-anaesthetic drugs, and intraoperative complications (hypotension, hypoxemia, and tachycardia) on recovery were analysed using regression analysis (p < 0.05). A total of 470 recoveries (medetomidine 279, xylazine 191) were finally included. Following medetomidine, recoveries were significantly longer (median (interquartile range): 57 (43-71) min) than xylazine (43 (32-59) min) (p < 0.001). However, the number of attempts to stand was similar (medetomidine and xylazine: 2 (1-3)). Poorer scores were seen with increased pre-anaesthetic dose of xylazine, intraoperative tetrastarch, or salbutamol. However, use of medetomidine or xylazine did not influence recovery score, concluding that, following medetomidine-isoflurane PIVA, recovery is longer, but of similar quality compared to xylazine.

9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 864-874, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151653

RESUMO

Porcine teschovirus (PTV), sapelovirus (PSV-A), and enterovirus (EV-G) are enteric viruses that can infect pigs and wild boars worldwide. The viruses have been associated with several diseases, primarily gastrointestinal, neurologic, reproductive, and respiratory disorders, but also with subclinical infections. However, for most serotypes, proof of a causal relationship between viral infection and clinical signs is still lacking. In Switzerland, there has been limited investigation of the occurrence of the 3 viruses. We used a modified multiplex reverse-transcription PCR protocol to study the distribution of the viruses in Swiss pigs by testing 363 fecal, brain, and placental or abortion samples from 282 healthy and diseased animals. We did not detect the 3 viruses in 94 placental or abortion samples or in 31 brain samples from healthy pigs. In brain tissue of 81 diseased pigs, we detected 5 PSV-A and 4 EV-G positive samples. In contrast, all 3 viruses were detected at high frequencies in fecal samples of both healthy and diseased pigs. In healthy animals, PTV was detected in 47%, PSV-A in 51%, and EV-G in 70% of the 76 samples; in diseased animals, frequencies in the 81 samples were 54%, 64%, and 68%, respectively. The viruses were detected more frequently in fecal samples from weaned and fattening pigs compared to suckling piglets and sows. Co-detections of all 3 viruses were the most common finding. Based on clinical and pathology data, statistical analysis yielded no evidence for an association of virus detection and disease. Further research is required to determine if pathogenicity is linked to specific serotypes of these viruses.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Teschovirus , Animais , Enterovirus/genética , Feminino , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Placenta , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Teschovirus/genética
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009498, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (CE and AE) are neglected tropical diseases caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and E. multilocularis, and are emerging zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan. In this country, the spatial distribution of CE and AE surgical incidence in 2014-2016 showed marked heterogeneity across communities, suggesting the presence of ecological determinants underlying CE and AE distributions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this reason, in this study we assessed potential associations between community-level confirmed primary CE (no.=2359) or AE (no.=546) cases in 2014-2016 in Kyrgyzstan and environmental and climatic variables derived from satellite-remote sensing datasets using conditional autoregressive models. We also mapped CE and AE relative risk. The number of AE cases was negatively associated with 10-year lag mean annual temperature. Although this time lag should not be considered as an exact measurement but with associated uncertainty, it is consistent with the estimated 10-15-year latency following AE infection. No associations were detected for CE. We also identified several communities at risk for CE or AE where no disease cases were reported in the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis that CE is linked to an anthropogenic cycle and is less affected by environmental risk factors compared to AE, which is believed to result from spillover from a wild life cycle. As CE was not affected by factors we investigated, hence control should not have a geographical focus. In contrast, AE risk areas identified in this study without reported AE cases should be targeted for active disease surveillance in humans. This active surveillance would confirm or exclude AE transmission which might not be reported with the present passive surveillance system. These areas should also be targeted for ecological investigations in the animal hosts.


Assuntos
Clima , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Incidência , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008382, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of echinococcosis transmission to humans via contamination of food has been assumed. However, the relative importance of food as a transmission vehicle has previously been estimated through expert opinion rather than empirical data. OBJECTIVE: To find and evaluate empirical data that could be used to estimate the source attribution of echinococcosis, in particular the proportion that is transmitted through contaminated food. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to identify reports on the risk factors for human cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis. Data bases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Cab Direct, Science Direct, Google Scholar, eLIBRARY.RU, CyberLeninka, CNKI and VIP. Search terms included Echinococc*, hydatid, epidemiology, logistic regression, risk factors, odds ratio, relative risk, risk factors. Reports, including grey literature where available, that had suitable data were selected and data were extracted. The main pathways of transmission were hypothesised to be contact with the definitive host, contaminated water, contaminated food and contaminated environment (other than food). For each study the attributable fraction for these potential sources of infection was calculated from the data presented. A meta-analysis was then undertaken to obtain pooled estimates for the relative contribution of these transmission pathways. RESULTS: Data from 28 cross-sectional studies and 14 case-control studies were extracted. There was strong evidence for transmission by direct contact with dogs for both CE and AE. The estimated attributable fractions were 26.1% (CI 13.8%-39.6%) and 34.4% (CI 20.7% -48.2%) respectively. Transmission through contaminated water was estimated to be responsible for approximately 29.4% (CI 12.1%-51.7%) for CE and 24.8% (CI 10.6% to 42.6%) for AE. Contaminated food may be responsible for approximately 23.4% of CE cases (CI 2.1%-47.3%). Globally, there was insufficient evidence to conclude AE can be transmitted by food, although case control studies from low human incidence areas suggested that possibly 32.5% (CI 10.0%-53.2%) could be transmitted by food. There was also insufficient evidence that direct contact with foxes was a significant source of human disease. There were no suitable studies with a risk of environmental contact reported, but the residual attributable fraction thatwould likely include this pathway was approximately 21.1% for CE and 11.1% for AE. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that dog contact and drinking contaminated water are major pathways of transmission of both CE and AE. For contaminated food, the results are less consistent, but suggest that it is an important transmission pathway and provide better evidence than expert elicitations as previously used.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cães , Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Raposas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 257(2): 189-195, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcome and complications after large intestinal trocarization in equids with colic and identify factors associated with nonsurvival and clinically relevant peritonitis (CRP). ANIMALS: 228 (198 horses, 24 ponies, and 6 donkeys and mules) equids with colic that underwent large intestinal trocarization. PROCEDURES: Medical records from 2004 through 2015 were reviewed for equids with colic that underwent large intestinal trocarization. Factors associated with nonsurvival in all (ie, surgically and medically treated) equids and with CRP in medically only treated equids were identified. Medically only treated equids with a high peritoneal fluid cell count (ie, > 10,000 cells/µL) after large intestinal trocarization were classified as having CRP if they met ≥ 2 of the following clinical criteria: anorexia, fever, lethargy, abnormal oral mucous membrane color, abnormal WBC count, or high blood fibrinogen concentration (> 5 g/L). RESULTS: Transabdominal large intestinal trocarization was performed in 190 (83%) equids, transrectal trocarization in 17 (7%), and both procedures in 21 (9%). Of 228 equids, 167 (73%) survived to hospital discharge. None died or were euthanized because of complications from large intestinal trocarization. Nonsurvival was associated with an increasing number of trocarization procedures and diagnosis of a large intestinal strangulating lesion. A diagnosis of nephrosplenic ligament entrapment of the large colon decreased the odds of nonsurvival. Twelve of 60 (20%) equids that received medical treatment only had CRP following large intestinal trocarization. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Large intestinal trocarization could be considered for equids with colic and large intestinal gas distension. More than one trocarization procedure was associated with an increase in nonsurvival, which should be considered for equids for which consent for surgery has been obtained.


Assuntos
Cólica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Cólica/etiologia , Cólica/cirurgia , Cólica/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Intestino Grosso , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 234, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata is an important zoonotic parasite, causing taeniosis in humans and cysticercosis in bovines, the latter being a significant concern for the global beef industry. Many countries in East, Southeast and South Asia are experiencing rapid economic growth, and an increasing number of people in these countries are dependent on the livestock industry. Currently, however, an overview of the prevalence of T. saginata in this region is lacking. In this review, we analysed the available literature on T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis for East, Southeast and South Asia. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, based on both published and grey literature. Articles published between 1990 and 2017 were mined for information on the occurrence, prevalence, and geographical distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in East, Southeast and South Asia. RESULTS: The presence of T. saginata was described in 15 of 27 countries of the region, including Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam. The only country that reported an absence of T. saginata is Japan, although sporadic reports of imported cases and unconfirmed reports of autochthonous infections were identified. Nationwide surveys of taeniosis with systematic sample collection and high sample numbers were available for Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, and South Korea, although speciation of Taenia was not always performed. Regional prevalence of taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in endemic regions ranged between 0.02-42.6%, and 0.76-46.7%, respectively. However, data for bovine cysticercosis were only available for five countries (Japan, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Pakistan and Vietnam). CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate a widespread occurrence of T. saginata throughout East, Southeast and South Asia. Identification of Taenia spp. in human infections was frequently not performed, leading to gaps in knowledge about the distribution of human tapeworm infections, mainly in regions where different human Taenia species co-occur. A high prevalence of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis may reflect insufficiencies in sanitation, limited health education standards, and insufficient food safety measures. Therefore, there is a need to improve local surveillance, notification, and overall control systems.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Prevalência , Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Produtos da Carne/parasitologia , Nepal , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia saginata/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(9): 695-703, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358427

RESUMO

Although foodborne parasites (FBPs) are becoming recognized as important foodborne pathogens, they remain neglected compared with bacterial and viral foodborne pathogens. As drivers for infection with FBPs are variable, it is often unclear for funding bodies where research should be prioritized. Through a COST Action (Euro-FBP; FA1408), we harnessed Europe-wide expertise to address these questions, using an Expert Knowledge Elicitation approach. Eating habits, lack of food-chain control, lack of awareness from relevant agencies, globalization, and water quality were identified as major drivers for FBP infection. Prioritized research needs to be largely focused on methodological gaps, but also on surveillance concerns, impact-assessment issues, and the role of microbiota. Despite the European focus, these responses should be relevant to those concerned with FBPs globally.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos/tendências , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/economia , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pesquisa/tendências
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170162

RESUMO

Animal source foods (ASF) such as dairy, eggs, fish and meat are an important source of high-quality nutrients. Lack of ASF in diets can result in developmental disorders including stunting, anemia, poor cognitive and motor development. ASF are more effective in preventing stunting than other foods and promoting ASF consumption in low- and middle-income countries could help improve health, particularly among pregnant women and young children. Production and consumption of ASF are, however, also associated with potential food safety risks. Strengthening of food control systems, informed by quantitative assessments of the disease burden associated with ASF is necessary to meet global nutrition goals. We present the human disease burden associated with 13 pathogens (bacteria and parasites) in ASF, based on an analysis of global burden of foodborne disease (FBD) estimates of the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). The FBD burden of these pathogens was combined with estimates of the proportion of disease transmitted by eight main groups of ASF. Uncertainty in all estimates was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulation. In 2010, the global burden of ASF was 168 (95% uncertainty interval (UI 137-219) Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per 100,000 population, which is approximately 35% of the estimated total burden of FBD. Main pathogens contributing to this burden included non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, Taenia solium, and Campylobacter spp. The proportion of FBD burden associated with ASF varied considerably between subregions and between countries within subregions. Likewise, the contribution of different pathogens and ASF groups varied strongly between subregions. Pathogens with a localized distribution included T. solium and fishborne trematodes. Pathogens with a global distribution included non-typhoidal S. enterica, Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium bovis. Control methods exist for many hazards associated with ASF, and their implementation is linked to economic development and effective food safety systems.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Internacionalidade , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 324, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic tapeworm Taenia saginata, although causing only minor discomfort in humans, is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock sector due to condemnation or downgrading of infected beef carcasses. An overview of current knowledge on the distribution and prevalence of this parasite in West and Central Africa is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, collecting information on published and grey literature about T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis from 27 countries/territories in West and Central Africa, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: The literature search retrieved 1672 records, of which 51 and 45 were retained for a qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Non-specified human taeniosis cases were described for Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic Congo, Guinea, and Ivory Coast (seven out of 27 countries/territories), while T. saginata taeniosis specifically was only reported for Cameroon. Most prevalence estimates for taeniosis ranged between 0-11%, while three studies from Nigeria reported prevalence estimates ranging between 23-50%. None of the studies included molecular confirmation of the causative species. The presence of bovine cysticercosis was reported for Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tristan da Cunha (14 out of 27 countries/territories). Prevalence estimates ranged between 0-29%. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review has revealed that human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis are seriously understudied in West and Central Africa. The high prevalence estimates of both conditions suggest an active dissemination of this parasite in the region, calling for a concerted One Health action from public health, veterinary health and food surveillance sectors.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Gado/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , África Central/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitology ; 146(10): 1263-1274, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142388

RESUMO

This study identified helminth species of wild boar (Sus scrofa) originating from northeastern and northwestern regions of Tunisia using 297 lungs, 297 livers, 264 intestinal tracts, 120 samples of muscle tissue (tongue, masseter, diaphragm, inter-costal) and 232 faecal samples derived from a total of 591 animals. Host gender was registered for the lung and liver wild boar group, which included 163 males and 134 females. All animals, excluding those used to retrieve muscular samples, were classified into three age classes, <2 (n = 212), 2-3 (n = 208) and ⩾4 years old (n = 141). Helminth fauna of the examined wild boar included 14 parasite species: one trematode (adult, Brachylaemus suis), three cestodes (metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena cysticercus, adult, Hymenolepis diminuta), nine nematodes (adults of Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus pudendotectus, Ascarops strongylina, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Gnathostoma hispidum, Gongylonema pulchrum and eggs of Strongyloides ransoni and Capillaria spp.) and one acanthocephalan (adult, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus). Trichinella larvae were not recovered from any of the 30 wild boar examined. Results showed a 73.5% global prevalence of infection with visceral helminths, 67.3% of which were lung and hepatic infections and 80.3% of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent parasite was M. hirudinaceus (61.7%) while the highest intensity of infection was observed for Metastrongylus spp. The most prevalent cestode was E. granulosus (18.9%). This is the first detailed study on helminth infections of wild boar from a North African country.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Estruturas Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Suínos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
19.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(5): 487-494, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090193

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease considered as an emerging and re-emerging disease with a resulting threat of public health and animal health. Official reports document an animal incidence in Kazakhstan of about 0.6% per year, and the country still registers high number of human cases annually . The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the distribution and economic impact of brucellosis in Kazakhstan. We analysed human disease incidence data obtained from the Government Sanitary & Epidemiological Service with the aim to estimate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We also estimated the economic impact in terms of monetary losses. Additionally, we mapped the geographical distribution of the disease throughout Kazakhstan. In total, 1,334 human cases of brucellosis were registered in 2015 in Kazakhstan that resulted in 713 DALYs. Around $21 million was spent on compensation for animals that had to be slaughtered due to brucellosis, and an additional $24 million was spent on testing animals. Animal brucellosis and human brucellosis occur throughout the whole country, some trends of which are reviewed in this paper. We estimated the burden of the disease and explored possible explanation for high human incidence rates. This paper is the first to estimate the human burden of disease and the economic costs in Kazakhstan. Both of these are substantial.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella/classificação , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/economia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 175, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata transmits between humans, the definitive host (causing taeniosis), and bovines as the intermediate host (causing cysticercosis). Central and western Asia and the Caucasus have large cattle populations and beef consumption is widespread. However, an overview of the extent of human T. saginata infection and bovine cysticercosis is lacking. This review aims to summarize the distribution of T. saginata in this region. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, that gathered published and grey literature, and official data concerning T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in central and western Asia and the Caucasus published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2018. Where no data were available for a country within this period, published data from 1985-1990 were also accessed. RESULTS: From 10,786 articles initially scanned, we retrieved 98 full-text articles from which data were extracted. In addition, two unpublished datasets were provided on the incidence of human taeniosis. Data for human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis were found for all countries except Turkmenistan. Human taeniosis prevalence varied from undetected to over 5.3%, with regional variations. Where bovine cysticercosis was detected, prevalences varied from case reports to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The public health burden of T. saginata is assumed to be small as the parasite is of low pathogenicity to humans. However, this review indicates that infection continues to be widespread and this may result in a large economic burden, due to the resources utilized in meat inspection and condemnation or processing with subsequent downgrading of infected carcasses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Taenia saginata , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia Ocidental/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Humanos , Transcaucásia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
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