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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10176, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576845

RESUMO

Associations between anaesthetic techniques and pregnancy outcomes were assessed among 129,742 pregnancies delivered by caesarean section (CS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) using two WHO databases. Anaesthesia was categorized as general anaesthesia (GA) and neuraxial anaesthesia (NA). Outcomes included maternal death (MD), maternal near miss (MNM), severe maternal outcome (SMO), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, early neonatal death (END), neonatal near miss (NNM), severe neonatal outcome (SNO), Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, and neonatal ICU (NICU) admission. A two-stage approach of individual participant data meta-analysis was used to combine the results. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented. Compared to GA, NA were associated with decreased odds of MD (pooled OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10, 0.78), MNM (pooled OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.21, 0.31), SMO (pooled OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.20,0.28), ICU admission (pooled OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.13, 0.22), NNM (pooled OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.55, 0.73), SNO (pooled OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.48, 0.63), Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes (pooled OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.29, 0.43), and NICU admission (pooled OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.45, 0.62). NA therefore was associated with decreased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes in LMICs.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(2): e001935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296554

RESUMO

Introduction: The worldwide increase in unnecessary caesarean sections (CSs) is a major global health issue. Mass media campaigns have been used in several countries to reduce this trend. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify, critically appraise and synthesise the findings, including the barriers and enablers, of mass media campaigns directed at lay people to reduce unnecessary CS. Methods: We included any study design that reported health communication mass media campaigns directed at lay people with the specific objective of reducing unnecessary CS, created by any agent, in any format. We searched seven electronic databases without language restrictions, from inception to February 2019. Experts in the field were contacted. Results: The search yielded 14 320 citations; 50 were selected for full-text reading; and one was included. Six other reports were included. The seven campaigns were conducted in 2009-2017, mostly in Latin America. Most campaigns were independent efforts by non-governmental or activist organisations. Only one campaign conducted formative research and pretested the intervention. All campaigns used indirect communication, mostly through internet channels; two campaigns also used direct communication with the public. None assessed their effects on CS rates. Only two campaigns measured their impacts on participants' knowledge, attitudes and birth preferences but only in the short term. The main barriers were lack of financial and human resources. The main enablers were the enthusiasm of volunteers, the participation of famous persons/celebrities and the involvement of communication professionals. Conclusions: There are few mass media campaigns directed at lay people to reduce CS. Most campaigns did not use key principles recommended for the creation and implementation of health communication interventions, and none assessed their effects in reducing CS rates. If media campaigns can play a role in modifying population views towards CS, there is a need for more rigorous studies including impact assessment. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019120314.

3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD011927, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 10% to 24% of the general population. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the noninvasive, transcutaneous use of electrical stimulation to produce analgesia. It is a simple, low-cost and safe intervention used in clinical practice as an adjunct treatment for painful musculoskeletal conditions that have a considerable impact on daily activities, such as chronic neck pain. This review is a split from a Cochrane Review on electrotherapy for neck pain, published in 2013, and focuses specifically on TENS for chronic neck pain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (alone or in association with other interventions) compared with sham and other clinical interventions for the treatment of chronic neck pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Back and Neck Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and two trials registers to 9 November 2018. We also screened the reference lists of relevant studies to identify additional trials. There were no language, source, or publication date restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults (≥ 18 years of age) with chronic neck pain (lasting > 12 weeks) that compared TENS alone or in combination with other treatments versus active or inactive treatments. The primary outcomes were pain, disability and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent review authors selected the trials, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. A third review author was consulted in case of disagreements. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool (adapted by Cochrane Back and Neck), to assess the risk of bias of individual trials and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. We used risk ratios (RRs) to measure treatment effects for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs with a total of 651 participants, mean age 31.7 to 55.5 years, conducted in three different countries (Turkey, Jordan and China). The length of follow-up ranged from one week to six months. Most RCTs used continuous TENS, with a frequency of 60 Hz to 100 Hz, pulse width of 40 µs to 250 µs and tolerable intensity, described as a tingling sensation without contraction, in daily sessions lasting 20 to 60 minutes. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes, we did not pool individual study data into meta-analyses. Overall, we judged most studies as being at low risk for selection bias and high risk for performance and detection bias. Based on the GRADE approach, there was very low-certainty evidence from two trials about the effects of conventional TENS when compared to sham TENS at short-term (up to 3 months after treatment) follow-up, on pain (assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) (MD -0.10, 95% CI -0.97 to 0.77) and the percentage of participants presenting improvement of pain (RR 1.57, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.92). None of the included studies reported on disability or adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found very low-certainty evidence of a difference between TENS compared to sham TENS on reducing neck pain; therefore, we are unsure about the effect estimate. At present, there is insufficient evidence regarding the use of TENS in patients with chronic neck pain. Additional well-designed, -conducted and -reported RCTs are needed to reach robust conclusions.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Cervicalgia/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is a neurocutaneous disease caused by the reactivation of the virus that causes varicella (chickenpox). After resolution of the varicella episode, the virus can remain latent in the sensitive dorsal ganglia of the spine. Years later, with declining immunity, the varicella zoster virus (VZV) can reactivate and cause herpes zoster, an extremely painful condition that can last many weeks or months and significantly compromise the quality of life of the affected person. The natural process of aging is associated with a reduction in cellular immunity, and this predisposes older people to herpes zoster. Vaccination with an attenuated form of the VZV activates specific T-cell production avoiding viral reactivation. The USA Food and Drug Administration has approved a herpes zoster vaccine with an attenuated active virus, live zoster vaccine (LZV), for clinical use amongst older adults, which has been tested in large populations. A new adjuvanted recombinant VZV subunit zoster vaccine, recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV), has also been approved. It consists of recombinant VZV glycoprotein E and a liposome-based AS01B adjuvant system. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last updated in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. SEARCH METHODS: For this 2019 update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, January 2019), MEDLINE (1948 to January 2019), Embase (2010 to January 2019), CINAHL (1981 to January 2019), LILACS (1982 to January 2019), WHO ICTRP (on 31 January 2019) and ClinicalTrials.gov (on 31 January 2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing zoster vaccine (any dose and potency) versus any other type of intervention (e.g. varicella vaccine, antiviral medication), placebo, or no intervention (no vaccine). Outcomes were incidence of herpes zoster, adverse events (death, serious adverse events, systemic reactions, or local reaction occurring at any time after vaccination), and dropouts. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 new studies involving 18,615 participants in this update. The review now includes a total of 24 studies involving 88,531 participants. Only three studies assessed the incidence of herpes zoster in groups that received vaccines versus placebo. Most studies were conducted in high-income countries in Europe and North America and included healthy Caucasians (understood to be white participants) aged 60 years or over with no immunosuppressive comorbidities. Two studies were conducted in Japan. Fifteen studies used LZV. Nine studies tested an RZV. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate. Most data for the primary outcome (incidence of herpes zoster) and secondary outcomes (adverse events and dropouts) came from studies that had a low risk of bias and included a large number of participants. The incidence of herpes zoster at up to three years follow-up was lower in participants who received the LZV (one dose subcutaneously) than in those who received placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.56; risk difference (RD) 2%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 50; moderate-quality evidence) in the largest study, which included 38,546 participants. There were no differences between the vaccinated and placebo groups for serious adverse events (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.21) or deaths (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). The vaccinated group had a higher incidence of one or more adverse events (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.11; RD 23%; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 4.3) and injection site adverse events (RR 3.73, 95% CI 1.93 to 7.21; RD 28%; NNTH 3.6) of mild to moderate intensity (moderate-quality evidence). These data came from four studies with 6980 participants aged 60 years or over. Two studies (29,311 participants for safety evaluation and 22,022 participants for efficacy evaluation) compared RZV (two doses intramuscularly, two months apart) versus placebo. Participants who received the new vaccine had a lower incidence of herpes zoster at 3.2 years follow-up (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.23; RD 3%; NNTB 33; moderate-quality evidence). There were no differences between the vaccinated and placebo groups in incidence of serious adverse events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.03) or deaths (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.04; moderate-quality evidence). The vaccinated group had a higher incidence of adverse events, any systemic symptom (RR 2.23, 95% CI 2.12 to 2.34; RD 33%; NNTH 3.0), and any local symptom (RR 6.89, 95% CI 6.37 to 7.45; RD 67%; NNTH 1.5). Although most participants reported that there symptoms were of mild to moderate intensity, the risk of dropouts (participants not returning for the second dose, two months after the first dose) was higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.39; RD 1%; NNTH 100, moderate-quality evidence). Only one study reported funding from a non-commercial source (a university research foundation). All of the other included studies received funding from pharmaceutical companies. We did not conduct subgroup and sensitivity analyses AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: LZV and RZV are effective in preventing herpes zoster disease for up to three years (the main studies did not follow participants for more than three years). To date, there are no data to recommend revaccination after receiving the basic schedule for each type of vaccine. Both vaccines produce systemic and injection site adverse events of mild to moderate intensity.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/uso terapêutico , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
5.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 172-179, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report on the translation procedures and psychometric properties of the DISCERN tool in Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: Three people translated the DISCERN from English into Brazilian Portuguese. A committee of experts and community representatives evaluated the quality of the 3 versions in 2 online voting rounds. Two native speakers back-translated the questionnaire into English. We compared these versions to the original DISCERN and made small adjustments. The final Brazilian Portuguese version of DISCERN was tested twice by journalism students to evaluate the quality of a text about smoking cessation treatments. We evaluated participants' health literacy with the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults (SAHL-PA) tool, assessed the internal consistency of the translated questionnaire with the Cronbach test, and measured its reproducibility with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We then investigated the relationship between DISCERN and SAHL-PA scores and demographic variables. RESULTS: The participants (n = 126) had no difficulty in using the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was 0.865 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.826-0.898), and the ICC between the 2 evaluations was 0.845 (CI 0.717-0.912). The mean health literacy of the participants was adequate. There was no correlation between the DISCERN score and the SAHL-PA score, age, or sex (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the DISCERN questionnaire has excellent internal consistency and good reproducibility. The evaluators' ages, sex, and health literacy did not interfere with the score resulting from the evaluation of the quality of the text.

6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012936, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have complex symptoms and different types of needs. These demands include how to manage the burden of physical disability as well as how to organise daily life, restructure social roles in the family and at work, preserve personal identity and community roles, keep self-sufficiency in personal care, and how to be part of an integrated care network. Palliative care teams are trained to keep open full and competent lines of communication about symptoms and disease progression, advanced care planning, and end-of-life issues and wishes. Teams create a treatment plan for the total management of symptoms, supporting people and families on decision-making. Despite advances in research and the existence of many interventions to reduce disease activity or to slow the progression of MS, this condition remains a life-limiting disease with symptoms that impact negatively the lives of people with it and their families. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of palliative care interventions compared to usual care for people with any form of multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS) We also aimed to compare the effects of different palliative care interventions. SEARCH METHODS: On 31 October 2018, we conducted a literature search in the specialised register of the Cochrane MS and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Review Group, which contains trials from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, Clinical trials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We also searched PsycINFO, PEDro and Opengrey. We also handsearched relevant journals and screened the reference lists of published reviews. We contacted researchers in palliative care and multiple sclerosis. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster randomised trials were eligible for inclusion, as well as the first phase of cross-over trials. We included studies that compared palliative care interventions versus usual care. We also included studies that compared palliative care interventions versus another type of palliative interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We summarised key results and certainty of evidence in a 'Summary of Finding' table that reported outcomes at six or more months of post-intervention. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies (146 participants) met our selection criteria. Two studies compared multidisciplinary, fast-track palliative care versus multidisciplinary standard care while on a waiting-list control, and one study compared a multidisciplinary palliative approach versus multidisciplinary standard care at different time points (12, 16, and 24 weeks). Two were RCTs with parallel design (total 94 participants) and one was a cross-over design (52 participants). The three studies assessed palliative care as a home-based intervention. One of the three studies included participants with 'neurodegenerative diseases', with MS people being a subset of the randomised population. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using Cochrane's 'Risk of Bias' tool.We found no evidence of differences between intervention and control groups in long-time follow-up (> six months post-intervention) for the following outcomes: mean change in health-related quality of life (SEIQoL - higher scores mean better quality of life; MD 4.80, 95% CI -12.32 to 21.92; participants = 62; studies = 1; very low-certainty evidence), serious adverse events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.12; participants = 76; studies = 1, 22 events, low-certainty evidence) and hospital admission (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.52; participants = 76; studies = 1, 10 events, low-certainty evidence).The three included studies did not assess the following outcomes at long term follow-up (> six months post intervention): fatigue, anxiety, depression, disability, cognitive function, relapse-free survival, and sustained progression-free survival.We did not find any trial that compared different types of palliative care with each other. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of the RCTs included in this review, we are uncertain whether palliative care interventions are beneficial for people with MS. There is low- or very low-certainty evidence regarding the difference between palliative care interventions versus usual care for long-term health-related quality of life, adverse events, and hospital admission in patients with MS. For intermediate-term follow-up, we are also uncertain about the effects of palliative care for the outcomes: health-related quality of life (measured by different assessments: SEIQoL or MSIS), disability, anxiety, and depression.

7.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 24, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of skills on how to diagnose and manage obstetric emergencies contribute to substandard institutional care and preventable maternal deaths in Brazil. Simulation-based obstetric emergency team training can reduce adverse maternal outcomes. However, this type of training is expensive and not widely available, especially in low resource settings. We present the experience of a private-public partnership that offered a two-day obstetric emergency simulation-training course to hundreds of Brazilian professionals working in the public sector. We also present participants´ short-term learning outcomes (Kirkpatrick's level 2) and satisfaction (Kirkpatrick's level 1). METHODS: This was a non-experimental before-and-after study. The free 16-h course was held over a 14 months period in a large private hospital's simulation center using multidisciplinary scenario and model-based training. The training sessions consisted of four (4-h) modules on pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, hemorrhage, sepsis and resuscitation. An anonymous questionnaire collected participants´ satisfaction at the end of each module. Learning outcomes were assessed by comparing differences in participants´ pre- versus immediate post-course test scores. Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests were used for statistical analyses. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: 340 professionals (117 doctors, 179 registered nurses-RN and 44 licensed practical nurses-LPN) working in 33 public Brazilian hospitals were trained. There was a significant increase in post-course test scores in all four modules. On average, scores increased 55% in the hypertension and 65-69% in the hemorrhage, sepsis and resuscitation modules (p = 0.019). Knowledge acquisition of RN and LPN was similar in the hypertension, hemorrhage and sepsis modules and significantly higher than doctors´ (p < 0.05). On a 0 to 10 scale, mean overall satisfaction ranged from 9.6 (for the hypertension module) to 9.8 (for the resuscitation module). CONCLUSIONS: This successful experience of a private-public partnership to offer obstetric emergency simulation training required strategic organization and a strong commitment from both sides. This promising private-public partnership model could be replicated in similar settings. The training course obtained high satisfaction scores and significantly improved the knowledge of public-sector health professionals on how to manage the main causes of maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Obstetrícia/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Brasil , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD001059, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of serious morbidity and death. Calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, and may help to prevent preterm birth. This is an update of a review last published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related maternal and child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (18 September 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised trials, comparing high-dose calcium supplementation (at least 1 g daily of calcium) during pregnancy with placebo. For low-dose calcium we included quasi-randomised trials, trials without placebo, trials with cointerventions and dose comparison trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two researchers independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two researchers assessed the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 studies (18,064 women). We assessed the included studies as being at low risk of bias, although bias was frequently difficult to assess due to poor reporting and inadequate information on methods.High-dose calcium supplementation (≥ 1 g/day) versus placeboFourteen studies examined this comparison, however one study contributed no data. The 13 studies contributed data from 15,730 women to our meta-analyses. The average risk of high blood pressure (BP) was reduced with calcium supplementation compared with placebo (12 trials, 15,470 women: risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.81; I² = 74%). There was also a reduction in the risk of pre-eclampsia associated with calcium supplementation (13 trials, 15,730 women: average RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65; I² = 70%; low-quality evidence). This effect was clear for women with low calcium diets (eight trials, 10,678 women: average RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.65; I² = 76%) but not those with adequate calcium diets. The effect appeared to be greater for women at higher risk of pre-eclampsia, though this may be due to small-study effects (five trials, 587 women: average RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.42). These data should be interpreted with caution because of the possibility of small-study effects or publication bias. In the largest trial, the reduction in pre-eclampsia was modest (8%) and the CI included the possibility of no effect.The composite outcome maternal death or serious morbidity was reduced with calcium supplementation (four trials, 9732 women; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98). Maternal deaths were no different (one trial of 8312 women: one death in the calcium group versus six in the placebo group). There was an anomalous increase in the risk of HELLP syndrome in the calcium group (two trials, 12,901 women: RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.05 to 6.82, high-quality evidence), however, the absolute number of events was low (16 versus six).The average risk of preterm birth was reduced in the calcium supplementation group (11 trials, 15,275 women: RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97; I² = 60%; low-quality evidence); this reduction was greatest amongst women at higher risk of developing pre-eclampsia (four trials, 568 women: average RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83; I² = 60%). Again, these data should be interpreted with caution because of the possibility of small-study effects or publication bias. There was no clear effect on admission to neonatal intensive care. There was also no clear effect on the risk of stillbirth or infant death before discharge from hospital (11 trials, 15,665 babies: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.09).One study showed a reduction in childhood systolic BP greater than 95th percentile among children exposed to calcium supplementation in utero (514 children: RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). In a subset of these children, dental caries at 12 years old was also reduced (195 children, RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.87).Low-dose calcium supplementation (< 1 g/day) versus placebo or no treatmentTwelve trials (2334 women) evaluated low-dose (usually 500 mg daily) supplementation with calcium alone (four trials) or in association with vitamin D (five trials), linoleic acid (two trials), or antioxidants (one trial). Most studies recruited women at high risk for pre-eclampsia, and were at high risk of bias, thus the results should be interpreted with caution. Supplementation with low doses of calcium reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (nine trials, 2234 women: RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.52). There was also a reduction in high BP (five trials, 665 women: RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.74), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (one trial, 422 women, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.99), but not preterm birth (six trials, 1290 women, average RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.03), or stillbirth or death before discharge (five trials, 1025 babies, RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.67).High-dose (=/> 1 g) versus low-dose (< 1 g) calcium supplementationWe included one trial with 262 women, the results of which should be interpreted with caution due to unclear risk of bias. Risk of pre-eclampsia appeared to be reduced in the high-dose group (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.96). No other differences were found (preterm birth: RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.08; eclampsia: RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.53; stillbirth: RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.83). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: High-dose calcium supplementation (≥ 1 g/day) may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth, particularly for women with low calcium diets (low-quality evidence). The treatment effect may be overestimated due to small-study effects or publication bias. It reduces the occurrence of the composite outcome 'maternal death or serious morbidity', but not stillbirth or neonatal high care admission. There was an increased risk of HELLP syndrome with calcium supplementation, which was small in absolute numbers.The limited evidence on low-dose calcium supplementation suggests a reduction in pre-eclampsia, hypertension and admission to neonatal high care, but needs to be confirmed by larger, high-quality trials.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
9.
Lancet ; 392(10155): 1358-1368, 2018 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322586

RESUMO

Optimising the use of caesarean section (CS) is of global concern. Underuse leads to maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Conversely, overuse of CS has not shown benefits and can create harm. Worldwide, the frequency of CS continues to increase, and interventions to reduce unnecessary CSs have shown little success. Identifying the underlying factors for the continuing increase in CS use could improve the efficacy of interventions. In this Series paper, we describe the factors for CS use that are associated with women, families, health professionals, and health-care organisations and systems, and we examine behavioural, psychosocial, health system, and financial factors. We also outline the type and effects of interventions to reduce CS use that have been investigated. Clinical interventions, such as external cephalic version for breech delivery at term, vaginal breech delivery in appropriately selected women, and vaginal birth after CS, could reduce the frequency of CS use. Approaches such as labour companionship and midwife-led care have been associated with higher proportions of physiological births, safer outcomes, and lower health-care costs relative to control groups without these interventions, and with positive maternal experiences, in high-income countries. Such approaches need to be assessed in middle-income and low-income countries. Educational interventions for women should be complemented with meaningful dialogue with health professionals and effective emotional support for women and families. Investing in the training of health professionals, eliminating financial incentives for CS use, and reducing fear of litigation is fundamental. Safe, private, welcoming, and adequately resourced facilities are needed. At the country level, effective medical leadership is essential to ensure CS is used only when indicated. We conclude that interventions to reduce overuse must be multicomponent and locally tailored, addressing women's and health professionals' concerns, as well as health system and financial factors.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Procedimentos Desnecessários , Cesárea/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/terapia , Parto/psicologia , Gravidez
10.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 80(2): e12993, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873429

RESUMO

This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Several factors influence the bacterial profile of these women and may explain, at least in part, some of the discrepant findings between studies. The development of and access to new molecular biology methods and techniques has expanded the possibilities of research. This will contribute to a better understanding of the microbiome and its role in normal and pathological pregnancies.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
11.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(3): 251-261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.


Assuntos
Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Apiterapia/métodos , Aromaterapia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Ozônio/uso terapêutico
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 251-261, May-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962722

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.

13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(5): e548-e554, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. METHODS: We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. FINDINGS: 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60-3·48). In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39-2·49]). INTERPRETATION: Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. FUNDING: Barts and the London Charity.


Assuntos
Anemia/mortalidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Risco
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011276, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic breast cancer is not a curable disease, but women with metastatic disease are living longer. Surgery to remove the primary tumour is associated with an increased survival in other types of metastatic cancer. Breast surgery is not standard treatment for metastatic disease, however several recent retrospective studies have suggested that breast surgery could increase the women's survival. These studies have methodological limitations including selection bias. A systematic review mapping all randomised controlled trials addressing the benefits and potential harms of breast surgery is ideal to answer this question. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of breast surgery in women with metastatic breast cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted searches using the MeSH terms 'breast neoplasms', 'mastectomy', and 'analysis, survival' in the following databases: the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (by PubMed) and Embase (by OvidSP) on 22 February 2016. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov (22 February 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (24 February 2016). We conducted an additional search in the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) conference proceedings in July 2016 that included reference checking, citation searching, and contacting study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials of women with metastatic breast cancer at initial diagnosis comparing breast surgery plus systemic therapy versus systemic therapy alone. The primary outcomes were overall survival and quality of life. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (local and distant control), breast cancer-specific survival, and toxicity from local therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently conducted trial selection, data extraction, and 'Risk of bias' assessment (using Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool), which a third review author checked. We used the GRADE tool to assess the quality of the body of evidence. We used the risk ratio (RR) to measure the effect of treatment for dichotomous outcomes and the hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes. We calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for these measures. We used the random-effects model, as we expected clinical or methodological heterogeneity, or both, among the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included two trials enrolling 624 women in the review. It is uncertain whether breast surgery improves overall survival as the quality of the evidence has been assessed as very low (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.31; 2 studies; 624 women). The two studies did not report quality of life. Breast surgery may improve local progression-free survival (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.57; 2 studies; 607 women; low-quality evidence), while it probably worsened distant progression-free survival (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.86; 1 study; 350 women; moderate-quality evidence). The two included studies did not measure breast cancer-specific survival. Toxicity from local therapy was reported by 30-day mortality and did not appear to differ between the two groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.14 to 6.90; 1 study; 274 women; low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on existing evidence from two randomised clinical trials, it is not possible to make definitive conclusions on the benefits and risks of breast surgery associated with systemic treatment for women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Until the ongoing clinical trials are finalised, the decision to perform breast surgery in these women should be individualised and shared between the physician and the patient considering the potential risks, benefits, and costs of each intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(1): e201712811, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the coverage, completeness and reliability of data on live births in public maternity wards in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: data recorded in the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc) were compared with data collected in a field study (gold standard) during three months in 2011 in four maternity wards in hospital from the SUS network; kappa coefficient was calculated to assess agreement. RESULTS: 5,785 birth records were analyzed; Sinasc coverage was 99.8% and completeness was 96.2%; kappa values showed excellent and good agreement for maternal age (0.99), type of pregnancy, sex and newborn sex and birth weight (0.98), type of delivery (0.97), 1 minute (0.96) and 5th (0.95) minutes, previous live births (0.87) and education level (0.62); regular agreement for prenatal care visits (0.60) and gestational age (0.56); and weak agreement for previous stillbirths (0.09). CONCLUSION: in the assessed hospitals, Sinasc presented high coverage, completeness and reliability.


Assuntos
Declaração de Nascimento , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/normas , Hospitais Públicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Brasil , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ ; 360: k55, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. SETTING: 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. RESULTS: National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial within country economic inequalities in caesarean deliveries remain. These inequalities might be due to a combination of inadequate access to emergency obstetric care among the poorest subgroups and high levels of caesarean use without medical indication in the richest subgroups, especially in middle income countries. Country specific strategies should address these inequalities to improve maternal and newborn health.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 27(1): e201712811, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-953369

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar a cobertura, completude e confiabilidade das informações sobre nascidos vivos em maternidades da rede pública de São Paulo-SP, Brasil. Métodos: comparou-se o Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc), ao estudo de avaliação, considerado padrão ouro, realizado por três meses em 2011, cujos dados foram coletados em quatro maternidades/SUS; calculou-se o coeficiente kappa para avaliar concordância. Resultados: analisaram-se 5.785 registros de nascimentos; a cobertura do Sinasc foi de 99,8% sobre o total de nascimentos e a completude, 96,2%; os valores kappa mostraram concordâncias excelente e boa para idade materna (0,99), tipo de gravidez, sexo e peso (0,98), tipo de parto (0,97), Apgar no 1º (0,96) e 5º minutos (0,95), filhos tidos vivos (0,87) e escolaridade (0,62), concordância moderada para consultas de pré-natal (0,60) e duração de gestação (0,56), e concordância fraca para filhos tidos mortos (0,09). Conclusão: nos hospitais avaliados, o Sinasc apresentou elevadas cobertura, completude e confiabilidade.


Objetivo: evaluar la cobertura, conformidad documental y confiabilidad de informaciones sobre nacidos vivos en maternidades de la red pública de la ciudad de São Paulo-SP, Brasil. Métodos: se comparó el sistema de informaciones de nacidos vivos al estudio de evaluación, considerado padrón oro, realizado por tres meses en 2011, cuyos datos fueron colectados en cuatro maternidades/SUS; se calculó el coeficiente kappa para evaluar la concordancia. Resultados: se analizaron 5.785 registros de nacimientos; la cobertura Sinasc fue 99,8% del total de nacimientos, y la conformidad documental, 96,2%; las estadísticas de kappa mostraron concordancia excelente y buena para edad materna (0,99), tipo de embarazo, sexo y peso (0,98), tipo de parto (0,97), Apgar en el 1º (0,96) y 5º minutos (0,95), hijos vivos (0,87) y escolaridad (0,62), concordancia moderada para consultas de prenatal (0,60) y duración de gestación (0,56), y concordancia débil para hijos muertos (0,09). Conclusión: en los hospitales analizados, el Sinasc presentó alto grado de cobertura, conformidad documental y confiabilidad.


Objective: to assess the coverage, completeness and reliability of data on live births in public maternity wards in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: data recorded in the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc) were compared with data collected in a field study (gold standard) during three months in 2011 in four maternity wards in hospital from the SUS network; kappa coefficient was calculated to assess agreement. Results: 5,785 birth records were analyzed; Sinasc coverage was 99.8% and completeness was 96.2%; kappa values showed excellent and good agreement for maternal age (0.99), type of pregnancy, sex and newborn sex and birth weight (0.98), type of delivery (0.97), 1 minute (0.96) and 5th (0.95) minutes, previous live births (0.87) and education level (0.62); regular agreement for prenatal care visits (0.60) and gestational age (0.56); and weak agreement for previous stillbirths (0.09). Conclusion: in the assessed hospitals, Sinasc presented high coverage, completeness and reliability.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Sistemas de Informação , Declaração de Nascimento , Estatísticas Vitais , Nascimento Vivo , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos Transversais
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD011289, 2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29231243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome, now generally referred to as patellofemoral pain (PFP), is one of the most common orthopaedic disorders, characterised by pain in the anterior or retropatellar knee region. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been proposed generally as a complementary treatment, associated with other interventions such as exercise, or as a single treatment to increase muscle force, reduce knee pain, and improve function. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for people with patellofemoral pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PEDro, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, AMED, LILACS, trial registers, conference abstracts, and reference lists. We carried out the search in May 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled clinical trials that evaluated the use of NMES for people with PFP. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed the process of study selection, data extraction, and 'Risk of bias' assessment in duplicate. The primary outcomes were knee pain, knee function, and adverse events. The timing of outcome measurements was up to three months (short term), three to 12 months (medium term), and 12 months and above from trial entry (long term). We calculated risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences or standardised mean differences for continuous data. Where appropriate, we pooled data using the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight randomised clinical trials, reporting results for 345 participants with PFP. The mean ages of trial populations ranged from 25 to 43 years, and the majority (53% to 100%) of participants were female. There was a wide duration of symptoms, with the minimum duration of symptoms for trial inclusion ranging from one to six months. In addition to the study inclusion criteria, studies varied widely in the characteristics of the NMES and its application, and associated co-interventions. We assessed all trials as at high risk of bias in at least one domain, particularly blinding and incomplete outcome data. The results of a laboratory-based trial reporting knee pain immediately after a single 15-minute session of NMES are not reported here as these are of questionable clinical relevance. The seven remaining trials provided evidence for three comparisons. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence, using GRADE, for all primary outcomes for all comparisons as very low, thus we are very unsure of the findings.Four studies compared NMES plus exercise versus exercise alone. Patellar taping was applied as well as exercise to all participants of one study, and patellar taping and ice were also applied in another study. Each trial tested a different multiple-session NMES programme. Pooled data from three studies (118 participants) provided very low-quality evidence that NMES is associated with reduced pain at the end of treatment (ranging from 3 to 12 weeks): mean difference -1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.23 to -1.02; visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10; higher scores = worse pain. However, this result may not be clinically relevant since the minimal clinically important difference for VAS during activities (1.5 to 2.0, out of 10 points) lies within the 95% CI. We found very low-quality evidence from pooled data from two trials of little effect of NMES on knee function, as measured by two knee function rating systems. We found inconclusive and very low-quality evidence from one trial (29 participants) of little effect of NMES on pain and function at one-year follow-up. None of the four trials reported on adverse effects of treatment.One study (94 participants) compared NMES, applied four hours per day on a daily basis for four weeks, with two types of exercises (isometric and isokinetic). The study did not report on knee pain or adverse events. The study provided very low-quality evidence of no important difference between the two groups in knee function at the end of the four-week treatment. Of note is the potentially onerous NMES schedule in this study, which does not correspond to that typically used in clinical practice.Two studies compared different types of NMES. Simultaneously delivered high-low frequencies NMES was compared with sequentially delivered high-low frequencies NMES in one trial (14 participants) and with fixed frequency NMES in the second trial (64 participants). The studies provided very low-quality evidence of no important differences at the end of the six-week treatment programme between the simultaneous frequencies NMES and the two other NMES programmes in overall knee pain, knee function, or in quadriceps fatigue (an adverse event). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found insufficient and inconclusive evidence from randomised controlled trials to inform on the role of NMES for treating people with PFP in current clinical practice. The very low-quality evidence available means that we are uncertain whether or not a multiple-session programme of NMES combined with exercise over several weeks versus exercise alone results in clinically important differences in knee pain and function at the end of the treatment period or at one year. There were no data on adverse effects such as muscle fatigue and discomfort. High-quality randomised clinical trials are needed to inform on the use of NMES for people with PFP. However, professional and stakeholder consensus is required on prioritisation of the research questions for interventions for treating people with PFP, including on the NMES treatment protocol for trials testing NMES.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Síndrome da Dor Patelofemoral/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(12): 670-675, Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898847

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose To describe the experience of a distance education course on sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth for residents. Methods This prospective educational intervention study was conducted by investigators from the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil, between April and September 2014. The participants were 219 physicians (residents from the 1st to the 6th years). The duration of the course was of 24 hours (10 video lectures and online chats). At baseline, the participants answered questions about their training, attitude and experience regarding sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth; before and after the course, they answered questions to assess their knowledge about the topic; at the end of the course, they answered questions on the quality of the course. The Student t-test was used to compare the before and after scores of the knowledge tests; values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 143 residents concluded the course; most were in their 1st (27.2%) or 3rd (29.4%) years of residency. There was a significant increase in themean scores of the questionnaires that assessed the knowledge of the topic: 4.4 (1.6) versus 6.0 (1.3; maximum score: 10), before and after the course respectively (p < 0.0001). Most of the participants (74.1%) declared that the quality of the course as a whole reached their expectations, and 81.1% would recommend the course to a friend. Conclusions The online Sexology course for Obstetrics and Gynecology residents increased their knowledge about the sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth, and fulfilled the participants' expectations. The experience described heremay serve as a model for other sexuality courses targeting similar audiences.


Resumo Objetivos Relatar a experiência de um curso de educação a distância sobre questões sexuais na gestação e puerpério para médicos residentes. Métodos Estudo prospectivo de intervenção educacional, realizado entre abril e setembro de 2014, por investigadores da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os participantes foram 219 médicos (R1 a R6). O curso teve carga horária de 24 horas (10 videoaulas e discussões online). No início do curso, os participantes responderam perguntas sobre treinamento, atitude e prática relativas a questões sexuais na gestação; antes e após o curso, responderam perguntas de conhecimento sobre o tema; ao final, preencheram questionário sobre a qualidade do curso. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para comparar os testes de conhecimento, antes e após o curso; valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. Resultados Um total de 143 residentes concluiu o curso; a maioria estava no 1° (27,2%) ou 3° (29,4%) anos de residência. Houve aumento significativo nas notas médias dos questionários que avaliavam o conhecimento sobre o tema: 4,4 (1,6) versus 6,0 (1,3; nota máxima: 10), no início e final do curso, respectivamente (p < 0,0001). A maioria dos participantes (74,1%) declarou que a qualidade geral do curso atingiu suas expectativas, e 81,1% recomendariam o curso a um amigo. Conclusões O curso de Sexologia online para residentes de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia promoveu o aumento do conhecimento sobre questões sexuais no ciclo gravídico puerperal, e atendeu às expectativas dos participantes. Essa experiência pode servir de modelo para outros cursos de sexualidade voltados para esse público.

20.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 39(12): 670-675, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179242

RESUMO

Purpose To describe the experience of a distance education course on sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth for residents. Methods This prospective educational intervention study was conducted by investigators from the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil, between April and September 2014. The participants were 219 physicians (residents from the 1st to the 6th years). The duration of the course was of 24 hours (10 video lectures and online chats). At baseline, the participants answered questions about their training, attitude and experience regarding sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth; before and after the course, they answered questions to assess their knowledge about the topic; at the end of the course, they answered questions on the quality of the course. The Student t-test was used to compare the before and after scores of the knowledge tests; values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 143 residents concluded the course; most were in their 1st (27.2%) or 3rd (29.4%) years of residency. There was a significant increase in the mean scores of the questionnaires that assessed the knowledge of the topic: 4.4 (±1.6) versus 6.0 (±1.3; maximum score: 10), before and after the course respectively (p < 0.0001). Most of the participants (74.1%) declared that the quality of the course as a whole reached their expectations, and 81.1% would recommend the course to a friend. Conclusions The online Sexology course for Obstetrics and Gynecology residents increased their knowledge about the sexual issues during pregnancy and after birth, and fulfilled the participants' expectations. The experience described here may serve as a model for other sexuality courses targeting similar audiences.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Ginecologia/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Obstetrícia/educação , Sexologia/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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