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1.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1105, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and malignancies are increasing in the elderly, but incidences of new onset AF in different cancer subtypes are not well described.The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the incidence of AF in different cancer subtypes and to examine the association of cancer and future AF. METHODS: Using national databases, the Danish general population was followed from 2000 until 2012. Every individual aged > 18 years and with no history of cancer or AF prior to study start was included. Incidence rates of new onset AF were identified and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of AF in cancer patients were calculated in an adjusted Poisson regression model. RESULTS: A total of 4,324,545 individuals were included in the study. Cancer was diagnosed in 316,040 patients. The median age of the cancer population was 67.0 year and 51.5% were females. Incidences of AF were increased in all subtypes of cancer. For overall cancer, the incidence was 17.4 per 1000 person years (PY) vs 3.7 per 1000 PY in the general population and the difference increased with age. The covariate adjusted IRR for AF in overall cancer was 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-1.48). The strength of the association declined with time from cancer diagnosis (IRR0-90days = 3.41 (3.29-3.54), (IRR-180 days-1 year = 1.57 (CI 1.50-1.64) and (IRR2-5 years = 1.12 (CI 1.09-1.15). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort study we observed that all major cancer subtypes were associated with an increased incidence of AF. Further, cancer and AF might be independently associated.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e023049, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between time from emergency medical service vehicle dispatch to hospital arrival and 1-day and 30-day mortality. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING: North Denmark Region (≈8000 km2, catchment population ≈600 000). PARTICIPANTS: We included all highest priority dispatched ambulance transports in North Denmark Region in 2006-2012. INTERVENTIONS: Using logistic regression and the g-formula approach, we examined the association between time from emergency dispatch to hospital arrival and mortality for presumed heart, respiratory, cerebrovascular and other presumed medical conditions, as well as traffic or other accidents, as classified by emergency dispatch personnel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1-day and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Among 93 167 individuals with highest priority ambulances dispatched, 1948 (2.1%) were dead before the ambulance arrived and 19 968 (21.4%) were transported to the hospital under highest priority (median total prehospital time from dispatch to hospital arrival 47 min (25%-75%: 35-60 min); 95th percentile 84 min). Among 18 709 with population data, 1-day mortality was 10.9% (n=2038), and was highest for patients with dyspnoea (20.4%) and lowest for patients with traffic accidents (2.8%). Thirty-day mortality was 18.3% and varied between 36.6% (patients with dyspnoea) and 3.7% (traffic accidents). One-day mortality was not associated with total prehospital time, except for presumed heart conditions, where longer prehospital time was associated with decreased mortality: adjusted OR for >60 min vs 0-30 min was 0.61 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.91). For patients with dyspnoea, OR for >60 min vs 0-30 min was 0.90 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.45), for presumed cerebrovascular conditions OR 1.41 (95% CI 0.53 to 3.78), for other presumed medical conditions OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.02), for traffic accidents OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.48) and for other accidents OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.51). Similar findings were found for 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, where time from emergency dispatch to hospital arrival mainly was <80 min, there was no overall relation between this prehospital time measure and mortality.

3.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725156

RESUMO

The field of observational studies or "real world studies" is in rapid development with many new techniques introduced and increased understanding of traditional methods. For this reason the current paper provides an overview of current methods with focus on new techniques. Some highlights can be emphasized: We provide an overview of sources of data for observational studies. There is an overview of sources of bias and confounding. Next There is an overview of causal inference techniques that are increasingly used. The most commonly used techniques for statistical modelling are reviewed with focus on the important distinction of risk versus prediction. The final section provides examples of common problems with reporting observational data.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730151

RESUMO

In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients 150mg b.i.d. dabigatran is the standard dose, yet guidelines recommend 110mg b.i.d. when bleeding risk is high. It is unknown to which extend these recommendations are followed in patients switching from vitamin K antagonist (VKA) to dabigatran. The aim of this study was to investigate if AF patients are switched from vitamin K antagonist to the appropriate dose of dabigatran. METHODS: Using nationwide registries (Aug 22, 2011-Dec 31, 2012) we identified VKA-experienced AF patients with available creatinine values who switched to dabigatran. European guidelines criteria 2012 on dabigatran dosing were examined: age≥80 years, HAS-BLED≥3, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<50mL/min/1.73 m2, or use of interacting drugs. RESULTS: We identified 1,626 VKA-experienced AF patients who switched to dabigatran 110mg (820 patients) or 150mg (806 patients). Patients who switched to 110mg compared with 150mg were older (median age 82 years [Q1-Q3:77-86] vs. 68 years [Q1-Q3:64-74]), more often female (54% vs. 35%), had a higher comorbidity burden, higher proportion with CHA2DS2-VASc score≥2 (98% vs. 80%), and more with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 (46% vs. 28%). Patients switched to 110mg had a higher absolute risk of mortality compared to patients switched to 150mg. Overall, 26% were inappropriately dosed and 14% were switched to 110mg although the higher dose was indicated. Further, 39% of patients switched to 150mg fulfilled one or more criteria for 110mg, this mostly driven by high HAS-BLED scores (28.2% of patients on 150mg). Female sex, age>80 years, eGFR<50 mL/min/1.73 m2, drugs interacting with dabigatran, and prior bleeding were associated with switch to 110mg. Patients inappropriately dosed had similar risk of mortality as patients appropriately dosed. CONCLUSION: Among VKA-experienced AF patients one in four were switched to a dabigatran dose contrary to guideline recommendations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742339

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are displacing Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could increase gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) risks among these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of GIB among Danish AF patients taking oral anticoagulants (OACs) and NSAID. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using nationwide administrative registries, we determined concomitant NSAID use among anticoagulant-naïve patients with AF initiating OACs between August 2011 and June 2017. We calculated short-term absolute risks differences and hazard ratios (HRs) for GIB based on multiple adjusted cause-specific Cox regressions with time-dependent NSAID treatment.Among 41,183 patients (median age 70 years (IQR 64-78); 55% men), 21% of patients on NOACs and 18% on VKA were co-prescribed NSAIDs. The differences in absolute risk (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) of GIB within 14 days of commencing concomitant NSAID therapy (versus no concomitant NSAID therapy) were 0.10% (0.04%-0.18%) for NOACs and 0.13% (0.03%-0.24%) for VKA. NOACs overall were associated with less GIB than VKA (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.69-0.85]). Compared with OACs alone, concomitant NSAIDs doubled the GIB risk associated with NOACs overall (HR 2.01 [95% CI 1.40-2.61] and with VKA (HR 1.95 [95% CI 1.21-2.69]). CONCLUSION: Among this nationwide AF population taking OACs, concomitant NSAID therapy increased the short-term absolute risk of GIB. NOACs alone were associated with lower GIB risks than VKA but concomitant NSAIDs abolished this advantage. The findings align with post-hoc analyses from randomized studies. Physicians should exercise appropriate caution when prescribing NSAIDs for patients with AF taking NOACs or VKA.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667622

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a feared complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Data on the late risk of ischemic stroke following TAVR are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the early (0-90 days) and late (90 days-5 years) risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events (CVE) in a large, unselected cohort of patients undergoing TAVR and to compare this risk with a matched background population. Therefore, all patients undergoing first-time TAVR in Denmark were matched to a background population (controls) in a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, atrial fibrillation (AF), and the major stroke risk factors. A total of 2455 TAVR patients were matched with 9820 controls. TAVR was associated with a significantly higher ischemic CVE risk as compared with their controls in the early phase [hazard ratio (HR) 5.35 [95% CI 3.50-8.17]; p < 0.001) but not in the late phase (HR 1.17 [95% CI 0.94-1.46]; p = 0.15). In a predefined stratified analysis, no patient-related factors were associated with this higher CVE risk in the early phase. The cumulative 90-day ischemic CVE risk was the lowest in TAVR-patients with known AF receiving oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy (1.3% [95% CI 0.6-2.5%] and was two-fold higher in OAC-naïve TAVR-patients (2.4% [95% CI 1.8-3.3%] in patients without AF and 2.5% [95% CI 0.9-5.3%] in patients with AF). In conclusion, TAVR was associated with an increased risk of ischemic CVE in the early phase, but not in the late phase, as compared to their matched controls-OAC therapy reduced this early risk of ischemic CVE by half.

7.
J Electrocardiol ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with pacemaker (PM) in comparison to control cohort is unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of AF after implantation of a PM in an AF-naive population in comparison to an age- and sex-matched PM- and AF-free population cohort. METHODS: All patients with a dual chamber PM (DDD) implanted between 2000 and 2014 without a known history of AF were included (n = 17,428). To compare, a general population cohort without pacemaker and a cohort with loop recorder was identified. Outcome was the cumulative incidence of AF within the first 2 years from 3-months after device implantation. RESULTS: At the end of first 3-months after device implantation, 16,383 patients were free of AF and were included in the current study. In comparison to controls (n = 86,167), patients with PM had higher cumulative incidence of AF (5.2% vs 2.7%, P < 0.001)). Due to interaction with age, patients were divided into three age-groups) and the relative risk for the diagnosis of AF were: < 70 years (HR 4.46, 95% CI 3.65-5.44); 70-79 years (HR 2.60, 95% CI 2.27-2.98); and ≥ 80 years (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45). For comparison between PM and loop-recorder cohort (1:1 matching), 2202 patients were available in both groups. The incidence of AF within the first 2-years in the both groups was 7.9% vs. 8.4% (loop vs pacemaker). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PM have an increased risk of being diagnosed with AF in comparison to general cohort likely due to continuous monitoring.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e033283, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the accuracy of the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) model against existing risk scores for stroke and major bleeding risk in patients with non-valvular AF in a population-based cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide registries. PARTICIPANTS: 90 693 patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF were included between 2010 and 2016, with follow-up censored at 1 year. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: External validation was performed using discrimination and calibration plots. C-statistics were compared with CHA2DS2VASc score for ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and HAS-BLED score for major bleeding/haemorrhagic stroke outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 90 693 included, 51 180 patients received oral anticoagulants (OAC). Overall median age (Q1, Q3) were 75 (66-83) years and 48 486 (53.5%) were male. At 1-year follow-up, a total of 2094 (2.3%) strokes/SE, 2642 (2.9%) major bleedings and 10 915 (12.0%) deaths occurred. The GARFIELD-AF model was well calibrated with the predicted risk for stroke/SE and major bleeding. The discriminatory value of GARFIELD-AF risk model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc for predicting stroke in the overall cohort (C-index: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.72 vs C-index: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.68, p<0.001) as well as in low-risk patients (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.69 vs C-index: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.61, p=0.007). The GARFIELD-AF model was comparable to HAS-BLED in predicting the risk of major bleeding in patients on OAC therapy (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.66 vs C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.65, p=0.60). CONCLUSION: In a nationwide Danish cohort with non-valvular AF, the GARFIELD-AF model adequately predicted the risk of ischaemic stroke/SE and major bleeding. Our external validation confirms that the GARFIELD-AF model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc in predicting stroke/SE and comparable with HAS-BLED for predicting major bleeding.

9.
Europace ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595294

RESUMO

AIMS: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (CAF) improves symptoms, but whether CAF improves outcome is less clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAF is associated with improved outcome in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with previous direct current (DC) cardioversion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a nationwide cohort study including all patients who underwent their 1st direct current cardioversion for AF in the period 2003-15 (N = 25 439). End points were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, stroke/thromboembolism, and incident heart failure (HF). Catheter ablation for AF was treated as a time-varying covariate and the association with outcome was assessed using Cox regression. We also constructed a propensity-matched cohort and assessed the association between CAF and outcome. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (inter-quartile range 3.0-8.7 years). A total of 3509 patients (13.8%) underwent CAF during the study period. Following adjustment for age, gender, comorbidities, medications, educational level, household income, and CHA2DS2VASc score, CAF was associated with reduced risks of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and incident HF [all-cause death: hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, P < 0.001; cardiovascular death: HR 0.68, P = 0.003; incident HF: HR 0.76, P = 0.011]. Catheter ablation for AF was not associated with a reduced risk of stroke/thromboembolism. These results were replicated in a propensity-matched cohort. CONCLUSION: In AF patients with a prior DC cardioversion, CAF was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death. This may be due to a reduced risk of HF.

10.
J Electrocardiol ; 57: 104-111, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629993

RESUMO

AIMS: Potassium disturbances are common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even in patients without prior cardiovascular disease. We examined six electrocardiographic (ECG) measures and their association to serum potassium levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Copenhagen General Practitioners' Laboratory, we identified 163,547 individuals aged ≥16 years with a first available ECG and a concomitant serum potassium measurement during 2001-2011. Restricted cubic splines curves showed a non-linear relationship between potassium and the Fridericia corrected QT (QTcF) interval, T-wave amplitude, morphology combination score (MCS), PR interval, P-wave amplitude and duration. Therefore, potassium was stratified in two intervals K: 2.0-4.1 mmol/L and 4.2-6.0 mmol/L for further analyses. Within the low potassium range, we observed: QTcF was 12.8 ms longer for each mmol/L decrease in potassium (p < 0.0001); T-wave amplitude was 43.1 µV lower for each mmol/L decrease in potassium (p < 0.0001); and MCS was 0.13 higher per mmol/L decrease in potassium (p < 0.001). Moreover, P-wave duration and PR interval were prolonged by 2.7 and 4.6 ms for each mmol/L decrease in potassium (p < 0.0001), respectively. Within the lowest potassium range (2.0-4.1 mmol/L) P-wave amplitude was 3.5 µV higher for each mmol/L decrease in potassium (p < 0.0001). Within the high potassium range associations with the above-mentioned ECG parameters were much weaker.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665260

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the risk of arterial thromboembolism, bleeding, and all-cause mortality in AF patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nationwide observational cohort study, 735 patients undergoing TAVI from January 1, 2012 to June 30, 2017 with a history of AF and who were treated with oral anticoagulants were identified using data from Danish nationwide registries. Of these, 219 (29.8%) and 516 (70.2%) patients were treated with DOACs and VKAs, respectively. The DOAC group was characterized by a higher prevalence of previous arterial thromboembolism and a lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease compared with the VKA group. The distribution of age, sex, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED-score, and concomitant antiplatelet therapy was similar between groups. Compared with VKA, treatment with DOACs was not associated with a significantly different 3-year absolute risk of arterial thromboembolism (9.6% [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7%-16.5%] versus 7.4% [95%CI, 4.9%-10.5%] in the DOAC and VKA group, respectively), bleeding (14.3% [95%CI, 7.6%-22.9%] versus 13.3% [95%CI, 9.9%-17.1%]), or all-cause mortality 32.7% [95%CI, 21.8%-44.0%] versus 32.0% [95%CI, 26.8%-37.3%]). In adjusted analyses, treatment with DOACs, as compared with VKAs, was not associated with a significantly different rate of arterial thromboembolism (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23 [95%CI, 0.58-2.59]), bleeding (HR, 1.14 [95%CI, 0.63-2.06]), or all-cause mortality (HR, 0.93 [95%CI, 0.61-1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF undergoing TAVI, treatment with DOACs was not associated with a significantly different risk of arterial thromboembolism, bleeding, or all-cause mortality compared with VKA.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596426

RESUMO

Importance: New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication of cardiac surgery. However, data on the long-term risk of thromboembolism in patients who develop POAF after heart valve surgery are conflicting. In addition, data on stroke prophylaxis in this setting are lacking. Objective: To assess the long-term risk of thromboembolism in patients developing new-onset POAF after isolated left-sided heart valve surgery relative to patients with nonsurgical, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2015, using Danish nationwide registries and the Eastern Danish Heart Surgery Database. Patients who developed POAF after isolated left-sided heart valve surgery (bioprosthetic aortic or mitral valve replacement and/or aortic or mitral valve repair) from 2000 through 2015 were included. These patients were matched with patients with nonsurgical NVAF in a 1:3 ratio by age, sex, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, a history of thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease, and year of diagnosis. Data analyses took place from January to March 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of thromboembolism. Results: Of the 1587 patients who underwent isolated left-sided heart valve surgery, 741 patients (46.7%) developed POAF during admission. Of the 712 patients with POAF who were eligible for matching, 675 patients were matched with 2025 patients with NVAF and made up the study population. In the matched study population, the median age was 71 (interquartile range, 65-77) years, and 1600 (59.3%) were men. Oral anticoagulation therapy was initiated within 30 days postdischarge in 420 patients with POAF (62.9%) and in 1030 patients with NVAF (51.4%). The crude incidence rates of thromboembolism were 21.9 (95% CI, 17.4-27.6) and 17.7 (95% CI, 15.2-20.6) events per 1000 person-years for patients with POAF and patients with NVAF, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the long-term risk of thromboembolism was similar in patients with POAF and NVAF (hazard ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.88-1.68]). Oral anticoagulation therapy during follow-up was associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic events in patients with POAF (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.22-0.90]) as well as patients with NVAF (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.45-0.87]) compared with no anticoagulation therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: New-onset POAF after isolated left-sided heart valve surgery was associated with a similar long-term risk of thromboembolism as NVAF. These data warrant studies addressing the role of anticoagulation therapy in POAF after left-sided heart valve surgery.

13.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1307-1315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607173

RESUMO

It has been a challenge to verify the dose of exercise that will produce the maximum health benefits in hypertension. This study aimed to explore the association between level of daily physical activity, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcome at different blood pressure levels. A random sample of 18 974 white men and women aged 20 to 98 years were examined in a prospective cardiovascular population study. Self-reported activity level in leisure-time was drawn from the Physical Activity Questionnaire (level I: inactivity; II: light activity; and III: moderate/high-level activity). Blood pressure was defined as normal blood pressure: <120/<80 mm Hg; Prehypertension: 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; Stage I hypertension: 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; Stage II hypertension ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. The mean follow-up time was 23.4±11.7 years. At all levels of blood pressure, higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower all-cause mortality in a dose-response pattern. The pattern remained unchanged after adjustment for following confounders: sex, age, smoking status, education, diabetes mellitus, previous cardiovascular disease, body mass index, and calendar time. Compared with inactivity, following hazard ratios were found for stage I hypertension: light activity, hazard ratio 0.78 (0.72-0.84; P<0.001), moderate/high-level activity, hazard ratio 0.69 (0.63-0.75; P<0.001). At all levels of blood pressure, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced independent of the level of physical activity. In conclusion, the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality was present in an inverse dose-response pattern at all levels of blood pressure. Physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiovascular events independent of the level of physical activity.

14.
Am J Med ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction defines electrocardiographic (ECG) Q waves as duration ≥30ms and amplitude ≥1mm or QS complex in two contiguous leads. However, current taskforce criteria may be overly restrictive. Therefore, we investigated the association of isolated, lenient, or strict Q waves with long-term outcome. METHODS: From 2001-2015, we included Danish primary care patients with digital ECGs that were evaluated for Q waves. If none occurred, patients had no Q waves. If no other contiguous Q wave occurred, patients had isolated Q waves. If another contiguous Q wave occurred meeting only one criterion (≥30ms and <1mm or <30ms and ≥1mm), patients had lenient Q waves. If another contiguous Q wave occurred, patients had strict Q waves. RESULTS: Of 365,206 patients, 87,957 had isolated, lenient, or strict Q waves (24%; median age, 61 years; male, 48%), and 277,249 had no Q waves (76%; median age, 53 years; male, 42%). Mortality risk was increased with isolated (all-cause adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.37; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.70-1.87), lenient (all-cause aHR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.33-1.50; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.63-1.94), or strict (all-cause aHR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.72; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 2.70; 95% CI, 2.52-2.89) Q waves compared with no Q waves. Highest mortality risk was associated with anteroseptal lenient or strict Q waves. CONCLUSIONS: This large contemporary analysis suggests that less stringent Q-wave criteria carry prognostic value in predicting adverse outcome among primary care patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560375

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine socioeconomic differences in care and outcomes in a one-year period beginning 30 days after hospital discharge for first-time AF hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: This nationwide register-based follow-up cohort study investigated AF 30-day discharge survivors in Denmark during 2005-2014 and examined associations between patient's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected outcomes during a 1-year follow-up period beginning 30 days post-discharge after first-time hospitalization for AF. Patient SES was defined in four groups (lowest, second lowest, second highest and highest) according to each patient's equivalized income. SES of the included 150,544 patients was: 27.7% lowest (n = 41,648), 28.1% second lowest (n = 42,321), 23.7% second highest (n = 35,656) and 20.5% highest (n = 30,919). Patients of lowest SES were older and more often women. Within 1-year follow-up, patients of lowest SES were less often re-hospitalized or seen in outpatient clinics due to AF, or treated with cardioversion or ablation, and were slightly more often diagnosed with stroke and heart failure and significantly more likely to die (16.1% vs. 14.9%, 11.3% and 8.1%). Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.64 (95% CI 0.61-0.68) for highest vs. lowest SES, adjusted for CHA2DS2-VASc-score, COPD, rate- and rhythm-controlling drugs and cohabitation status. CONCLUSION: In 30-day survivors of first-time hospitalization due to AF, lowest SES is associated with increased 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and fewer cardioversions, ablations, readmissions and outpatient contacts due to AF. Our findings indicate a need for socially differentiated rehabilitation following hospital discharge for first-time AF.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1557-1567, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are often placed in areas of low risk and limited temporal availability. Mathematical optimization can improve AED accessibility but has not been compared with current practices. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether, compared with real AED locations, optimized AED locations improve coverage of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). METHODS: The authors conducted the first retrospective in silico trial of an AED placement intervention. This study identified all public OHCAs of presumed cardiac cause and real AED deployed (control group) from 2007 to 2016 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Optimization models trained on historical OHCAs (1994 to 2007) were used to optimize an equal number of AEDs to the control group in locations with availabilities based on building hours (intervention #1) or 24/7 access (intervention #2). The 2 interventions and control scenario were compared using the number of OHCAs that occurred within 100 m of an accessible AED ("OHCA coverage") during the 2007 to 2016 period. Change in bystander defibrillation and 30-day survival were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 673 public OHCAs and 1,573 registered AEDs from 2007 to 2016. OHCA coverage of real AED placements was 22.0%. OHCA coverage of interventions #1 and #2 was significantly higher at 33.4% and 43.1%, respectively; relative gains of 52.0% to 95.9% (p < 0.001). Bystander defibrillation increased from 14.6% (control group) to 22.5% to 26.9% (intervention #1 to intervention #2); relative increase of 52.9% to 83.5% (p < 0.001). The 30-day survival rates increased from 31.3% (control group) to 34.7% to 35.4%, which is a relative increase of 11.0% to 13.3% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Optimized AED placements increased OHCA coverage by approximately 50% to 100% over real AED placements, leading to significant predicted increases in bystander defibrillation and 30-day survival.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504369

RESUMO

AIMS: Various drugs increase the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the general population by impacting cardiac ion channels, thereby causing ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF). Dihydropyridines block L-type calcium channels, but their association with OHCA risk is unknown. We aimed to study whether nifedipine and/or amlodipine, often-used dihydropyridines, are associated with increased OHCA risk, and how these drugs impact on cardiac electrophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a case-control study with VT/VF-documented OHCA cases with presumed cardiac cause from ongoing population-based OHCA registries in the Netherlands and Denmark, and age/sex/index date-matched non-OHCA controls (Netherlands: PHARMO Database Network, Denmark: Danish Civil Registration System). We included 2503 OHCA cases, 10 543 non-OHCA controls in Netherlands, and 8101 OHCA cases, 40 505 non-OHCA controls in Denmark. To examine drug effects on cardiac electrophysiology, we performed single-cell patch-clamp studies in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Use of high-dose nifedipine (≥60 mg/day), but not low-dose nifedipine (<60 mg/day) or amlodipine (any-dose), was associated with higher OHCA risk than non-use of dihydropyridines [Netherlands: adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.07), Denmark: 1.96 (1.18-3.25)] or use of amlodipine [Netherlands: 2.31 (1.54-3.47), Denmark: 2.20 (1.32-3.67)]. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest risk of (high-dose) nifedipine use was not further increased in patients using nitrates, or with a history of ischaemic heart disease. Nifedipine and amlodipine blocked L-type calcium channels at similar concentrations, but, at clinically used concentrations, nifedipine caused more L-type calcium current block, resulting in more action potential shortening. CONCLUSION: High-dose nifedipine, but not low-dose nifedipine or any-dose amlodipine, is associated with increased OHCA risk in the general population. Careful titration of nifedipine dose should be considered.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1209, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid infant weight gain (RIWG) is a very strong predictor of childhood overweight and obesity (COO). Socioeconomic position (SEP) is also related to the risk of COO and parents of different SEP may differ in their reaction to accelerated infant weight gain. Together this could lead to differences in how weight gain and COO risk relate across SEP. This study aimed to analyse possible interaction of SEP and RIWG on COO risk. METHODS: A register-based longitudinal cohort study followed 19,894 healthy, term infants, born in Denmark between December 2011 and May 2015. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of COO risk at 2 years (22-26 months) of age with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for categories of infancy weight gain based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores between 0 and 8-10 months of age (slow (<- 0.67), mean (- 0.67-0.67), rapid (> 0.67-1.34) and very rapid (> 1.34)). Possible multiplicative and additive interaction of SEP (based on household income and maternal education) on the relationship between infancy weight gain and COO were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 19.1 and 15.1% experienced rapid or very rapid weight gain, respectively, and 1497 (7.5%) children were classified with COO at follow-up. These prevalences were higher in those with lower levels of SEP. Adjusted OR for COO were 3.09 (95% CI [2.66-3.59]) and 7.58 (95% CI [6.51-8.83]) for rapid and very rapid weight gain, respectively, when household income was included in the model. Results were similar in the model including maternal education. No signs of interactions were detected on a multiplicative scale. Weak signs of additive interaction were present, but these values did not reach significance. CONCLUSION: Both rapid and very rapid weight gain were associated with substantially higher risks of COO but these associations were not modified by SEP. This indicates that promotion of healthy weight gain should take place in all population groups irrespective of their SEP.

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