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1.
Endocr Pract ; 26(6): 604-611, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160049

RESUMO

Objective: Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of hypoglycemia in hospitalized T2DM patients receiving TPN. Methods: Post hoc analysis of the INSUPAR study, which is a prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial of adult inpatients with T2DM in a noncritical setting with indication for TPN. Results: The study included 161 patients; 31 patients (19.3%) had hypoglycemic events, but none of them was severe. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes with end-organ damage, duration of diabetes, use of insulin prior to admission, glycemic variability (GV), belonging to the glargine insulin group in the INSUPAR trial, mean daily grams of lipids in TPN, mean insulin per 10 grams of carbohydrates, duration of TPN, and increase in urea during TPN. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of diabetes with end-organ damage, GV, use of glargine insulin, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The presence of T2DM with end-organ damage complications, longer TPN duration, belonging to the glargine insulin group, and greater GV are factors associated with the risk of hypoglycemia in diabetic noncritically ill inpatients with parenteral nutrition. Abbreviations: ADA = American Diabetes Association; BMI = body mass index; CV% = coefficient of variation; DM = diabetes mellitus; GI = glargine insulin; GV = glycemic variability; ICU = intensive care unit; RI = regular insulin; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; TPN = total parenteral nutrition.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 36-42, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186145

RESUMO

Introduction: There is no agreement on the procedures to be used for diagnosis and treatment of gestational thyroid dysfunction. Controversy still exists on the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and use of gestational hypothyroidism (GH) screening. The aim of this study was to assess diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in a group of Spanish hospitals. Study design: This was a retrospective, multicenter study in pregnant females with GH attending Spanish healthcare centers from March 2013 to July 2014. Variables analyzed included diagnosis criteria for GH (availability of universal screening for gestational thyroid disorders and TSH reference values (RVs) by trimester of pregnancy): risk factors for GH, iodine intake from food or supplementation, gestational age (at diagnosis/treatment) and l-thyroxine treatment. Results: Fourteen centers participated in the study. Universal screening was performed in only half of the centers, and only 14% had their own TSH RVs. Overall, 257 pregnant women were enrolled, 53.7% with hypothyroidism (HT) diagnosed before pregnancy (pre-GH) and 46.3% with HT diagnosed during pregnancy (intra-GH). A comparison of intra-GH and pre-GH women showed that intra-GH women made their first visit later (59.7% vs. 75.4% respectively before week 12, p = 0.007) and had more frequently high TSH levels (>2.5 μIU/ml) during the first trimester (94.4% vs. 67.0% respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that GH may be underdiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed in most healthcare centers. These findings suggest the need of improving the current practice in Spain


Introducción: Los procedimientos a seguir para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la disfunción tiroidea en la gestación no están del todo consensuados. Aún se discute el rango de normalidad de los valores de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) y el uso de screening para detectar hipotiroidismo gestacional (HG). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la forma de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la disfunción tiroidea durante la gestación en un grupo de hospitales de España. Diseño del estudio: Estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico en mujeres embarazadas con HG atendidas en instituciones sanitarias españolas entre marzo de 2013 y julio de 2014. Las variables analizadas incluyeron criterios diagnósticos de HG (disponibilidad de screening universal para trastornos tiroideos gestacionales y valores de referencia de TSH según el trimestre gestacional); factores de riesgo de HG, ingesta de yodo mediante alimentos o suplementos, edad gestacional (al diagnóstico/tratamiento) y tratamiento con L-tiroxina. Resultados: Participaron un total de 14 centros. Únicamente la mitad de los centros empleaba el screening universal, y solo el 14% tenía valores de referencia de TSH propios. Se incluyeron un total de 257 embarazadas, 53,7% con diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo previo al embarazo (pre-HG) y 46,3% con hipotiroidismo diagnosticado durante el embarazo (intra-HG). Comparando los casos de pre-HG e intra-HG, las mujeres con intra-HG realizaban la primera visita más tarde (antes de la semana 12; 59,7% vs. 75,4% respectivamente, p = 0,007) y tenían más frecuentemente valores elevados de TSH (> 2,5 μUI/ml) durante el primer trimestre (94,4% vs. 67,0% respectivamente, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el HG puede estar infradiagnosticado o diagnosticado indebidamente en la mayoría de los centros sanitarios. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de mejorar la práctica actual en España


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Idade Gestacional , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
3.
Clin Nutr ; 39(2): 388-394, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no established insulin regimen in T2DM patients receiving parenteral nutrition. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness (metabolic control) and safety of two insulin regimens in patients with diabetes receiving TPN. DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, multicenter, clinical trial on adult inpatients with type 2 diabetes on a non-critical setting with indication for TPN. Patients were randomized on one of these two regimens: 100% of RI on TPN or 50% of Regular insulin added to TPN bag and 50% subcutaneous GI. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: 81 patients were on RI and 80 on GI. No differences were observed in neither average total daily dose of insulin, programmed or correction, nor in capillary mean blood glucose during TPN infusion (165.3 ± 35.4 in RI vs 172.5 ± 43.6 mg/dL in GI; p = 0.25). Mean capillary glucose was significantly lower in the GI group within two days after TPN interruption (160.3 ± 45.1 in RI vs 141.7 ± 43.8 mg/dL in GI; p = 0.024). The percentage of capillary glucose above 180 mg/dL was similar in both groups. The rate of capillary glucose ≤70 mg/dL, the number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 days of TPN, and the percentage of patients with non-severe hypoglycemia were significantly higher on GI group. No severe hypoglycemia was detected. No differences were observed in length of stay, infectious complications, or hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Effectiveness of both regimens was similar. GI group achieved better metabolic control after TPN interruption but non-severe hypoglycemia rate was higher in the GI group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02706119.

4.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 67(1): 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is no agreement on the procedures to be used for diagnosis and treatment of gestational thyroid dysfunction. Controversy still exists on the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and use of gestational hypothyroidism (GH) screening. The aim of this study was to assess diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in a group of Spanish hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, multicenter study in pregnant females with GH attending Spanish healthcare centers from March 2013 to July 2014. Variables analyzed included diagnosis criteria for GH (availability of universal screening for gestational thyroid disorders and TSH reference values (RVs) by trimester of pregnancy): risk factors for GH, iodine intake from food or supplementation, gestational age (at diagnosis/treatment) and l-thyroxine treatment. RESULTS: Fourteen centers participated in the study. Universal screening was performed in only half of the centers, and only 14% had their own TSH RVs. Overall, 257 pregnant women were enrolled, 53.7% with hypothyroidism (HT) diagnosed before pregnancy (pre-GH) and 46.3% with HT diagnosed during pregnancy (intra-GH). A comparison of intra-GH and pre-GH women showed that intra-GH women made their first visit later (59.7% vs. 75.4% respectively before week 12, p=0.007) and had more frequently high TSH levels (>2.5µIU/ml) during the first trimester (94.4% vs. 67.0% respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GH may be underdiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed in most healthcare centers. These findings suggest the need of improving the current practice in Spain.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 170(1): R17-30, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128429

RESUMO

There is a well-known controversy among scientific societies regarding the recommendation to screen for thyroid dysfunction (TD) during pregnancy. Although several studies have shown an association between maternal subclinical hypothyroidism and/or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, there is only limited evidence on the possible positive effects of thyroxine (T4) treatment in such cases. Despite the scarcity of this evidence, there is a widespread agreement among clinicians on the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks that could arise due to therapeutic abstention. As maternal TD is a quite prevalent condition, easily diagnosed and for which an effective and safe treatment is available, some scientific societies have proposed to assess thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy and ideally before week 10 of gestational age. Given the physiologic changes of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed using trimester-specific reference values ideally based on locally generated data as geographic variations have been detected. Screening of TD should be based on an initial determination of TSH performed early during the first trimester and only if abnormal should it be followed by either a free or total T4 measurement. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
6.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 54(10): 525-529, dic. 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-69860

RESUMO

La hipofisitis primaria corresponde a un proceso inflamatorio heterogéneo de la glándula hipofisaria y es una entidad a tener en cuenta en el diagnóstico diferencial de las lesiones ocupantes de espacio de lasilla turca. Su etiología no está bien definida, aunque hay varios aspectos que indican su origen autoinmunitario. Histológicamente hay 3 subtipos diferentes: linfocítica, granulomatosa y xantomatosa, y se ha postulado que podrían corresponder a diferentes expresiones de la misma entidad. El tipo y el grado de infiltración linfocitaria llevarán asociados una correspondencia clinicopatológica (diabetes insípida, hipopituitarismo, cefalea y alteraciones visuales como clínica más frecuente). En los casos de afección de hipófisis anterior únicamente, hablaremos de adenohipofisitis linfocitaria; si es del lóbulo posterior, infundíbulo neurohipofisitis linfocitaria, y si fuese una afección general, panhipofisitis linfocitaria. La importancia de reconocerla yace en la posibilidad de respuesta a un tratamiento antiinflamatorio (AU)


Primary hypophysitis is a heterogenous inflammatory process of the pituitary that should be included in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions of the sellar region. The etiology of primary hypophysitis has still not been fully elucidated, although an autoimmune origin is suspected. Histologically, primary hypophysitis includes three main different subtypes: lymphocytic, granulomatous and xanthomatous; the question of whether these are truly distinct entities or simply different expressions of the same disease remains unclear. The type and degree of lymphocytic infiltration determine the clinical and pathological symptoms (most frequently diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism, headache and visual defects). If only the anterior pituitary is affected by infiltration, the entity is known as lymphocytic adenohypophysitis, when the posterior lobe and the infundibulum are infiltrated, lymphocytic-infundibuloneurohypophysitis, and if the infiltration is global, lymphocytic panhypophysitis. The importance of recognizing this entity lies in the possibility of obtaining a response to medical antiinflammatory therapy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças da Hipófise , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/terapia , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia
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