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1.
Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) ; 54(5): 572-578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686713

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and the type of muscle fibers of the soleus muscle of oophorectomized Wistar rats submitted to a mechanical vibration protocol. Methods A total of 36 randomized rats were used in the pseudo-oophorectomy without and with treatment and oophorectomy without and with treatment groups. The treatment was performed with a vibratory platform, frequency of 60 Hz and duration of 10 minutes, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. At the end of the intervention period, the animals were euthanized and the soleus muscles were collected and processed for analysis of the NMJs and fiber type. The data were analyzed for normality by the Shapiro-Wilk test and analysis of the 3-way variance using the post-hoc Tukey test, when necessary, and a significance level of 5% was adopted. Results In the analysis of the NMJs, the oophorectomy group presented a smaller area than the pseudo-oophorectomy group, but the oophorectomy with treatment group was equal to the pseudo-oophorectomy with treatment group. For the larger diameter of the joints, the oophorectomy group was also different from the others; however, the oophorectomy and treatment animals were larger than those of the pseudo-oophorectomy and treatment group. There was no distinction of the types of fibers, with the muscle presenting fibers of the oxidative type. Conclusion Hormonal deprivation reduced the area and diameter of the NMJs, with reversion of this process in the groups that underwent vibratory platform treatment for 4 weeks, and both surgery and treatment did not influence the type of soleus muscle fiber, composed of oxidative fibers.

2.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(1): 49-59, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773727

RESUMO

Knowledge of skeletal muscle adaptations is important to understand the functional deficits in cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to investigate the morphofunctional characteristics of skeletal muscle in a CP animal model. Initially, pregnant Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline or lipopolysaccharide over the last five days of pregnancy. The control group (n = 8) consisted of male pups born to females injected with saline. The CP group (n = 8) consisted of male pups born to females injected with lipopolysaccharide, which were submitted to perinatal anoxia [day of birth, postnatal day 0 (P0)] and sensorimotor restriction (P1-P30). The open-field test was undertaken on P29 and P45. On P48, the animals were weighed, and the plantaris muscle was collected and its weight and length were measured. Transverse sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, NADH-TR, Masson's trichrome and non-specific esterase reaction for analysis. and transmission electron microscopy was performed. In the CP group, reductions were observed in mobility time, number of crossings and rearing frequency, body weight, muscle weight and length, and nucleus-to-fibre and capillary-to-fibre ratios. There was a statistically significant increase in the percentage area of the muscle section occupied by collagen; reduction in the area and increase in the number of type I muscle fibres; increase in myofibrillar disorganization and Z-line disorganization and dissolution; and reduction in the area and largest and smallest diameters of neuromuscular junctions. Thus this animal model of CP produced morphofunctional alterations in skeletal muscle, that were associated with evidence of motor deficits as demonstrated by the open-field test.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/patologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Locomoção , Atividade Motora , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Animais , Paralisia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Paralisia Cerebral/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipóxia/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Junção Neuromuscular/patologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 16(1): eAO4137, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694624

RESUMO

Objective To analyze the combined effects of the silk protein sericin and swimming exercise on histomorphometry of the plantar muscle in Wistar rats. Methods Forty adult rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups comprising 8 animals each, as follows: Control, Injury, Sericin, Swim, and Swim plus Sericin. Three days after crushing of the sciatic nerve the rats in the Swim and Swim plus Sericin Groups were submitted to swimming exercise for 21 days. Rats were then euthanized and the plantar muscle harvested and processed. Results Cross-sectional area, peripheral nuclei and muscle fiber counts, nucleus/fiber ratio and smallest muscle fiber width did not differ significantly between groups. Morphological analysis revealed hypertrophic fibers in the Swim Group and evident muscle damage in the Swim plus Sericin and Injury Groups. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was apparently maintained in the Swim Group compared to remaining groups. Conclusion Combined treatment with sericin and swimming exercise did not improve muscle properties. However, physical exercise alone was effective in maintaining intramuscular connective tissue and preventing progression of deleterious effects of peripheral nerve injury.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Sericinas/farmacologia , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Compressão Nervosa , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 14(1): 24-31, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511649

RESUMO

Physical exercise may help maintain muscle properties and functional improvement after peripheral nerve lesion, which may be enhanced by using biocompatible substances, such as sericin. The aim of this study was analyse the effect of sericin associated with swimming exercise on the phenotype, innervation, and functionality of the plantar muscle of Wistar rats. Forty randomly divided adult rats were used in five groups of eight animals: control, injury, sericin, exercise, exercise and sericin. The application of sericin was done on the spot, 100 µL, shortly after nerve compression. Three days after sciatic nerve compression, the swimming and swimming and sericin groups were submitted to physical swimming exercise for 21 days. Afterwards, the animals were euthanised and the plantar muscle was dissected and submitted to histochemical and histoenzymological techniques. The grip strength test did not show alterations in muscular functionality, and the control presented greater muscle mass in relation to the other groups, the same did not occur for muscle length. Polymorphic neuromuscular junctions were detected in the groups, although without significant morphometric alterations of the area, major and minor diameters. The percentage of type I fibres was lower in the lesion group and there was no difference in fibres IIa and IIb between groups. The area of fibres I, IIa and IIb remained constant between groups. Sericin biopolymer combined with swimming exercise did not affect plantar muscle function, submitted to experimental axonotmosis, whose contractile properties were altered by nerve injury.

5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(1): eAO4137, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-891463

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To analyze the combined effects of the silk protein sericin and swimming exercise on histomorphometry of the plantar muscle in Wistar rats. Methods Forty adult rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups comprising 8 animals each, as follows: Control, Injury, Sericin, Swim, and Swim plus Sericin. Three days after crushing of the sciatic nerve the rats in the Swim and Swim plus Sericin Groups were submitted to swimming exercise for 21 days. Rats were then euthanized and the plantar muscle harvested and processed. Results Cross-sectional area, peripheral nuclei and muscle fiber counts, nucleus/fiber ratio and smallest muscle fiber width did not differ significantly between groups. Morphological analysis revealed hypertrophic fibers in the Swim Group and evident muscle damage in the Swim plus Sericin and Injury Groups. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was apparently maintained in the Swim Group compared to remaining groups. Conclusion Combined treatment with sericin and swimming exercise did not improve muscle properties. However, physical exercise alone was effective in maintaining intramuscular connective tissue and preventing progression of deleterious effects of peripheral nerve injury.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar o efeito da proteína sericina associada ao exercício físico de natação na histomorfometria do músculo plantar de ratos Wistar. Métodos Foram utilizados 40 ratos adultos divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos, com 8 animais cada: Controle, Lesão, Sericina, Natação, Natação e Sericina. Três dias após a compressão do nervo isquiático, os Grupos Natação e Exercício e Sericina foram submetidos ao exercício físico de natação durante 21 dias. Após, os animais foram sacrificados, e o músculo plantar foi processado. Resultados Não houve diferença da área da secção transversa entre os grupos, quantidade de núcleos periféricos, quantidade de fibra, relação núcleo/fibra e diâmetro menor. A análise morfológica revelou que no Grupo Natação ocorreu hipertrofia das fibras, assim como nos Grupos Exercício e Sericina e Lesão, o dano muscular foi evidente. O percentual de conjuntivo intramuscular parece ter sido mantido no Grupo Exercício em relação aos demais grupos. Conclusão A associação da proteína sericina e exercício físico de natação não foi eficiente na melhora das propriedades musculares, embora a aplicação do exercício físico tenha sido eficiente na manutenção do conjuntivo intramuscular, e no não agravamento dos efeitos deletérios consequentes da lesão nervosa periférica.

6.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 60: 48-55, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473192

RESUMO

In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Marcha , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Paralisia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Motor/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Motor/patologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Especificidade da Espécie , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/patologia
7.
Acta Cir Bras ; 32(1): 1-13, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225912

RESUMO

Purpose: : To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: : Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: : WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: : Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Dieta Ocidental , Duodeno/cirurgia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 1-13, Jan. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837674

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Duodeno/cirurgia , Dieta Ocidental , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo
9.
Muscle Nerve ; 55(1): 109-115, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A balanced maternal diet is a determining factor in normal fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on muscle fiber and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology of rat offspring at 21 days of age. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into a control group (CG), offspring of mothers fed a normal protein diet (17%), and a restricted group (RG), offspring of mothers fed a low-protein diet (6%). After a period of lactation, the animals were euthanized, and soleus muscles were obtained from pups for analysis. RESULTS: The soleus muscles of the RG exhibited an increase of 133% in the number of fibers and of 79% in the amount of nuclei. Moreover, the number of NMJs was lower in the restricted group than in the CG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal protein restriction alters the normal development of the neuromuscular system. Muscle Nerve 55: 109-115, 2017.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Lactação/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Junção Neuromuscular/embriologia , Junção Neuromuscular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 52(3): 37-44, jul.-set. 2016. graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-2640

RESUMO

Fundamento: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é caracterizada por distúrbios do movimento e da postura, que podem estar associados a déficits cognitivos. Tais comprometimentos são atribuídos a lesões não progressivas ao encéfalo em desenvolvimento. No âmbito experimental, modelos animais dessa condição clínica capazes de reproduzir o fenótipo e as alterações estruturais vistas em humanos são escassos. Objetivo: Investigar as repercussões da indução de um modelo de PC sobre a função cognitiva e estrutura do hipocampo e amígdala em ratos Wistar. Métodos: Dois grupos experimentais foram utilizados: 1) Controle - filhotes de ratas injetadas com solução salina durante a gestação (n=8) e 2) Paralisia cerebral - filhotes de ratas injetadas com Lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) durante a gestação (n=8), submetidos à anóxia perinatal e restrição sensório-motora durante 30 dias. A memória espacial dos animais foi avaliada pela tarefa de reconhecimento da localização de objetos, enquanto o comportamento do tipo ansioso foi verificado pelo teste de labirinto em cruz elevado. Após a avaliação comportamental, os animais foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos dissecados para posterior processamento histológico. Resultados: O grupo PC apresentou déficits de memória espacial e uma redução do número de neurônios granulares no giro denteado. Entretanto o comportamento do tipo ansioso e a histologia do núcleo central e complexo basolateral da amígdala foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Conclusão: Como observado em parte dos pacientes com PC, este modelo experimental prejudica a memória dependente do hipocampo. Entretanto, a combinação de intervenções não alterou a ansiedade e estrutura da amígdala.


Basis: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of movement and posture, which may be associated with cognitive impairments. Such clinical condition is caused by non progressive injuries ocurred during the brain development. In the experimental context, animal models of this condition that can reproduce the phenotype and the structural changes seen in humans are scarce. Objective: The present study investigated cognitive function and hippocampus and amygdala structure in rats submitted to a CP model. Methods: Two experimental groups were used: 1) Control - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy (n = 8) and 2) Cerebral Palsy - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during pregnancy (n = 8), submitted to perinatal anoxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30 days. The spatial memory was evaluated by the object-placement recog- nition task and anxiety like-behavior by elevated plus maze test. After the behavioral assessment, animals were euthanized and brains dissected for histological processing. Results: The PC group showed spatial memory deficits and a reduction of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus. However, the anxiety like-behavior and the number of neurons in central nucleus and basolateral complex of the amygdala were similar between studied groups. Conclusion: This animal model affects the hippocampus dependent memory, a deficit seen in part of CP patients. However, the interventions used did not alter the anxiety like-behavior and amygdala structure.

11.
Micron ; 71: 7-13, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25597842

RESUMO

Changes in the nutritional status of mothers may predispose their offspring to neuromuscular disorders in the long term. This study evaluated the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on the muscle fibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the soleus muscle in the offspring of rats at 365 days of age that had undergone nutritional recovery. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG)--the offspring of mothers fed a normal protein diet (17%) and restricted (RG)--offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet (6%). After lactation, the male pups received standard chow ad libitum. At 365 days, samples of soleus muscle were collected for muscle fiber analysis (HE staining, NADH-TR reaction and ultrastructure), intramuscular collagen quantification (picrosirius red staining) and NMJs analysis (non-specific esterase technique). The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was reduced by 20% and type IIa fibers by 5% while type IIb fibers increased by 5% in the RG compared to the CG. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was 19% lower in the RG. Disorganization of the myofibrils and Z line was observed, with the presence of clusters of mitochondria in both groups. Regarding the NMJs, in the RG there was a reduction of 10% in the area and 17% in the small diameter and an increase of 7% in the large diameter. The results indicate that the effects of maternal protein restriction on muscle fibers and NMJs seem to be long-lasting and irreversible.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Animais , Colágeno/análise , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Miofibrilas/ultraestrutura , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sarcômeros/ultraestrutura
12.
Micron ; 40(7): 691-701, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19564120

RESUMO

Although the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of skeletal striated muscle is well known, more detailed studies regarding the structure of the cardiac MTJ are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the MTJ in hearts of healthy and hypertensive (SHR) female rats using histological, ultrastructural and three-dimensional (SEM) methods, as well as to evaluate the expression of vinculin by immunofluorescence. In the two groups, light microscopy showed branching tendinous cords and collagen bundles penetrating the apex of the finger-like projections of the papillary muscle. SEM analysis revealed an enlarged apex of the papillary muscle in SHR which was not observed in healthy animals. The loss of force transmission appears to be compensated by the amplified connection between the papillary muscle and valvular collagen. A large number of intercalated disks close to the fiber apex, small amounts of an amorphous intercellular substance and numerous vesicles were observed in SHR. In these animals, the expression of vinculin was more marked showing a regular distribution and a pattern of transverse striations along the sarcolemma. The presence of this protein in transverse bands suggests that vinculin surrounds myofibrils in the region of the Z band. Vinculin staining was also more marked in the region of the tendinous cord-papillary muscle junctions of SHR compared to control animals. Vinculin was quantified by electrophoresis and higher amounts of this protein were observed in SHR compared to control animals.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/patologia , Músculos Papilares/patologia , Músculos Papilares/ultraestrutura , Tendões/patologia , Tendões/ultraestrutura , Animais , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Músculos Papilares/metabolismo , Ratos , Sarcolema/patologia , Sarcolema/ultraestrutura , Tendões/metabolismo , Vinculina/biossíntese
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 29(4): 343-348, out.-dez. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-485125

RESUMO

O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentos asculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre as fibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostra algumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostos da parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.


The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showed special ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.


Assuntos
Animais , Adulto , Ratos , Aorta Abdominal/ultraestrutura , Ratos Endogâmicos
14.
HU rev ; 33(2): 57-59, abr.-jun. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-530710

RESUMO

Em um cadáver de um homem de aproximadamente 50 anos, foi observada a divisão alta e bilateral do nervo ciático. Nos dois antímeros, o nervo entrou na região glútea dividido com a porção fibular comum, atravessando o músculo piriforme e a porção tibial, passando pela sua borda inferior. No antímero direito, as porções divididas do nervo ciático voltaram a se unir na região glútea e, no esquerdo, permaneceram divididas em todo o seu trajeto. O conhecimento da divisão alta do nervo ciático, bem como do seu trajeto, tem importância durante as abordagens cirúrgicas em casos de lesões que o afetam em suas partes glúteas ou femorais e também correlacionadas com a passagem anormal através do músculo piriforme, levando a uma síndrome de compressão nervosa.


Bilateral high division of the sciatic nerve was observed in a 50-year-old male cadaver. In the two antimers, the nerve entered the gluteal region divided with the common fibular portion, crossing the piriformis muscle and tibial portion and passing through its inferior border. In the right antimer, the divided portions of the sciatic nerve became again united in the gluteal region. In the left antimer, the portions continued to be divided throughout their trajectory. The understanding of the high division of the sciatic nerve as well as of its trajectory is important for surgical procedures, in cases of injuries that affect its gluteal or femoral parts, and also in relation to its abnormal passage through the piriformis muscle, causing a nerve compression syndrome.


Assuntos
Nervo Isquiático , Nádegas , Compressão Nervosa
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 32(6): 599-602, nov.-dez. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-448732

RESUMO

O quilotórax ocorre quando há ruptura, laceração ou obstrução do ducto torácico, com liberação de quilo no espaço pleural. Pode acontecer em malformações linfáticas congênitas, linfomas, tumores de mediastino, doenças infecciosas, procedimentos cirúrgicos, traumas automobilísticos, ou ser idiopático. Apresenta sinais clínicos de dispnéia, hipotensão, edema generalizado e cianose. O diagnóstico geralmente é feito por toracocentese e o tratamento é conservador. O quilotórax espontâneo é uma condição incomum de derrame pleural, e somente é hipótese diagnóstica após a exclusão das demais causas. Descrevemos um caso de quilotórax espontâneo associado a atividade física leve em academia de ginástica.


Chylothorax occurs when there is rupture, laceration or obstruction of the thoracic duct, resulting in the release of chyle into the pleural space. Chylothorax can occur in cases of congenital lymphatic malformation, lymphoma, mediastinal tumor and infectious disease, as well as during surgical procedures and after traffic accident-related trauma. It can also be idiopathic. The condition presents clinical signs of dyspnea, hypotension, generalized edema and cyanosis. The diagnosis is usually made through thoracocentesis, and the treatment is conservative. Spontaneous chylothorax is an uncommon form of pleural effusion, and its diagnosis should be hypothesized only after all other causes have been ruled out. Herein, we describe a case of spontaneous chylothorax associated with light physical activity at a fitness center.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quilotórax/epidemiologia , Exercício , Quilotórax/diagnóstico , Quilotórax/terapia , Paracentese
16.
J Bras Pneumol ; 32(6): 599-602, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17435914

RESUMO

Chylothorax occurs when there is rupture, laceration or obstruction of the thoracic duct, resulting in the release of chyle into the pleural space. Chylothorax can occur in cases of congenital lymphatic malformation, lymphoma, mediastinal tumor and infectious disease, as well as during surgical procedures and after traffic accident-related trauma. It can also be idiopathic. The condition presents clinical signs of dyspnea, hypotension, generalized edema and cyanosis. The diagnosis is usually made through thoracocentesis, and the treatment is conservative. Spontaneous chylothorax is an uncommon form of pleural effusion, and its diagnosis should be hypothesized only after all other causes have been ruled out. Herein, we describe a case of spontaneous chylothorax associated with light physical activity at a fitness center.


Assuntos
Quilotórax/etiologia , Exercício , Quilotórax/diagnóstico , Quilotórax/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paracentese
17.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 40(supl.3): 163-169, 2003. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-458197

RESUMO

The segmental structure of the aortic wall at the thoracic and abdominal levels were studied in domestic chicken by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Selected histological sections were submitted to histomorphometric studies using image analysis methods. The variables studied were the thickness of the aortic layers in the three segments investigated: ascendant thoracic, descendant thoracic and abdominal parts as well as the tubular diameters and the mean number of elastic lamellae in the medial layer of each analyzed segment. The aortic wall of the chicken had a predominately elastic structure in the thoracic portions, that decrease gradually in relative number of elastic lamellae towards the abdominal aorta in which smooth muscle cells predominated. Vascular diameters decreased gradually to the ascendant aorta from the descendant thoracic portion and to the last from the abdominal aorta.


A estrutura segmentar da parede aórtica foi estudada em galo doméstico, em níveis torácico e abdominal, nas dimensões de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Secções histológicas selecionadas foram submetidas a estudos histomorfométricos usando métodos de análises de imagens. As variáveis analisadas foram as espessuras das túnicas da parede aórtica em três segmentos investigados, compreendendo as porções ascendente torácica; descendente torácica e abdominal, bem como os diâmetros tubulares, em cada porção, e o número médio de lamelas elásticas na túnica média de cada segmento analisado. A parede aórtica do galo doméstico apresenta estrutura predominantemente elástica nas porções torácicas, cujo número relativo de lamelas elásticas decresce gradualmente para a parte abdominal da aorta, onde células musculares lisas predominam. Os diâmetros aórticos decrescem também gradualmente, e progressivamente, da porção torácica ascendente para a porção torácica descendente, e desta para a porção abdominal da aorta.


Assuntos
Animais , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Aorta/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Aves Domésticas
18.
Tissue Cell ; 34(2): 117-23, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12165247

RESUMO

In the present study morphological changes occurring in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to experimental chronic alcoholism were evaluated. Seventy two male animals aged 4 months and weighing on average 400g were divided into three groups: control, alcoholic and isocaloric. Six rats from each group were anesthetized and sacrificed after 5, 10, 15 and 18 months. The NMJ did not show detectable morphological changes in either muscle after treatment when examined by light microscopy. With respect to the dimensions, statistical analysis demonstrated a tendency to a statistically significant treatment x time interaction for the length of soleus muscle NMJ. The ultrastructural study, however, revealed that the NMJ of the soleus muscle of animals submitted to 18 months of experimental alcoholism presented important morphological alterations. Characteristically, the NMJ of these muscles is located on an elevation on the surface of the muscle fiber, presenting a regular round, oval or elliptical shape and continuous and not very deep synaptic grooves. Approximately 30% of the NMJ of alcoholic rats are irregular in shape, with the sarcolemmal elevations typical of the synapse region being flattened on at least one side, with discontinuous synaptic grooves, and deep and punctiform contacts of the synaptic buds. These data suggest that, although skeletal muscle has a greater natural resistance against the direct or indirect effects of alcohol, some submicroscopic morphological alterations are detectable in the NMJ, especially in muscles with oxidative metabolism (soleus) following long periods of ingestion of alcohol.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Junção Neuromuscular/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Ratos
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