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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 586, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022478

RESUMO

The performance of a laboratory-developed IgG/IgA flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCI) using Jurkat T cells stably expressing full-length native S protein was compared against Elecsys electrochemiluminiscent (ECLIA) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA), and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG chemiluminiscent assay (CLIA) (Diasorin S.p.a, Saluggia, IT) for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A total of 225 serum/plasma specimens from 120 acute or convalescent COVID-19 individuals were included. Overall, IgG/IgA-FCI yielded the highest number of positives (n = 179), followed by IgA-FCI (n = 177), Roche ECLIA (n = 175), IgG-FCI (n = 172) and Diasorin CLIA (n = 154). For sera collected early after the onset of symptoms (within 15 days) IgG/IgA-FCI also returned the highest number of positive results (52/72; 72.2%). Positive percent agreement between FCI and compared immunoassays was highest for Roche ECLIA, ranging from 96.1 (IgG/IgA-FCI) to 97.7% (IgG-FCI), whereas negative percent agreement was higher between FCI and Diasosin CLIA, regardless of antibody isotype. The data suggest that FCI may outperform Roche ECLIA and Diasorin CLIA in terms of clinical sensitivity for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500923

RESUMO

Transparent conductive electrodes based on graphene have been previously proposed as an attractive candidate for optoelectronic devices. While graphene alone lacks the antireflectance properties needed in many applications, it can still be coupled with traditional transparent conductive oxides, further enhancing their electrical performance. In this work, the effect of combining indium tin oxide with between one and three graphene monolayers as the top electrode in silicon heterojunction solar cells is analyzed. Prior to the metal grid deposition, the electrical conductance of the hybrid electrodes was evaluated through reflection-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The obtained conductance maps showed a clear electrical improvement with each additional graphene sheet. In the electrical characterization of the finished solar cells, this translated to a meaningful reduction in the series resistance and an increase in the devices' fill factor. On the other hand, each additional sheet absorbs part of the incoming radiation, causing the short circuit current to simultaneously decrease. Consequently, additional graphene monolayers past the first one did not further enhance the efficiency of the reference cells. Ultimately, the increase obtained in the fill factor endorses graphene-based hybrid electrodes as a potential concept for improving solar cells' efficiency in future novel designs.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104943, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an imperative need to determine the durability of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting S1 and M proteins and measured RBD-specific serum IgG over a period of 2-6 months after symptoms onset in a cohort of subjects who had recovered from severe clinical forms of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 58 patients (38 males and 20 females; median age, 62.5 years), who had been hospitalized with bilateral pneumonia, 60% with one or more comorbidities. IgG antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD were measured by ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+-expressing-IFNγ-producing-CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were enumerated in heparinized whole blood by flow cytometry for ICS. RESULTS: Detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M-reactive CD69+-IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were displayed in 17 (29.3%) and 6 (10.3%) subjects respectively, at a median of 84 days after onset of symptoms (range, 58-191 days). Concurrent comorbidities increased the risk (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.03-9.61; P = 0.04) of undetectable T-cell responses in models adjusted for age, sex and hospitalization ward. Twenty-one out of the 35 patients (60%) had detectable RBD-specific serum IgGs at a median of 118 days (range, 60-145 days) after symptoms onset. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG serum levels were found to drop significantly over time. CONCLUSION: A relatively limited number of subjects who developed severe forms of COVID-19 had detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M IFNγ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at midterm after clinical diagnosis. Our data also indicated that serum levels of RBD-specific IgGs decline over time, becoming undetectable in some patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) affects 1% of women and is associated with significant medical consequences. A genetic cause for POI can be found in up to 30% of women, elucidating key roles for these genes in human ovary development. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the genetic mechanism underlying early-onset POI in two sisters from a consanguineous pedigree. METHODS: Genome sequencing and variant filtering using an autosomal recessive model was performed in the two affected sisters and their unaffected family members. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA sequencing were used to study the expression of key genes at critical stages of human fetal gonad development (Carnegie Stage (CS) 22/23, 9 weeks post conception (wpc), 11wpc, 15/16wpc, 19/20wpc) and in adult tissue. RESULTS: Only one homozygous variant co-segregating with the POI phenotype was found: a single nucleotide substitution in ZSWIM7, NM_001042697.2: c.173C>G; resulting in predicted loss-of-function p.(Ser58*). qRT-PCR demonstrated higher expression of ZSWIM7 in the 15/16wpc ovary compared to testis, corresponding to peak meiosis in the fetal ovary. RNA sequencing of fetal gonad samples showed that ZSWIM7 has a similar temporal expression profile in the developing ovary to other homologous recombination genes. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of ZSWIM7 is associated with POI in humans. ZSWIM7 is likely to be important for human homologous recombination and these findings expand the range of genes associated with POI in women.

8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1858.e1-1858.e7, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA load in the upper respiratory tract (URT) between children and adults-who either presented with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or were asymptomatic-have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we conducted a retrospective, single-centre study to address this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included were 1184 consecutive subjects (256 children and 928 adults) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal exudates (NPs); of these, 424 (121 children and 303 adults) had COVID-19 and 760 (135 children and 625 adults) were asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing was carried out using the TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MS, USA). The AMPLIRUN® TOTAL SARS-CoV-2 RNA Control (Vircell SA, Granada, Spain) was used for estimating SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (in copies/mL). SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads at the time of laboratory diagnosis (single specimen/patient) were used for comparison purposes. RESULTS: Median initial SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was lower (p 0.094) in children (6.98 log10 copies/mL, range 3.0-11.7) than in adults (7.14 log10 copies/mL, range 2.2-13.4) with COVID-19. As for asymptomatic individuals, median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was comparable (p 0.97) in children (6.20 log10 copies/mL, range 1.8-11.6) and adults (6.48 log10 copies/mL, range 1.9-11.8). Children with COVID-19 symptoms displayed SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (6.98 log10 copies/mL, range 3.0-11.7) comparable to those of their asymptomatic counterparts (6.20 log10 copies/mL, range 1.8-11.6) (p 0.61). Meanwhile in adults, median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was significantly higher in symptomatic (7.14 log10 copies/mL, range 2.2-13.4) than in asymptomatic subjects (6.48 log10 copies/mL, range 1.9-11.8) (p < 0.001). Overall, the observed URT SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance rate was faster in children than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Based on viral load data at the time of diagnosis, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2-infected children, with or without COVID-19, may display NP viral loads of comparable magnitude to those found in their adult counterparts. However, children may have shorter viral shedding than adults.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e236-e244, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of household income disparities in the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presenting with brain metastasis on a population-based level. METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2010-2016 including 15,808 NSCLC patients presenting with brain metastasis. RESULTS: This study comprises 15,808 adult patients with NSCLC presenting with brain metastases having an age range 64 ± 10 years with 51% male, 76% white, 52% married, 61% insured, and with 85% of lung adenocarcinoma histopathology. The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates for living in the lower household income quartile were 21%, 10%, and 3%, respectively, for the second quartile 24%, 10%, and 3%; for the third quartile 28%, 14%, and 4%; and for the top quartile 31%, 17%, and 4%, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that living in a higher quartile household income county is associated with increased survival (P < 0.0001), hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval (0.82-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study suggests that living in higher median household income counties is associated with increased survival time and reduced risk of mortality for patients with NSCLC who have brain metastases present at diagnosis, independent of other factors. These findings underscore the importance of ensuring adequate and easy access to care for all patients, irrespective of their economic background.

10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6803-6807, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289136

RESUMO

We evaluated the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for COVID-19 in 357 patients at a pediatric emergency department. Thirty-four patients tested positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of which 24 were positive by the antigen assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 70.5% and 100%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1672-1677, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The immunogenicity of the Comirnaty® vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been adequately studied in elderly people with comorbidities. We assessed antibody and T-cell responses targeted to the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) following full vaccination in nursing-home residents. METHODS: Sixty nursing-home residents (44 female, age 53-100 years), of whom ten had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 18 healthy controls (15 female, age 27-54 years) were recruited. Pre- and post-vaccination blood specimens were available for quantification of total antibodies binding the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and for enumeration of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The seroconversion rate in (presumably) SARS-CoV-2-naïve nursing-home residents (41/43, 95.3%) was similar to that in controls (17/18, 94.4%). A booster effect was documented in post-vaccination samples of nursing-home residents with prior COVID-19. Plasma antibody levels were higher (p < 0.01) in recovered nursing-home residents (all 2500 IU/mL) than in individuals across the other two groups (median 1120 IU/mL in naïve nursing-home residents and 2211 IU/ml in controls). A large percentage of nursing-home residents had SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ (naïve 31/49, 63.2%; recovered 8/10, 80%) or CD4+ T cells (naïve 35/49, 71.4%; recovered 7/10, 70%) at baseline, in contrast to healthy controls (3/17, 17.6% and 5/17, 29%, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were documented in 88% (15/17) and all control subjects after vaccination, respectively, but only in 65.5% (38/58) and 22.4% (13/58) of nursing-home residents. Overall, the median frequency of SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in nursing-home residents decreased in post-vaccination specimens, whereas it increased in controls. CONCLUSION: The Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine elicits robust SARS-CoV-2 S antibody responses in nursing-home residents. Nevertheless, the rate and frequency of detectable SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ T-cell responses after vaccination was lower in nursing-home residents than in controls.

14.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990086

RESUMO

To better understand Walter Dandy's intentions and the historical context of his work on hemispherectomy, the authors reviewed his original 1928 publication. Gliomas were considered incurable at that time. Presuming that the loss of motor function denoted a lack of useful tissue in that hemisphere, he pioneered radical removal of the involved cerebral hemisphere. Of the 5 patients operated on by Dandy, 1 died within 48 hours of hemorrhage because of a displaced vascular clip; 1 died of pneumonia in 2 weeks; 2 died of tumor recurrence, at 3 months and 3.5 years, respectively; and a fifth patient was lost to follow-up beyond the 2nd postoperative week. The authors queried the Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Scopus. A total of 88 papers fulfilled inclusion criteria. Half of these papers (44/88) were published after 2012. Only 11% of papers (10/88) quoted Dandy's paper accurately; half of them were published before 1997. Most publications (76% [67/88]) quoted Dandy incorrectly, all of them from 1997 and later. In the remaining 11 papers (13%), the accuracy of the quotes was unclear. The authors found a trend toward more accurate citation in earlier papers. Critically reviewing Dandy's report, with an understanding of the historical context, allows a better understanding of his intentions and the value of his contribution.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e771-e777, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is a common procedure routinely completed at bedside by neurosurgical residents. A standardized protocol for placement and maintenance of an EVD is potentially useful. METHODS: This single-institution retrospective review analyzed all patients who underwent placement of an EVD over a 5-year span using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: A total of 428 EVDs in 381 patients were placed as per this protocol. Overall compliance with the practice protocol was 98.7%. Overall, our infection rate was 1.86% (8 external ventricular drain-related infection [ERIs] over 428 EVDs). There was no difference in age for the ERI cases (median 55, range (50.5-60.5), compared with the non-ERI cases (median of 53, range [38-65]) (P = 0.512). Indications for placement of EVD were hemorrhage (51.9%, n = 198), tumor (16.2%, n = 62), trauma (12.8%, n = 49), hydrocephalus (11.5%, n = 44), cerebellar stroke (2.8%, n = 11), infection (3.1%, n = 12), unknown (1.3%, n = 5). Most EVDs (77.6%, n = 296) were placed bedside by second-year residents (median PGY level 2, interquartile range 1-2.75). Computed tomography confirmed placement in the ipsilateral frontal horn in 72% (n = 277) of EVDs. EVD-related complications were noted in 8.3% of EVDs (n = 32, with 8 infections and 24 tract hemorrhages). The median EVD duration was 10 days; duration of EVD had no statistically significant impact on the risk of an ERI (P = 1). Only replacement of an EVD was associated with an increased risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a standard EVD placement protocol is useful in maintaining a low risk of ERI regardless of the duration of catheter utilization. Replacement of the catheter through the same access hole as the original catheter is associated with an increased risk of ERI.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ventriculostomia/efeitos adversos , Ventriculostomia/métodos , Ventriculostomia/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/métodos , Drenagem/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(9): 1925-1932, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876385

RESUMO

We optimized and prospectively evaluated a simple MALDI-TOF MS-based method for direct detection of third-generation oxymino-cephalosporin resistance (3rd CephR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from blood cultures (BC). In addition, we assessed the performance of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIC) for detecting extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) (NG-Test CTX-M MULTI assay) using bacterial pellets from BC. A total of 168 BCs from unique patients were included. A pre-established volume of BC flagged as positive was transferred in brain heart infusion with or without ceftriaxone (2 mg/ml). After 2-h incubation, intact bacterial pellets were used for MALDI-TOF MS testing. Identification of bacterial species (index score > 2) in the presence of CRO was considered marker of 3rd CephR. The LFIC assay was evaluated in 141 BC. Bacteremia episodes were caused by E. coli (n = 115) or Klebsiella spp. (n = 53). A total of 49 strains were 3rd CephR by broth microdilution, of which 41 were ESBL producers, seven expressed ESBL and OXA-48 type D carbapenemase, and one harbored a plasmid-mediated AmpC. The MALDI-TOF MS method yielded four very major errors (false susceptibility) and two major errors (false resistance). The overall sensitivity of the assay was 91.8% and the specificity 98.3%. Concordance between the LFIC assay and the MALDI-TOF MS method for detection of ESBL-mediated 3rd CephR was 100%. Both evaluated methods may prove useful for early adjustment of empirical therapy in patients with E. coli and Klebsiella spp. bloodstream infections. Whether their use has a beneficial impact on patient outcomes is currently under investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Infecções por Klebsiella/sangue , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 82(2): 182-188, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777632

RESUMO

Introduction For patients presenting with neurological changes from pituitary tumor apoplexy, urgent surgical intervention is commonly performed for diagnosis, tumor resection, and optic apparatus decompression. Although identification and preservation of the pituitary gland during the time of surgery can be challenging, it may lead to improve endocrine outcomes. Methods A retrospective case series of all patients with macroadenomas presenting with apoplexy at Loyola University Medical Center from 2016 to 2018 was studied. Demographic, radiographic, and intraoperative characteristics were collected including age, gender, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, preoperative size of pituitary adenoma, Knosp's grade, Hardy's grade, identification and/or preservation of the gland, pre- and postoperative hormonal levels, intraoperative and/or postoperative complications, and follow-up time. Results A total of 68 patients underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for resection of a macroadenoma. Among them, seven (10.2%) presented with apoplexy; five patients were male and two were female and presenting symptoms and signs included headache (100%), endocrinopathies (57%), visual acuity deficit (71%), visual field deficit (71%), and oculomotor palsy (57%). A gross-total resection rate was achieved in 86% of patients. Among them, 71% of patients obtained complete symptomatic neurological improvement. A statistically significant difference between gender and endocrine function was found, as no females and all males required some form of postoperative hormonal supplementation ( p = 0.047) . Conclusion Endoscopic endonasal resection of macroadenomas with sparing of the pituitary gland in the setting of apoplexy is safe and effective. Preservation of the normal gland led to no posterior pituitary dysfunction, and a statistically significant difference between gender and postoperative endocrinopathy was identified. Further studies with larger samples sizes are warranted.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009281, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic to continental Latin America. In Spain, the main transmission route is congenital. We aimed to assess adherence to regional recommendations of universal screening for CD during pregnancy in Latin American women in the province of Alicante from 2014 to 2018. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective quality study using two data sources: 1) delivery records of Latin American women that gave birth in the 10 public hospitals of Alicante between January 2014 and December 2018; and 2) records of Chagas serologies carried out in those centers between May 2013 and December 2018. There were 3026 deliveries in Latin American women during the study period; 1178 (38.9%) underwent CD serology. Screening adherence ranged from 17.2% to 59.3% in the different health departments and was higher in Bolivian women (48.3%). Twenty-six deliveries (2.2%) had a positive screening; CD was confirmed in 23 (2%) deliveries of 21 women. Bolivians had the highest seroprevalence (21/112; 18.7%), followed by Colombians (1/333; 0.3%) and Ecuadorians (1/348; 0.3%). Of 21 CD-positive women (19 Bolivians, 1 Colombian, 1 Ecuadorian), infection was already known in 12 (57.1%), and 9 (42.9%) had already been treated. Only 1 of the 12 untreated women (8.3%) was treated postpartum. Follow-up started in 20 of the 23 (87.0%) neonates but was completed only in 11 (47.8%); no cases of congenital transmission were detected. Among the 1848 unscreened deliveries, we estimate 43 undiagnosed cases of CD and 1 to 2 undetected cases of congenital transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence to recommendations of systematic screening for CD in Latin American pregnant women in Alicante can be improved. Strategies to strengthen treatment of postpartum women and monitoring of exposed newborns are needed. Currently, there may be undetected cases of congenital transmission in our province.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , América Central/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
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