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Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969


We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1825, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739930


Scalable, integrative methods to understand mechanisms that link genetic variants with phenotypes are needed. Here we derive a mathematical expression to compute PrediXcan (a gene mapping approach) results using summary data (S-PrediXcan) and show its accuracy and general robustness to misspecified reference sets. We apply this framework to 44 GTEx tissues and 100+ phenotypes from GWAS and meta-analysis studies, creating a growing public catalog of associations that seeks to capture the effects of gene expression variation on human phenotypes. Replication in an independent cohort is shown. Most of the associations are tissue specific, suggesting context specificity of the trait etiology. Colocalized significant associations in unexpected tissues underscore the need for an agnostic scanning of multiple contexts to improve our ability to detect causal regulatory mechanisms. Monogenic disease genes are enriched among significant associations for related traits, suggesting that smaller alterations of these genes may cause a spectrum of milder phenotypes.

Elife ; 72018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412141


Human genetic studies have emphasised the dominant contribution of pancreatic islet dysfunction to development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). However, limited annotation of the islet epigenome has constrained efforts to define the molecular mechanisms mediating the, largely regulatory, signals revealed by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). We characterised patterns of chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq, n = 17) and DNA methylation (whole-genome bisulphite sequencing, n = 10) in human islets, generating high-resolution chromatin state maps through integration with established ChIP-seq marks. We found enrichment of GWAS signals for T2D and fasting glucose was concentrated in subsets of islet enhancers characterised by open chromatin and hypomethylation, with the former annotation predominant. At several loci (including CDC123, ADCY5, KLHDC5) the combination of fine-mapping genetic data and chromatin state enrichment maps, supplemented by allelic imbalance in chromatin accessibility pinpointed likely causal variants. The combination of increasingly-precise genetic and islet epigenomic information accelerates definition of causal mechanisms implicated in T2D pathogenesis.

Am J Hum Genet ; 95(5): 521-34, 2014 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25439722


Top signals from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are enriched with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) identified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. We therefore hypothesized that such eQTLs might account for a disproportionate share of the heritability estimated from all SNPs interrogated through GWASs. To test this hypothesis, we applied linear mixed models to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) T2D data set and to data sets representing Mexican Americans from Starr County, TX, and Mexicans from Mexico City. We estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to the additive effect of all variants interrogated in these GWASs, as well as a much smaller set of variants identified as eQTLs in human adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and lymphoblastoid cell lines. The narrow-sense heritability explained by all interrogated SNPs in each of these data sets was substantially greater than the heritability accounted for by genome-wide-significant SNPs (∼10%); GWAS SNPs explained over 50% of phenotypic variance in the WTCCC, Starr County, and Mexico City data sets. The estimate of heritability attributable to cross-tissue eQTLs was greater in the WTCCC data set and among lean Hispanics, whereas adipose eQTLs significantly explained heritability among Hispanics with a body mass index ≥ 30. These results support an important role for regulatory variants in the genetic component of T2D susceptibility, particularly for eQTLs that elicit effects across insulin-responsive peripheral tissues.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/química , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , México , Músculo Esquelético/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Texas
Biochemistry ; 49(49): 10440-8, 2010 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21067138


The flavoprotein oxidase Fms1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the oxidation of spermine and N(1)-acetylspermine to yield spermidine and 3-aminopropanal or N-acetyl-3-aminopropanal. The kinetic mechanism of the enzyme has been determined with both substrates. The initial velocity patterns are ping-pong, consistent with reduction being kinetically irreversible. Reduction of Fms1 by either substrate is biphasic. The rate constant for the rapid phase varies with the substrate concentration, with limiting rates for reduction of the enzyme of 126 and 1410 s(-1) and apparent K(d) values of 24.3 and 484 µM for spermine and N(1)-acetylspermine, respectively. The rapid phase is followed by a concentration-independent phase that is slower than turnover. The reaction of the reduced enzyme with oxygen is monophasic, with a rate constant of 402 mM(-1) s(-1) with spermine at 25 °C and 204 mM(-1) s(-1) with N(1)-acetylspermine at 4 °C and pH 9.0. This step is followed by rate-limiting product dissociation. The k(cat)/K(amine)-pH profiles are bell-shaped, with an average pK(a) value of 9.3 with spermine and pK(a) values of 8.3 and 9.6 with N(1)-acetylspermine. Both profiles are consistent with the active forms of substrates having two charged nitrogens. The pH profiles for the rate constant for flavin reduction show pK(a) values of 8.3 and 7.2 for spermine and N(1)-acetylspermine, respectively, for groups that must be unprotonated; these pK(a) values are assigned to the substrate N4. The k(cat)/K(O(2))-pH profiles show pK(a) values of 7.5 for spermine and 6.8 for N(1)-acetylspermine. With both substrates, the k(cat) value decreases when a single residue is protonated.

Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/farmacocinética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aminas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato/fisiologia